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Laws for the protection of trees and

woodlands, ii. 3.
Laws relating to forests and woodlands,

i. 8-31, 58 ; ii, 3.
Layering or plashing, i. 385.

Dutch method of, i. 386.
Leaf-beetles, ii. 101.
Leaf-canopy (see “Normal density”),

i. 335.
Leaf-fodder, ii. 616.
Leaf-mining Moths, ii. 117.
Leaf-mould (see “Humus"), i. 366.
Leaf-roller Moths, ii. 114.
Leaf-scurf of Maple and Sycamore, ii.

147, 148, 163.
Pine, ii. 146, 148, 160.
Silver Fir, ii. 147, 148,

162.

Spruce, ii. 147, 148, 162.
Leaf-shedding of Larch, ii. 148, 158.

Pine, i. 366, 381; ii.

146, 148, 160, 203.
Leaves, function of, i. 302, 306.
Ledger accounts, ii. 376.
Legal protection of woodlands, i. 31;

ii. 3.
Lepidoptera, ii. 104-121.
Leptostroma pinastri (see ' Lophoder-

mium"), i. 366, 381.
Lever-appliances in felling timber, ii.

466, 471-474.
Lichens, damage by, ii. 140, 191.
Lifting of seedlings by frost, i. 381;

ii. 207.
Lifting plants for transplanting, i. 381.
Light, influence of, i. 312, 324.
Light-demanding trees, i. 325, 336, 349.

mixed crops of, i.

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Magna Charta, i. 9, 11.
Magnoliace, i. 179.
Maidenhair-tree, Japanese (Gingko bilo.

ba), i. 294.
Main-roads for timber extraction, ii, 518.
Major and minor produce, ii. 222.
Malicious injury to trees and woodlands,

i. 31; ii. 3.
Mammoth-tree (Sequoia gigantea), i. 289.
Management of woodlands (see also

“Method"), i. 63; ii. 219-384.
Management of woodlands, considera-

tions affecting the, ii. 221, 241.
Management, scheme of (see “Working-

plan"), ii. 221.
Manila shavings, ii. 605.
Manuring in nurseries, i. 365.
Map of stock, ii. 355, 366, 372.
Maple (Acer), i. 137.

and Sycamore, natural regenera-

tion of, i. 474.
Common or Norway, i. 141.
Field., i. 137.
Great (Sycamore or Scots Plane),

i. 138.
Maples, leaf-scurf of, ii. 147, 148, 163.

planting of, i. 421.
Maps of woodlands, ii. 340.
Maritime, Pine resin-tapping, ii. 610.
Marking and texture of wood, ii. 434.
Marking-hammer, Göhler's revolving,

ii. 479.
Marking stems for thinning or felling,

i. 448 ; ii. 479.
Masonry furnaces for dry distillation of

wood, ii, 601-605.
Material condition of timber, ii. 432,

435.
Mattock and hoe, planting with, i. 393.
Mature fall or final yield, ii. 222, 466.
Maturity of timber-crops, i. 332 ; ii. 348.
May-beetle or Cockchafer, ii. 57, 96.
Mean age of timber crops, ii. 312.
Measurement of cubic contents of timber,

ii. 289.
girth, ii. 298.
height, ii. 294.
sample plots, ii. 308.
sample trees, ii. 303.
standing trees, ii. 291-

302.
timber-crops, ii. 289-

352.
Light-oil, distillation of, ii. 603.
Lightning, damage by, ii. 216.
Lignification, i. 302 ; ii. 427, 428.
Lime, hydrated or slaked, ii. 540.
Lime-tree or Linden (Tilia europea),

i. 175.
Limitation of Forests Act (1640), i. 22.
Limy soil, i. 309, 315, 464.
Lina (see Chrysomela”), ii. 57, 101.
Linseed-oil, coating with, ii. 539.
Liparis monacha, ii. 66, 67, 107.
Liriodendron tulipifera, i. 179.
Load of timber, ii. 454.
Loamy soil, i. 310, 315, 464.
Locust-tree (Robinia), i. 188.
Logging of timber, ii. 470, 478.
Logs, measurement of, ii. 289, 402-406.
Longevity of trees, i. 332.
Longicorn Beetles, ji. 57, 99, 100.
Lonicera, damage by, ii. 140.
Looper-moths, ii. 110-113.
Lop and top, ii. 291, 453.
Lophodermium (Hysterium) pinastri, ii.

