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B. Mumford “professor of the teaching of agriculture.” The following courses are offered by these officers:

(a) Agriculture.

Professor MUMFORD.

la. Soils ind plant studies, with reference to agriculture. This course will aim to give a clear general knowledge of the principles of agriculture. The character of the work is adapted to those who are preparing to teach in the elementary schools. Three times a week, first semester. Hours to be arranged.

2. The principles of agriculture.-Fundamental conceptions of soils, plants, and animals, and their application to agricultural practice. Lectures, reading, laboratory work, and field excursions. A course for high school and academy teachers. Three times a week. Hours to be arranged.

Other courses in agriculture may be elected by students in the Teachers College.

(b) Horticulture.

Professor WHITTEN.

1b. Cultivated plants.-How they grow under culture, their relation to their environments, and common methods of propagating and managing plants; the materials for a school garden and how to use them. Lectures and laboratory. This course is intended for those who are preparing to teach in elementary schools and who may not have time for the longer courses offered by the department. Three times a week. Hours to be arranged.

la and 2b. These two courses taken together constitute a year's work in which the topics mentioned in lb are given fuller and more scientific treatment. They can be taken after 1b or independently of it, and are designed to meet the needs of those who are preparing to teach in any branch of biological science. Three times a week.

4a. The evolution of cultivated plants.---Lectures and assigned readings. A study of organic evolution as applied to the modifications of plants, particularly those in cultivation. Three times a week. Hours to be arranged.

Other courses in horticulture are open to students in the Teachers College.


The College of Agriculture of the University of Maine late in 1907 organized the following course in agriculture for those who intend to become teachers of this subject in the public schools:

This course is offered in response to a call for teachers capable of teaching elementary agriculture in schools and academies. In order to receive a degree one hundred and fifty hours, or 30 credits, must be received. The following course as laid down covers one hundred and forty-six hours. The remaining six hours have been purposely left open for elective work in order that the student may receive as liberal a training in cultural studies as is consistent with the amount of technical work necessary. It is recommended that the electives be taken from the departments of biology, history, economics, chemistry, physics, or English,

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. Two hours count as one.

Three hours count as one.


The North Carolina College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts is now providing a one-year normal course in agriculture, the following announcement of which will appear in the next catalogue of the college: One-year normal course in agriculture, North Carolina College of Agriculture

and the lechanic Arts.

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Electives in college departments, e. g., agricultural chemistry, land surveying, physical and physical laboratory, drawing, and others.


The College of Agriculture in North Dakota offers a " teachers' course," described as follows (1907–8):

Under the provisions of the Nelson law” enacted by Congress in 1907 the following course is offered for the training of teachers, fitting them to teach the elements of mechanic arts and agriculture. It is also the aim of this course to provide the three terms' work in pedagogy which graduates must have in order to benefit by the statute entitling them to a State certificate on their diplomas. To the many students who frequently have to turn to teaching temporarily before completing their studies, this line of work will be found very helpful.

During the past three years regular work has been given in nature study and elements of agriculture in order to meet the rapidly increasing demand for rural teachers able to instruct in these subjects. In addition opportunity was given to review all subjects required for first and second grade certificates. As there was no desire to duplicate the courses of the normal schools or to enter on their field of pedagogy, the work was neither emphasized nor given prominence.

The new law, however, has marked out a definite field for agricultural colleges in the training of teachers and given them a mission in harmony with their general plan and purpose. In order to fit teachers to teach elements of mechanic arts and agriculture and fill positions in common, village, or city schools, it has become necessary to add another year's work to the course as outlined heretofore. The units constituting this additional year are all, with the exception of the history of education, of a technical nature, and fall either under the head of mechanic arts or agriculture, or the pedagogy of these branches.

The entering student is expected to have had eighth grade or one year's high school training. In addition to a thorough training in elementary subjects, there is required a course in elementary agriculture taught by the professor of agriculture. The course covers three years. The agriculture is as follows:

Teachers' Agriculture II.-Agricultural physics, fall term.
Teachers' Agriculture III.-Agronomy, winter term.
Teachers' Agriculture IV.-Animal husbandry, with laboratory, spring term.
Teachers' Agriculture V.-Horticulture, afternoon work, spring term.

Following is the full schedule of the teachers' course at the North Dakota College:

First year.

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Psychology, 8 a. m.

8 a. m.

History of education, 8 a. m. Elements of chemistry, 9 a. m. Physics I, 9 a. m.

Physics II, 9 a. m. -----, 10 a. m. Algebra I. 10 a, m.

Algebra II, 10 a. m. Zoology, 11 a. m.

Physical geography, 11 a. m. English III, 11 a. m. Chemical laboratory, 2 to 5 p. m. Physics laboratory, 2 to 5 p. m. Physics laboratory, 2 to 5 p. m. Zoology, 2 to 5 p. m.

Third ycar.

Manual training I, 8 a. m. Geometry I. 8 a, m.
Philosophy of education, 9 a. m. Manual training II, 9 a. m.
Algebra III, 10 a. m.

Methods, 10 a. m.
Elements of agriculture 11.11 a. m. Elements of agriculture III, 11
Shop (manual training IV), p.m.

d. m.
Horticulture, 2 to 5 p. m.

Geometry II, 8 a. m.
Manual training III, 9 a. m.
Botany II, 10 a, m.
Elements of agriculture IV, 11

a. m.
Botany, 2 to 5p. m.
Horticulture, 2 to i p. m.
Agriculture, 3 to 5 p. m.


The Connecticut Agricultural College has for several years offered a two-year course of preparation for the special teaching of nature study in the public schools. The course is offered to graduates of high schools and to those who have had the first two years of their regular course in agriculture or in home making. This course" for rural school teaching” includes much work in agricultural subjects, selected from the regular courses in the college. It is intended to be supplemented by the work for teachers in the summer school, and by one year in a good normal school.


In addition to the regular courses in the college at Pullman, Washington, courses are offered in education, specially intended to train teachers in methods. Whenever a student expresses a desire to engage in school teaching, he is encouraged to elect at least two courses in the department of education. One of these courses is “the principles of education," the other “ methods of teaching agriculture.” The latter is taught largely by the department of agriculture itself.

The above examples constitute the only instances known to the writer of agricultural colleges, or agricultural departments of colleges, in the United States that have actually put pedagagical courses or departments into operation, although other colleges or departments are each cooperating more or less with the education department of the university or college of which it is a part. Several of the colleges of agriculture are now considering the establishing of education courses. It is probable that such courses will constitute the most marked departure in agricultural college work in the immediate future. As yet the whole subject is in a formative and experimental stage. These colleges have a very large and varied constituency, and they properly represent all the phases of country life. It is incumbent on them to reach directly the educational phase, and it is incumbent on the people to see that they are able to enter this field, for this is a necessary condition to the evolution of the public schools.

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