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New York State paleontologist, professor of theoretical, practical, and mining geology; Dascom Greene, C. E., professor of mathematics and astronomy; S. Edward Warren, C. E., Professor of descriptive geometry and stereotomy; Henry B. Nason, A. M., Ph. D., professor of chemistry and natural science; Charles McMillan, C. E., professor of Geodesy, road engineering, and topographical drawing; R. Halsted Ward, Â. M., M. D., professor of botany; J. H. C. Lajoie De Marceleau, A. B., professor of French; Alexander G. Johnson, instructor in the English language and literature; Arthur W. Bower, C. E., instructor in mathematics and mechanics; Edward Nichols, B. S., assistant in analytical chemistry.
THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA. In the scientific department of this institution it is intended to provide complete theoretical and practical training in mining and metallurgy. As the courses are not yet organized, the professors not appointed, and the handsome building not completed, little can be said of the details of this plan. The following is a description of the plans of the new building of the collegiate and scientific departments, by T. W. Richards, architect:
The building has a front on Locust street (between Thirty-fourth and Thirty-sixth streets) of 254 feet, by 102 feet 4 inches in depth, exclusive of towers, bay windows, buttresses, &c., with an additional projection of the center 21 feet 10 inches beyond the wings.
The cellar is arranged for the storage of coal, and an apartment in connection, outside of the building, is provided for the boilers of the steam-heating apparatus.
The basement on the sides and rear is entirely above ground, 15 feet high. There is an entrance in the rear for students to the assembly-room, 44 feet by 50 feet, and entrances on the east and west ends to a wide corridor, which extends the whole length of the building, in all the stories. The eastern wing contains: Laboratory, 30 by 45 feet, apparatus and store-room, 24 by 29 feet, metallurgical laboratory, 30 by 50 feet, a fire-proof furnace-room, 21 by 34 feet, balance-room, 14 by 17 feet, as well as smaller roonis for silver and gold assaying. The western wing contains: Laboratory, 30 by 45 feet, and apparatus and diagram room, 24 by 29 feet, for the chemical-lecture room ou first floor, one laboratory, 30 by 50 feet, and one, 24 by 34 feet, for the physical department. Apartments for janitor and assistants are arranged on this floor, and for machinery, storage, dumb-waiters, water-closets, &c.
The first or principal floor is 16 feet high. On the eastern side of the main entrance is the faculty-room of the scientific department, 13 by 22 feet, professors' laboratory, 19 by 45 feet, preparing laboratory, 21 by 24 feet, qualitative laboratory, 30 by 45 feet, quantitative laboratory, 30 by 50 feet, laboratory for organic analysis, 24 by 34 feet, two balance-rooms and two assistants' rooms. On the western side is the reception and secretary's room, 13 by 22 feet, trustees' and faculty room, 19 by 37 feet, provost's recitation-room, 24 by 33 feet, and private room, 14 by 18 feet, chemical-lecture room, 30 by 45 feet, physical-lecture room, 30 by 50 feet, and apparatus-room, 24 by 34 feet. The library in center of rear, 44 by 50 feet, is entered from a hall 34 by 40 feet. This part of the building is fire-proof.
The second floor is 15 feet 6 inches high. The chapel, 50 by 80 feet, occupies the front of center building, and is 23 feet high. The eastern side contains lecture-rooms for civil engineering, mining and metallurgy, and mineralogy, and a large museum for these departments.
The western side and center of rear is divided into six large recitation-rooms, with adjoining private rooms.
The third floor is 14 feet high, and contains three large recitation-rooms, lecture and model rooms for mechanical engineering, three large rooms for the study and practice of drawing in the departments of civil and mechanical engineering, architecture, &c. A large examination-hall is in the rear of the chapel.
The fourth floor, over the chapel, has two society-rooms for students, each with an adjoining library.
The design is in the collegiate gothic style; the material to be used is Lieperville stone, for the basement, with base course of Hummelstown brownstone. The walls above are to be serpentine marble, with cornices, gables, arches, &c., of Ohio stone. The entrance-porch is to be of Franklin stone, with arch supported on polished red-granite columus, with enriched capitals of Ohio stone. The windows of chapel and gables are decorated with geometrical tracery.