146, 148, 160.
abietis, ii. 162.

336.

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Mountain pasture, planting on, i. 423.
Movable sawmills, ii. 574.
Movement of sap in trees, i. 301; ii. 431.
Multiple-saws, ii. 568.

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Naked plants, planting with, i. 388, 408.
Naphthaline or creosote salts, ii. 560.
Naphthalining process (Aitken's), ii. 544.

(Darroch's), ii.

555, 559.
National-economic importance of wood-

lands, i. 67, 79-102.
Natural regeneration, i. 459, 463, 465.

different methods of,

i. 462.
of Ash, Elm, Maple,

and Sycamore, i.

474.
of Beech, i. 467, 474 ;

ii. 138.
of Larch, i. 470.
of Oak, i. 468, 472.
of Scots Pine, i. 331,

469, 473.
of Silver Fir, i. 471.

of Spruce, i. 470.
Nectria cinnabarina, ii. 147, 148, 156.

curcubitula, ii. 147, 148, 156.

ditissima, ii. 147, 148, 154.
Needle-leaved trees (Coniferee), i. 193-

295.
Nesting-boxes for birds, ii. 64.
Net returns from woods, calculation of,

ii. 239, 349, 394.
New Forest, commonage and rights of user

in the, ii. 5.
extent of the, i. 32, 35.
formation of the, i. 7, 8.
laws relating to the, i. 23,

29, 31.
management of the, i. 23, 28,

32, 35, 332.
planting in the, i. 20, 28,

199.
Scots Pine in the, i. 199,

331.
Night-moths (Noctuidæ), ii. 57, 109.
Nitrogenous substances in sap, ii. 429.
Noctua (Trachea, Panolis) piniperda, ii.

57, 109.
Non-inflammable wood, ii. 561.
Non-parasitic diseases of trees, ii. 188-

190.
Norfolk Island Pine (Araucaria excelsa),

i. 195.
Normal capital in wood, ii. 224.

condition of growing-stock, ii.

223, 224, 230.
condition of working-circles, ii.

Measurement of timber by railway com-

panies, ii, 511.
whole crops of wood, ii.

302-311.
Measuring-board, König's, ii. 294.
Mechanical properties of timber, ii. 432.
Medullary rays in wood, ii. 426.
Melampsora pinitorqua, ii. 147, 148, 171,

172.
Melampsorella cerastii, ii. 149, 174.
Melampsoriacer, ii. 148, 171, 172.
Melampsoridium betulinum, ii. 149, 174.
Melolontha hippocastani, ii. 99.

vulgaris, ii. 96.
Membrane-winged insects, ii. 58, 121-127.
Men and human actions, protection

against, ii. 3.
Jerulius lacrymans, ii. 187, 444.
Metal retorts for dry distillation, ii. 601.
Method of management-

Austrian, ii. 281.
Heyer's, ii. 284.
Hundeshagen's “Rational,” ii. 283.
Judeich's or the Saxon, ii. 275-281.

