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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS,
PAGE. 38. Monument of Penn's Treaty.
91 39. Squatters..
93 40. View of the Public Square in St. Augustine, Florida...
97 41. Male and Female Indian.
98 42. Portrait of Gen. Oglethorpe.
101 43. Washington, from an early Print, by Trumbull..
105 44. Portrait of Benjamin Franklin.... 107 45. Defeat of Gen. Braddock, 9th July, 1755...
108 46. Western Hunter, in proper Costume 110
HISTORY OF THE REVOLUTION.
15 4. Runic Inscription on Dighton Rock. 16 5. Old Stone Tower at Newport, R. I. 16 6. Christopher Columbus.
17 7. Mutiny on board the Santa Maria.. 20 8. View of Lisbon..
22 9. Columbus and the Egg.
24 10. Tomb of Columbus, Seville Cathedral....
24 11. Portrait of Sebastion Cabot.
27 12. Portrait of Americus Vespuccius... 28 13. Pizarro.....
29 14. Battle between Pizarro and Almagro 31 15. Portrait of Hernando de Soto.... 32 16. View of Maiden's Rock, on the Mississippi....
36 17. Portrait of Verazzano.
37 18. Birthplace of Sir Walter Raleigh. 40 19. Portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh. 41 20. Landing of the English at Roanoke 43 21. Sir Walter Raleigh taking Leave of his Family
50 22. Portrait of Capt. John Smith. 53 23. An Indian Warrior...
55 24. Frontlet of the Queen of Pamunkey 57 25. Portrait of Pocahontas
58 26. Pocahontas saving the Life of Captain John Smith.
59 27. Ruins of Jamestown.
62 28. Portrait of Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore..
65 29. Tattooed Indian
70 30. Portrait of Charles I.....
73 31. Portrait of Governor Winthrop.. 75 32. King Philip, the Last of the Wampanoags
78 33. The Palisades, on the Hudson River 80 34. Portrait of Peter Stuyvesant.. 83 35. Portrait of Oliver Cromwell.
84 36. Portrait of William Penn..... 85 37 Signing the Treaty of Penn with the Indians
47. Portrait of Col Barré....
117 48. Portrait of Patrick Henry.
118 49. Portrait of Gen. Conway
119 50. Portrait of John Hancock.
122 51. Boston Massacre....
125 52. Portrait of Samuel Adams..
126 53. Residence of the Adams Family, Quincy, Mass.....
127 54. Destruction of the Tea in Boston Harbor...
131 55. American Militia and Minute Men at Lexington...
141 56. Putman and the Wolf.
144 57. View of Yorktown..
147 58. Statue of the Earl of Chatham..... 151 59. Throwing up Entrenchments on Bunker's Hill.
154 60. Encampment on Breed's Hill.. 155 61. Plan of the Battle of Bunker's Hill. 156 62. Portrait of Gen, Clinton...
157 63. Monument on Bunker's Hill..
158 64. Washington's Headquarters, Cambridge
160 65. Yankee Privateersman...
162 66. View of St. John, on the Sorel.... 163 67. Arnold crossing the River Sorel.... 165 68. View of Quebec...
166 69. British Soldiers firing at a Flag of Truce....
PAGE 70. View of St. Paul's Church, N. York 168 115. Washington's Headquarters at New71. Montgomery leading on his Men... 169
259 72. Portrait of Gen. Carleton.... 170 | 116. Burgoyne's Encampment on North 73. Engagement on Lake Champlain.. 172
260 74. St. Anthony's Nose, View on the 117. Field of Saratoga.
261 Hudson River... 175 118. Attack on Fort Montgomery.
263 75. View of Boston from Dorchester 119. Portrait of Silas Deane.
268 Heights... 177 120. Philadelphia in 1778..
268 76. View of Boston, taken on the road to 121. Village of Log Huts..