The space devoted to the sciences more immediately connected with mining and metallurgy is one-half of the building. The chemical departments were planned by the late Prof. Wetherell, of Bethlehem.
MISSOURI SCHOOL OF MINES AND METALLURGY ROLLA, MISSOURI. The legislative act "to locate and dispose of the congressional land-grant of July 2, 1862, to endow, support, and maintain a school of agriculture and the mechanic arts, and a school of mines and metallurgy, and to promote the liberal education of the indus
trial classes in the several pursuits and professions of life," provided that three-fourths of the proceeds from the sale or lease of the 330,000 acres of land granted to Missouri should be for the benefit of an agricultural and mechanical college, and the remaining one-fourth for the support of a school of mines and metallurgy. It also provided that the latter should be located in the mineral district of Southeast Missouri, and that the county therein, having mines, which might offer the highest bid of money and land for building and other purposes, should secure the location, provided it should offer not less than $20,000 in cash, and 20 acres of land for a building-site, in addition to suitable lots of mineral lands "for practical and experimental mining." The same act empowered the county courts of such county to issue bonds to raise the money and purchase the lands, providing that said bonds should not ran longer than twenty years, and should bear not more than 10 per cent. interest annually, payable half yearly.
Phelps County and its county seat, Rolla, having offered $75,000 in twenty-year 10 per cent. bonds, together with 7,879 acres of land, including a building-site of 130 acres, the locating committee of the board of curators of the State University reported in favor of locating the school at that point. At the regular meeting of the board of curators, in June, 1871, the report of the committee was adopted, and the school of mines and metallurgy was then definitely located at Rolla.
The plans and specifications have been prepared, and the contract let for the erection of a building 130 feet by 65 feet, three stories high, at a cost of $85,000, exclusive of the completion of the third story. The first floor contains three working laboratories, besides balance and apparatus rooms, and private laboratories for professors and assistants. The second floor is devoted to the large lecture-room, library, and recitationrooms, while the third floor, when completed, is designed to contain additional classrooms, the collections and cabinets, and a large well-lighted room for drawing purposes. In the mean time the school occupies ample and comfortable quarters in a new public-school building, recently completed, at a cost of $30,000. In this have been fitted up a laboratory, (24 by 55 feet,) lecture-room, cabinet and apparatus and recitation rooms.
The school was formally opened on November 23, 1871, the first session having begun on the 6th of the same month. The regular course is designed to extend through three years, though a preparatory year's course is provided for students not sufficiently advanced for admission to the school proper. The collegiate year begins in September, and ends in June following, and is divided into two sessions, with no intermediate vacation. The first semester of each collegiate year ends early in February. Technical excursions and field-practice are designed to fill up most of the vacation. The laboratory is accessible to students of the regular or special departments at all working hours of the day, not otherwise employed, and at least fifteen recitations, or their equivalents, exclusive of laboratory and drawing-room work and military drill are exacted for each week from each student. French and German are optional studies.
In the preparatory year are taught arithmetic, metrical system of weights and measures, algebra to quadratic equations, rhetoric, and English composition, physical geography, (two lectures weekly,) and the elements of physics and chemistry, (by recitation from text-books and illustrative experiments.)
The first year proper: Algebra, from quadratic equations; geometry and trigonometry, mineralogy, (descriptive,) laboratory work, blow-pipe analysis, and determinative mineralogy; drawing.
Second and third years: Pure and applied mathematics, organic chemistry and parts of chemical technology, geology and mining, metallurgy and assaying, physics, drawing, (free-hand and mechanical;) laboratory work, qualitative and quantitative analysis.
In accordance with the provisions of the congressional act, a military bias is given to the organization of the school. Special students are admitted.
Tuition: Forty dollars per year; chemical apparatus furnished at cost prices by the school, and the value of so much of it as may be returned is refunded.
Total number of students, 31.
In preparatory classes 20-average age, 18.2 years; in first year, regular, 8-average age, 20 years; in analytical chemistry and assaying, 3.
The faculty is not yet organized, but will be, partially, during the coming summer. Instruction to the first-year students is at present given by the director of the school, Professor C. P. Williams, assisted by Mr. Ñ. W. Allen, instructor in mathematics, and Mr. William Cooch, as laboratory assistant.