Recommended for Britain, ii. 286.
Method of treatment, choice of, ii. 339,

345.
Methods of management, the formular,

ii. 281-286.
Methyl-alcohol, ii. 604.
Methylated spirits, ii. 605.
Mice and voles, damage by and protec-

tion against, i. 20, 380; ii. 37, 38, 40,

41.
Midges or gnats, ii. 127.
Mildew-fungi, ii. 152.
Mill-saws, different kinds of, ii. 567, 568,

573.
Mineral ingredients in plant-food, i. 305.
substances in soil, i. 308.

wood, ii. 430.
Mirror-hypsometer, Faustmann's, ii. 295.
Mischief, protection against, ii. 6.
Mistletoe, damage by, ii. 140.
Mites, damage by, ii. 134.
Mitscherlich's process for cellulose, ii.

587.
Mixed woods and plantations, i. 333,

347, 411.
Mode of valuing woodlands for-

Rating, ii. 392.

Succession duty, ii. 397.
Moisture, relation of wood towards, ii.

410-442.
Mole-cricket, i. 380; ii. 133.
Moles in nurseries, i. 380.
Moorland peat-bogs, planting on, i. 425.
Moorpan, planting over, i. 426.
Moths, destructive, ii. 57, 58, 104-121.

extermination of, ii. 66-71.
Mound-planting or tumping, i. 394.
Mounds or dykes, erection of, ii. 32.
Mountain-Ash or Rowan-tree (Sorbus),

i. 184.

225.
density of canopy or crop, i. 336,

443, 449; ii. 223, 298.
distribution of annual falls, ii.

224.

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Normal increment, ii. 223, 230.

succession of age-classes or crops,

ii. 223.

yield or fall, ii. 224.
Notching or notch-planting, i. 388, 413.
Number of plants required per acre, i.

409.
trees per acre, estimating

the, ii. 346.
Nun-moth, ii. 66, 67, 107.
Nurseries, first mention of, i. 20.

private and temporary, i. 362.
Nursery-beds, laying out, i. 367.
Nursery implements, i. 368.

plants, pruning of, i. 383.
practical work in forming a, i.

364.
selecting site for a, i. 363; ii.

209.
stocking a, i. 368.

work, i. 361-387.
Nurses in plantations, i. 434.
Nutrition of seedling-plants, i. 303.

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Organic acids in bark, ii. 487.
Ornamental plantations, i. 477.

qualities of timber, ii. 432.
underwood, i. 477.
woods and plantations, thin-

ning of, i. 481.
Orthoptera, ii. 58, 133.
Osier-bark for tanning, ii. 489.

. -beetle, ii. 102.

"! -cuttings, i. 387.
Osier Gall-midge, the large, ii. 127.

the small, ii. 128.
Osier-holts, i. 340, 483, 485.

coppicing of, i. 461, 475,

483.
cost of planting, i. 341.
cutting of, ii. 476.
planting of, i. 417, 418.

tending of, i. 437.
Osiers, i. 340 ; ii. 483.

chiefly cultivated, i. 340, 418.
for basket-making, ii. 484.

preparation of, ii. 484.
Outward appearance of timber, ii. 432.
Over-thinning, effects of, i. 28, 442, 447.
Owlet-moth, the Pine Beauty or, ii. 57,

109.
Owlet-moths (Noctuide), ii. 57, 109.
Oxalic acid, preparation of, ii. 606.

Oak (Quercus), i. 106, 468.
11 barking of, ii. 489-499.
Common English (Q. pedunculata),

i. 107.
Durmast (Q. sessiliflora), i. 107, 114.
! Holm, Holly, or Evergreen (Q. ilex),

i. 107, 116.
I natural regeneration of, i. 468, 472.
11 planting of, i. 419.
! Scarlet (Q. coccinea), i. 107, 117.
" Turkey or Moss-cupped (Q. cerris),

i. 107, 118.

White (Q. alba), i. 107, 115.
Oak-bark coppices, i. 50 ; ii. 489, 495.

different qualities of, ii. 488.
harvesting of, ii. 489, 493.
sale, storage, and transport of,

ii. 494.
Oak-boring Bark-beetle, ii. 88.
Oak coppice-woods, i. 111, 113.