269 Dorchester.. 179 122. Newport in 1777...
277 77. Medal to commemorate the Evacua- 123. Rhode Island Statehouse, Newport.. 279
tion of Boston by the British... 181 124. Chart of the Harbor of Newport... 281 78. Portrait of William Moultrie, Maj. 125. Vale of Wyoming.
286 Gen. U. S. A....
182 126. Mrs. Merrill killing the Indians.... 289 79. Sir Peter Parker.
181 | 127. Map of the Seat of War in the South80. Capture of the Acteon.
292 81. Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia. 187 | 128. City Hall, Augusta, Georgia.
297 82. Portrait of John Adams. 188 129. Hired Hessians.
301 83. Monticello, Residence of Thomas 130. Southern States.
189 131. Washington at Stony Point........ 305 84. Liberty and Independence.... 191 13.2. A War Party of Indians..
309 85. View of New York from Long Island 193 133. Portrait of Brandt.
311 86. Plan of the Battle of Long Island.. 195 | 134. Admiral d'Estaing
314 87. East River from Long Island in 1834 200 135. Savannah, 1778..
316 88. Fort Washington.. 202 136. British Fleet off Charleston,
318 89. Portrait of Charles Carroll of Car- 137. Charleston, South Carolina, 1835.. 320 rollton...... 206 138. A French Fusileer....
324 90. Portrait of Edmund Burke.. 208 139. Relieving the Prisoners.
326 91. Portrait of General Putnam.. 209 140. John Paul Jones....
332 92. Washington approaching the Dela- 141. Serapis and Bon Homme Richard... 334
210 142. Capture of the Countess of Scarbo93. Portrait of Col. Knox
334 94. Portrait of Lord Cornwallis.
212 143. Medal presented to La Fayette... 337 95. Birthplace of President Monroe.... 214 114. Count de Rochambeau..
345 96. Washington's Headquarters, Morris- 145. View of West Point.
346 town, N.J..... 218 | 146. Major Andre....
347 97. The old Jail in New York. 220 | 147. Benedict Arnold.
349 98. Great Seal of the United States 222 148. Flying from British Oppression, 353 99. Continental Money... 223 149. Death of Ferguson
355 100. Portrait of General Lincoln. 225 150. Lord Rawdon..
371 101. Retreat of General Tryon..... 226 151. Baron Steuben.
387 102. Map of Operations in New Jersey, 152. Yorktown, Virginia.
400 Pennsylvania, Delaware... 229 153. Monument of Hamilton.
401 103. Portrait of Pulaski.
230 154, 155. Marquis de La Fayette and his 104. Portrait of De Kalb.
402 105. Departure of Lafayette.
233 | 156. Plan of the Investment of York, Vir106. Portrait of General Wayne.
404 107. The old Fort at Ticonderoga, N. Y. 239 | 157. Moore's House at Yorktown, 106 108. Burgoyne's Attack on the American 158. Acknowledgment of American IndeBateaux
413 109. Map of Burgoyne's Route previous 159. Statue of Hamilton destroyed at the to his Surrender at Saratoga.... 244
great Fire in New York, Dec. 16th, 110. View of Lake Saratoga.
415 111. An American Backwoodsman. . 247 160. Portrait of General Washington.... 419 112: Lake George. ...
248 | 161. Washington's Residence, Mount Ver113. Murder of Miss Jane M'Crea. 253
421 114. Burgoyne's Retreat.. 257' 162. Franklin Medal..
We propose to give a brief history of the war of the American Revolution, a contest waged by the American colonies, then in their infancy, but relying on the justice of their cause, against the fleets and armies of a mighty kingdom, unequalled for its giant strength and resources. That important event has brought a powerful nation into active life ; it laid the foundation of the American republic, the pattern model of a democratic form of government, which proves to every candid inquirer that man is capable of governing himself, and which shines brightly, as the beacon-fire of liberty, to the whole world. Before proceeding directly to the war, it will be useful to glance at the earlier history and discoverers of America.