POLYTECHNIC DEPARTMENT OF THE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY, SAINT LOUIS, MISSOURI.
Officers of instruction.-W. G. Eliot, D. D., chancellor; Abram Litton, M. D., Eliot professor of chemistry; Wayman Crow professor of physics; George B. Stone, A. M., professor of rhetoric; Calvin M. Woodward, A. M., Thayer professor of mathematics and applied mechanics, and dean of the department; Marshall S. Snow,
A. M., professor of belles-lettres; Leopold Noa, professor of ancient and modern languages; Henry Pomeroy, A. M., professor of astronomy and mathematics; William Eimbeck, U. S. C. S., professor of practical astronomy; William B. Potter, A. M., E. M., Allen professor of mining and metallurgy; F. William Raeder, S. B., professor of architecture; Denham Arnold, A. M., assistant professor of physics; Charles A. Smith, C. E., assistant professor of civil and mechanical engineering; Frederick M. Crunden, A. B., instructor in mathematics and elocution; J. W. Pattison, teacher of drawing. Summary of students.-Seniors, 3; juniors, 6; sophomores, 10; freshmen, 13; students not candidates for degree, 4; total, 36.
Courses of study. These are five in number, viz: I. Civil engineering; II. Mechanical engineering; III. Chemistry; IV. Mining and metallurgy; V. Building and architecture.
The studies are the same for all the courses during the freshman and sophomore years, but during the junior and senior years they diverge more or less, though certain branches still remain common. Students not proposing to become professionals are not required to adhere strictly to either course, but, with the approval of the faculty, may select such studies as will constitute a general course, the completion of which will entitle the student to the degree of bachelor of science. Special students will be received in any of the courses, if it is made clear that such arrangements are the best for the students, and not prejudicial to the interests of the department.
The course in mining and metallurgy.-This was established during the past year by the appointment of Professor Potter. It is evident that Saint Louis possesses great advantages for instruction in these branches, being a large and growing commercial and manufacturing center, within easy access of nearly all varieties of mining and metallurgical operations.
The studies during the first two years are somewhat general in character, preparatory to the special work of the course on mining and metallurgy, to which the remaining two years are devoted. The full details are omitted here, as they closely resemble the schedules of other institutions already quoted. The plan of instruction includes lectures and recitations on the various subjects pertaining to the course; practical work in the physical, chemical, and metallurgical laboratories; field-work in geology, &c.; projects, estimates, and plans for the establishment of mines and metallurgical works; examination of and reports on mines and manufacturing establishments. Collections have already been made and are constantly being added to, embracing models of crystals and specimens illustrating the various minerals and rocks and their association; ores, coals, petroleum, fire-clays, building-materials, &c., from many parts of this country and Europe; characteristic fossils of the different geological ages; metallurgical products illustrating the various operations in the treatment of ores by the wet and dry methods. Models of furnaces and mine constructions will in time be added, together with sets of mining-tools and instruments. These collections are used to illustrate lectures, &c., and are at all times accessible to the students, so that they may become thoroughly familiar with the character and modes of occurrence of the minerals, rocks, and ores they are likely to meet with in the field, and the various products in metallurgical operations.
Assay-laboratories will, before the opening of the next term, be completely furnished with crucible, scorification, and cupelling furnaces, and everything necessary for practical work in the assay of ores of lead, silver, gold, iron, tin, &c., and with volumetric apparatus for the assay of silver coin and bullion by the wet methods. The general principles as well as the special methods of assaying are explained in the lecturerooms, and at the same time ores of the various metals exhibited and described. From a large stock of these ores from various parts of the country the students are required to make a large number of assays themselves, under the immediate supervision of the instructor. In the chemical laboratories a practical course is pursued in connection with lectures on qualitative and quantitative analysis, the students being required to make tests and full analyses of coals, limestones, ores of iron, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, pig-iron, clays, technical products, &c., that they may acquire a practical experience in the chemical examination of the materials and products liable to be met with in practice.