1 leaf-mining Weevil, ii. 95.
Oak-seedling fungus, ii. 147, 148, 158.

11 -Tortrix, ii. 114.
11 -wood, brown, i. 109 ; ii. 433.
11 -woods, planting of, i. 419.

underplanting of, i. 450 ; ii,

138.
Ochropsora sorbi, ii. 177.
Odour of wood, ii. 434.
“ (Esterreichsche Cammeral - Taxe," ii.

281.
Officers proper to a forest, i. 12.
Oil of tar (see “Creosote"), ii. 541.

turpentine, ii. 608, 613, 614.
Oleacere, i. 127.
Oleo-resins, ii. 430, 487.
Orchestes fagi, ii. 56, 94.

querci, ii, 56, 95.
Ordinatio Foresta, i. 10.
Oregon Pine (see “Douglas Fir "), i. 248.

Packing plants for transport, i. 384.
Painting of wood, ii. 538.
Palings, wooden, ii. 34.
Papilionace®, ii. 186.
Parasitic plants, damage by, ii. 140-187.
Parisian transplanting-machine, i. 489.
Park, status of a, i. 6.
Partial clearances of immature timber-

crops, i. 97, 435, 449, 465 ; ii. 363.
Patent tar for grease-banding, ii. 67, 71,

539.
Payne's fire-proofing process, ii. 562.
Peat-bogs, planting on, i. 421, 425.
Peignon fencing, ii. 35.
Pennicillium glaucum, ii. 487, 542.
Pennsylvanian axe, ii. 467.
Percentage of increment, ii. 244-248.
Percentage, Pressler's indicating, ii. 244.
Peridermium, ii. 170, 171, 178.

pini acicola, ii. 147, 149,

171, 176.
pini corticola, ii. 147, 149,

171, 177.

strobi, ii. 178.
Periodic falls, ii. 229, 361.
Perisporiaceo, ii. 152, 153.
Permutation of rentals or returns, ii. 388,

389.
Peronosporaceæ, ii. 148, 150.
Pestalozzia Hartigii, ii. 148, 153.
Pezizacer, ii. 148, 163.
Peziza resinaria, ii. 148, 168.

subtilissima, ii. 168.
Willkommii, ii. 147, 148, 163.

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Pfister's preservative process, ii. 551.
Phacidiaceæ, ii. 148, 163.
Pheasants, damage by, ii. 49.
Phoma abietina, ii. 148, 153.

pithya, ii. 148, 153.
Phratora vitellinæ, ii. 57, 102.
Phycomycetes, ii. 148, 150.
Phyllactinia suffulta, ii. 152.
Phyllopertha horticola, ii. 98.
Physical influence of woodlands, i. 67-79.

properties of soil, i. 310.
Physiology of woodland trees, i. 299-307.
Phytophthora fagi, i. ,381 (see P. om-

nivora).

omnivora, ii. 147, 148, 150.
Picea (see “Spruce”), i. 196, 235.
Piece-work book, ii. 376.
Pigeons, damage by, ii. 49.
Pine (Pinus), i. 196.

Aleppo (P. halepensis), i. 216.
Austrian or Black (P. austriaca), i.

203.
Banks' (P. Banksiana), i. 217.
Bentham's (P. Benthamiana), i.

221.
Bishop's (P. muricata), i. 214.
Calabrian (P. pyrenaica), i. 211.
Cembran Swiss Stone- (P.

cembra), i. 230.
Chili (Araucaria imbricata), i. 194.
Chinese Lace-bark (P. Bungeana),

i. 219.
Cluster or Maritime (P. pinaster),

i. 86, 208, 431 ; ii. 195.
Corsican (P. Laricio), i. 206.
Gerard's (P. Gerardiana), i. 218.
Giant-coned (P. Lambertiana), i.