I. Eric the Red, with his household, emigrated from Iceland to Greenland, where they formed a settlement. Among those who accompanied him was Heriulf Bardson, whose son Biarne happened at this time to be on a trading voyage to Norway. Eric established himself at Brattalid in Ericsfiod, and Heriulf Bardson settled at Heriulfsnes.
When Biarne returned to Eyrar in Iceland, and found that his father had departed, he determined upon spending the following winter with him, as he had done the preceding ones, although he and all his people were entirely ignorant of the navigation of the Greenland sea. To this determination the original discovery of America appears to be owing.
They commenced their voyage ; fogs and northerly winds arose, and for many days they were driven they knew not whither. At length they descried a land without mountains, overgrown with wood, and presenting many gentle elevations ; but as it did not correspond with the descriptions which they had received of Greenland, they left it to the larboard, and pursued their course for two days, when they came to another land, which was flat and overgrown with wood. They again stood out to sea, and, after three days' sailing with a southwest wind, perceived a third land, which Biarne discovered to be an island ; but as it did not present an inviting aspect, being mountainous and covered with glaciers, he did not go on shore, but bore away with the same wind, and, after four days' sailing, arrived at Heriulfsnes in Greenland. This was in the summer of 986.
About eight years after this Biarne went on a visit to Eric, Earl of Norway, and related to him his voyage, with an account of the strange lands he had discovered. Biarne's description of the coasts was very accurate, but he was much blamed for not having made himself better acquainted with the country.
In Greenland his voyage had excited much interest, and, on his return, a voyage of discovery was projected.
Among those whose curiosity had been excited by the discovery of the un known lands, was Leif, one of the sons of Eric the Red. This enterprising navigator purchased Biarne's ship, and, having manned it with a crew of thirtyfive men, set sail in quest of strange lands, in the year 1000. The first land they made was that which Biarne had seen last. Here they went on shore; not a blade of grass was to be seen, but everywhere mountains of ice, and between these and the shore one barren plain of slate (hella). This country not appearing to possess any good qualities, they called it Helluland, and put to sea again. This was the land which Biarne had discovered to be an island, and was doubtless Newfoundland, which in modern descriptions is said partly to consist of naked rocky flats where not even a shrub can grow, and therefore called Barrens ; thus corresponding to the island of Helluland first discovered by Biarne. The next land they came to, and where they went on shore, was level, covered with woods, and characterized by cliffs of white sand and a low coast; they called it Markland (Woodland). This country, southwest of Helluland, and distant from it about three days' sail, is Nova Scotia, of which the descriptions given by later writers answers completely to that given by the ancient Northmen of Markland. Leif left this country, and, after two days' sailing with a northeast wind, came to an island eastward of the mainland. They sailed westward, and went on shore at a place where a river issued from a lake and flowed into the
Here they first raised some log-huts, but when they had determined upon passing the winter there, they built commodious houses, which were afterward called Leifsbudir (Leif's booths). Leif then divided his people into two companies, which were alternately to be employed in guarding the houses and in making short excursions. He gave them special instructions not to go farther than would admit of their return on the same evening. It happened one day that one of his followers, a German named Tyrker, was missing. Leif, with a small party, went out to seek him, but they soon met him returning. He informed them that he had not been far, but had discovered vines and grapes, with which he was well acquainted, having been born in a country where vines grew. They had now two employments-hewing of timber for loading the ship, and collecting grapes, with which they filled the long boat. Leif named the country Vinland (Vineland), and in the spring departed thence for Greenland.