Every opportunity is afforded the students through the term for visiting and examining the various mines, smelting and manufacturing establishments in the vicinity. During the summer vacations they are required to visit some mining or metallurgical district, and, at the opening of the following term, to hand in a journal of travels, with a report of the operations conducted there, illustrated with drawings. Before receiving the degree of engineer of mines, they will be required to execute plans or projects for the establishment and working of mines or smelting-works under given conditions, with drawings, estimates, and written memoirs. An endeavor is thus made to combine thorough practical with theoretical instruction in this course, and to fit the student for the successful practice of his profession hereafter, and for a field of usefulness in the country at large.
The chemical building above mentioned contains three work-rooms, besides a lecture
room, the professors' room, and two rooms for storage and apparatus. Besides, two large rooms in the basement of the new wing will soon be fitted up for assaying and industrial chemistry. Until the present accommodations are crowded, the large room, 43 by 41 feet, on the first floor of the large building, will be appropriated to the State geological cabinet. Students who propose to become professional chemists will spend almost their entire time during their third and fourth years in the laboratories. This institution is the headquarters of the Missouri State geological survey.
THE BURLEIGH DRILL.
Since the preceding pages contain (see chapter on California) a tolerably full account of the late operations of the diamond drill, it is but fair that some attention should be given in this report to its principal competitor, the Burleigh, now the most prominent representative* of the percussion machine-drills. In point of fact the Burleigh drill has never been successfully pushed in the West. One of them is about to be introduced at the Yellow Jacket mine, and another has been, it is said, contracted for by the Sutro Tunnel Company. But their actual use is confined at present to quarrying and tunneling operations in the East, and in mining, so far as I know, to the Lake Superior region.
I give, as the best statement of the performances of the machine, the following extracts from a letter addressed to me at my request by Mr. H. A. Willis, of Fitchburgh, Massachusetts, the treasurer of the Burleigh Rock-Drill Company:
We have not much to add to what has heretofore been published in regard to our machinery, except to state that time has fully proved the value of the machinery, and its economy over hand-work wherever any considerable amount of rock is to be removed.
The drills have been introduced into nearly every State of the Union, and are at work in Canada and South America. They are also largely used in England, being manufactured at Manchester. They are just about being started in a tunnel in Italy, and we are about shipping three of our largest compressors there to run them, as they have not yet made many compressors at Manchester, and are in immediate want of them. The Lake Superior copper mines are using them largely, the Copper Falls, Allouez, and Central Companies being already equipped, and the Calumet and Hecla Company awaiting at present our completion of their order for eighteen drills. These companies expect to do all their drilling by machinery.
We inclose a reprint of letter to London Mining Journal from Lake Superior, giving comparisions of hand and machine labor; also, a copy of Mr. Steele's article on Nesqueloning tunnel; also, letters of Messrs. Shanly & Co., showing the value of the machinery at Hoosac tunnel. With these data you will be able to say something about the machinery. You can use either or all of the cuts now in your possession to illustrate with, if desired. I would suggest that the cut you had engraved for us is the best representation of the drill as at present constructed, it having been entirely built over since your former report was made, and so strengthened that no important part of the machine ever breaks. Of course, the ratchets and springs wear out. Yours truly,
H. A. WILLIS, Treasurer. HOOSAC-TUNNEL CONTRACT, North Adams, Massachusetts, February 23, 1872.
DEAR SIR: I do not find a copy of the letter of 2d April, 1870, as published on page 19 of the Burleigh Rock-Drill Company's pamphlets, and which was written for our firm by my brother. I can, however, testify to the correctness of the facts stated in that letter. The compressors we have been using ("No. 2") have been doing their work very well, "driving from two to three tunnel-size machines" each. As respects the difference in rapidity and cost between drilling in rock with these machines and by hand, we could not say without going into figures what it may actually be; but this we can say, that without the "Burleigh drills" we would not undertake such a work as the Hoosac tunnel on almost any terms. W. SHANLY, For F. Shanly & Co.
Hon. GEO. E. TOWNE,
President Burleigh Rock-Drill Company, Fitchburgh.
The Gardner drill, a machine resembling the Burleigh, is in satisfactory use at various places in the East. I cannot enter into the merits of the controversy between the proprietors of these two machines as to the patent-right.