232.
Hartweg's (P. Hartwegii), i. 234.
Jeffrey's (P. Jeffreyii), i. 225.
Jersey or Scrub (P. inops), i. 213.
Large-coned (P. Coulteri), i. 218.
Lofty or Nepaul (P. excelsa), i. 231.
Maritime or Cluster (P. pinastri),

i. 208, 431 ; ii. 195.
Mexican (P. montezuma), i. 233.
Mountain or Dwarf (P. pumilio), i.

212.
5-leaved Mountain (P. monticola),

i. 234.
Mugho (P. Mugho), i. 211.
Nepaul or Lofty (P. excelsa), i.

231.
Norfolk Island (Araucaria excelsa),

i. 195.
Oregon (see "Douglas Fir"), i. 248.
Persian (P. persica), i. 215.
Pitch (P. rigida), i. 221.
Pyrenean (P. Laricio var.), i. 210.
Radiated-coned (P. radiata), i. 223.
Red or Resinous (P. resinosa), i.

209.
Remarkable (P. insignis), i. 224.
Sabine's (P. Sabiniana), i. 224.

Pine, Scots (P. sylvestris), i. 29, 193,

198, 469, 473.
Scrub or Jersey (P. inops), i. 213.
Stone or Umbrella (P. pinea), i.

215.
Taurian (P. pallasiana), i. 207.
Tuberculated-coned (P. tuberculata),

i. 226.
Weymouth or White (P. strobus),

i. 227.

Yellow (P. ponderosa), i. 220.
Pine-bark Beetle, the large 6-toothed, ii.

56, 85.
the 2-toothed, ii. 56,

85.
Pine bark-blister fungus, ii. 147, 149,

177.
Pine Beauty or Owlet-moth, ii. 57, 109.
Pine-beetle, the Crutch, ii. 56, 82.

the large, ii. 56, 79.

the smaller, ii. 56, 83.
Pine-bud Tortrix, ii. 57, 116.
II -cambial Beetle, the Black, ii. 56,

83.
!! -canker fungus, ii. 147, 149, 177.

Geometer or Span-worm, ii. 57, 111.
I needle - blister, bladder - rust,

cluster-cup fungus, ii. 147, 149,

171, 176.
" Resin-gall Tortrix, ii. 57, 116.
11 -sawfly, ii. 58, 122.
11 -seed, collection and cleaning of, ii.

501.
1-shoot fungus, ii. 147, 148, 172.

Tortrix or Twig-twister, ii.

57, 115.
"I stem-rot fungus, ii. 147, 149, 181.
!! -Weevil, the large brown, ii. 56, 89.

the small brown or banded,

ii. 56, 90, 92.
Pines, Geminate or 2-needled, i. 197,

198.
Quinnate or 5-needled, i. 197,

227.

Ternate or 3-needled, i. 197, 218.
Pissodes notatus, ii. 56, 90, 92.

pini, ii. 92.

pinophilus, ii. 92.
Pitch, preparation of, ii. 603.

brewers', ii. 615.

of saws, ii. 576.
Pit-planting, i. 391.
Pit-wood timber, i. 405 ; ii. 457, 544.
Plane-tree (Platanus), i. 167.

American or Western (P. occi.

dentalis), i. 169.
London (P. acerifolia), i. 168.

Oriental (P. orientalis), i. 167.
Planks, ii. 453.
Plantations, i. 15, 16, 19, 20, 404-433.
Planter's diagram, i. 411.
Planting, i. 387-433.
Planting, Act to encourage (Britain), i. 25.

(Ireland), i. 24.

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Planting and sowing, i. 355.
Planting, best distance for, i. 406.

best season for, i. 399, 410.
choice between sowing and, i.

355, 357.
cost of, i. 93, 95, 400-403, 416.
different methods of, i. 388-396.
for ornament and shelter, i.

475-506.
Ash, Elm, Maple, and Syca-
more, i. 421.

