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BOOK. IV.

OF THE VARIOUS SYSTEMS RELATING TO THE CIRCULATION

OF THE PRODUCE OF LABOUR BY MEANS OF COMMERCE.

Introduction, on the importance of Commerce, 249.

CHAP. I.
Of the causes of the Circulation of the produce of Labour, 253.

CHAP. II.
Of the Value of the Produce of Labour, 255: this Value is regu.

lated, 1st, by the wants of the Consumers and their means of sup.
plying them, 256 ; 2dly, by the demand for Commodities, and
their abundance or scarcity, 257; 3dly, by Labour, 258; 4thly,
by Land and Labour, 259; 5thly, by the value of Man, 260.
There is no invariable Standard of Value, 264. Money and
Corn are not better calculated than Labour to fix the Value of
things for distant times, 268: there is no fixed Value of things
but up to what their production has cost, 270: beyond this the
Profits on Productions of Labour are unequal, 271 : this inequa.
lity of Profits is indifferent with regard to the Ilome-Trade, 272 :
it is not injurious in the exchange of Home for Foreign produce,
273; except in one particular case, 278.

CHAP. III.
Of the influence of Money and Credit upon the circulation of the

Produce of Labour, 286. Different kinds of Money, 287:
objects of every Monetary System, 288 : obstacles which it
encounters: 1, in the nature of things, 289 ; 2, in the confused
notions of its own nature, 290. What is Money? 295. Is a
Seignorage on Coin advantageous ? 297. Is either Gold or Silver
alone to be admitted as Money ? 30C. Is there a known and
fixed proportion between Money and the Produce which it is
to circulate ? 303. Is the abundance of Money favourable or
jodifferent to the progress of Wealth ? 306. Is a Gold and
Silver Currency necessary to the formation of Wealth? 312.
Does its plenty contribute to the progress of Wealth ? 314.

CHAP. IV.
Of Credit and Banks, 319; what is Credit ? ibid: three sorts of

Credit, 322:1, Commercial Credit, ibida Of the liquidation of

Commercial Credit by setting off or compensating one debt against
the other, 326. Of Deposit Banks, 329; Bank of Venice, ibid;
Bank of Genoa, or Bank of St. George, 332; Bank of Amster.
dam, 334; Bank of Rotterdam, 337 ; Bank of Hamburgh,
ibid. Of Banks of Circulation, 338: Bank of England, ibid;
its nature, 310; its extent, 342; its advantages and inconveni.
encies, 346. Number of Banks of that kind in England, 3 19.
The amount of Commercial Debts liquidated with Bank-notes,
350. Is an abundant Paper Currency favourable to the progress
of Wealth ? 351. Of the Banks of Circulation that have
existed in France, 352: Mr. Law's Bank, 353; Discounting
Bank (Caisse d'Escompte), ibid; Bank of Current Accounts,
354; Commercial Bank, 355; Manufacturers' Bank, ibid;
Laud Bank, ibid; Bank of France, 356. Which of the two
kirds of Banks is most favourable to the progress of Wealth,
368. 2. Private Credit, 371 : Banks of Circulation of no use
to it, 372. Private Credit has made little progress, because it
is opposed by most Religions, 373. The law fixes the rate of
Interest, and favours the Debtor, 374. 3. Public Credit, and
wherein it resembles Commercial and Private Credit, 378.

CHAP. V.
Which Trade is the most beneficial to National Wealth?

381.
Opinions in favour of Foreign Trade, 382; in favour of the
Home Trade, 384: Foreign Trade is the most conducive ta
National Wealth, 386. Of the different methods of carrying on
the Foreign Trade of a Country, 398.

CHAP. VI.
1. of Corporations and privileged Companies, 398; this method of
trading is prejudicial to Wealth, 399.

CHAP. VII.
2. Or Modern Colonies, 404: their difference from the Colonies

of the Antients, ibid. This mode of trading is beneficial, and has
been of great service, with regard to population, 105; to capitals,
406; and to Public and Private Wealth, 410. Have Nations
with Colonies shared more largely in these advantages than
Nations that have no Colonies ? 411. Of Colonial Monopoly,
413it is of no advantage te monopolizing Nations, 417,

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CHAP. VIII,
3. Of Treaties of Commerce, 417; when are they beneficial ? 418.

CHAP. IX.
Of Exchanges, and the Balance of Trade, 419 : Balances of

Exports and Imports are neither certain nor positive, 420.
The subject of Exchanges is involved in still more inaccu.
racy and obscurity, 421. Difference between the Balance of
Foreign Commerce and that of the Home Trade, 423. Is there
any certain way to know the state of the Home Trade? 426.

CHAP. X.
Conclusion of the Fourth Book, 428.

BOOK. V.

OF THE VARIOUS SYSTEMS CONCERNING THE NATIONAL

INCOME AND CONSUMPTION.

CHAP. I.

Of the National Income, 431. Is there any difference between

National and Private Iocome? 432 : they are one and the same
thing, 434. Of the distribution of the National Income, 437.

CHAP. II.
of Consumption, 442: ought it to be equal to the Income? ibid.

Of Luxury, 446; among the Ancients, ibid; in the Middle Age,
4.47; in Modern times, 448. Is Consumption the cause or the
effect of Wealth ? 451. Are some kinds of Consumption moro
or less favourable to Wealth ? 458.

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