Oak, i. 419.
of waste lands, i. 85, 94, 421-

433.
of woodlands, i. 404-433.
on barren sand dunes, i. 429 ;

ii. 195.
on hillsides and higher uplands,

i. 427.
on ironpan or moorpan, i. 426.
on lower uplands, i. 428.
on moorland peat-bogs, i. 425.
on mountain pasture, i. 424.
on sea-coast, i. 428 ; ii. 195.
on waste land, i. 94-101, 421-

433.
soil-preparation for, i. 387, 401,

406.
State assistance needed for, i.93.
-stick, i. 390.

to hide objects, i. 476.
Plant-lice (Aphides), ii. 58, 128.
Plant-life, factors of, i. 303.
Plants, nutrition and growth of, i. 303.
Plashing, i, 385, 460.
Platanus (see “ Plane-tree”), i. 167.
Platicorn beetles, ii. 57, 96-99.
Pneumatic pressure, impregnation under,

ii. 544.
Podosphæra oxyacanthæ, ii. 152.
Pole-railroads, ii. 517.
Polishing of wood, ii. 538.
Pollarding, i. 342.
Polyphylla fullo, ii. 99.
Polyporus, ii. 147, 180, 184.

sulphureus, ii. 184.

vaporarius, ii. 184.
Pomacere, i. 182.
Poplar (Populus), i. 144, 148.

Abele or White (P. alba), i. 149,

153.
Aspen or Trembling (P. tremula),

i, 149, 156.
Canadian or Black Italian (P.

canadensis), i. 149, 151.
Common Black (P. nigra), 149.
Common Grey (P. canescens), i.

149, 155.
Italian or Lombardy (P. pyrami-

dalis), i. 149, 152.
Ontario (P. candicans), i. 149,

158.
Poplar-leaf Beetle, the Red, ii. 57, 101.

fungus, ii. 148, 149, 172.

Poplar Longicorn, the large, ii. 57, 99.

the small, ii. 57, 100.
Populus (see “Poplar"), i. 144, 148.
Portable sawmills, ii. 574.

steam-engines, ii. 575.
Post-and-rail fencing, ii. 35.
Potashes, preparation of, ii. 606, 607.
Powell's saccharine preservative process,

ii. 547, 563.
Predisposition to disease, ii. 188.
Predominating kinds of trees, i. 333.
Premature seeding, ii. 190.
Present capital value of a timber-crop,

ii. 395.
Present values, calculation of, ii. 386, 389.
Preservation of timber, ii. 531-563.
Preservation of Trees and Woods, Acts for

the, i. 26.
Preservation of Woods (1543), Act for

the, i. 16, 17.
Preservatives, superficial application of,

ii. 538.
Pressler's borer or increment gauge, ii.

325, 347.
formula for percentage of in-

crement, ii. 327.
“indicating percentage,” ii.

244, 327.
Preventing decay in trees, i. 492.
Pricking-out of seedlings, i. 377.
Primeval woodlands, i. 3, 5.
Private contract, sales by, ii. 376, 379,

480, 482, 483.
Private nurseries, i. 362.
Probable profit from woodlands, i. 98,

407 ; ii. 235, 239-241.
Productivity or prospective and capital

value of woodlands, ii. 241, 390, 394.
Profit in planting, i. 50, 57, 96, 98, 407;

ii. 235.
Protection against destructive birds, ii.

44-52.
farm live-stock, game,

and the larger kinds
of vermin, ii. 12.

43.
injuries from inor.

ganic causes, ii.

188-218.
injurious insects, ii.
53-134.

and human
actions, ii. 3-11.
soil-erosion, i. 78.
weeds and parasitic

plants, ii. 135-187.
Protection of woodlands, i. 63; ii. 3-218.

young timber-crops, i. 434.
Protective falls or severances, ii. 265, 342.
Protein substances in sap, ii. 429.
Pruning, i. 453, 485.
Pruning implements, i. 455.
Pruning of hedges, i. 499-501.

nursery-plants, i. 383.

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