The country thus named Vineland, and which is proved to be identical with Massachusetts and Rhode Island, naturally became the theme of much conversation in Greenland ; and Leif's brother, Thorwald, thinking it had not been sufficiently explored, was desirous of making a voyage thither, with a view to more extensive researches. In pursuance of this object he borrowed Leif's ship, and having received his instructions and advice, set sail in the year 1002. They reached Vineland at Leifsbooths, and spent the winter there. In the spring of 1003 Thorwald equipped the ship’s long-boat with a party of his followers for the purpose of making a voyage of discovery southward. They found the country extremely beautiful, but without any appearance of men having been there before them, except on an island to the westward, where they discovered a wooden shed. They did not return to their companions at Leifsbooths until
In the summer of 1004 Thorwald left a party at Leifsbooths, and steering his course first eastward and then northward, passed a remarkable headland enclosing a bay. They called it Kialarnes (Keelcape), from its resemblance to the keel of their ship. This promontory, which modern geographers have sometimes likened to a horn and sometimes to a sickle, is Cape Cod. They sailed along the eastern coast into one of the nearest firths, until they arrived at a promontory entirely overgrown with wood, where they all landed. Thorwald was so much pleased with this spot, that he exclaimed to his companions, "Here it is beau
tiful, and here I should like well to fix my dwelling." He little thought that, instead of being his dwelling, it was so soon to be his burial-place. As they were preparing to go on board, they descried on the sandy beach three hillocks, which, on a near approach, were found to be three canoes, and under each three Skrellings (Esquimaux). A fight ensued : eight of the Skrellings were killed; the ninth escaped with his canoe. Afterward a numerous party rushed upon them from the interior of the bay, and discharged arrows at them. Thorwald and his party endeavored to shield themselves by raising little screens on the ship's side, and the Skrellings at length retired, but not till Thorwald had re ceived a wound under the arm from an arrow. Finding the wound to be mortal, he said to his followers, “ I now advise you to prepare for your departure as soon as possible, but me ye shall bring to the promontory where I thought it good to dwell ; it may be that it was a prophetic word which fell from my mouth about my abiding there for a season ; there shall ye bury me, and plant a cross at my head and also at my feet, and call the place Krossanes (Crossness) in all time coming." He died, and they buried him as he had directed. (Krossanes is, in all probability, Gurnet Point.) After this they rejoined their companions at Leifsbooths, where they spent the winter ; but in the spring of 1005 set sail for Greenland to communicate to Leif the fate of his brother.
When the circumstance of the death and burial of Thorwald was made known in Greenland, Thorstein, Eric's third son, determined on making a voyage to Vineland to fetch his brother's body. He equipped the same ship, and was accompanied by his wife Gudrida : but his design was frustrated; for, after having been tossed about and driven they knew not whither during the whole summer, they landed in the western settlements of Greenland, where Thorstein shortly after died. In the spring Gudrida returned to Ericsford.
This unsuccessful expedition was soon after followed by another, on a larger scale than any of the preceding ones; for it happened that, in the summer of 1006, two ships arrived from Iceland, the one commanded by Thorfinn Karlsefne, a wealthy and powerful man, of illustrious birth; the other by Biarne Grimolfson. Thorfinn was accompanied by Snorre Thorbradson, and Biarne by Thorhall Gamlason. At this time a festival was held at Brattalid, on which occasion the Vineland voyage was the leading topic of conversation, and Thorfinn, being captivated by Gudrida, asked and obtained the consent of her brother-in-law, Leif, to their union, which took place in the course of the winter. On the celebration of these nuptials the Vineland voyage was again the subject of discussion, and Karlsefne was prevailed on, by his wife Gudrida and others, to prosecute a voyage thither and plant a colony. Accordingly three ships were fitted out, and all kinds of live stock taken on board. The first ship was commanded by Thorfinn Karlsefne and Snorre Thorbradson, the second by Biarne Grimolfson and Thorhall Gamlason, and the third by Thorward, who had married Freydisa, the natural daughter of Eric the Red. They mustered one hundred and sixty men, and, being furnished with what was necessary for the occasion, departed in the spring of 1007. After touching at Helluland and Markland, they came to Kialarnes (the Nauset of the Indians), where the trackless deserts, long beaches, and sands, so much excited their wonder, that they called them Furdustrandir (Wonder strands). They passed these, and came to a firth which ran far into the country, and which they called Straumfiördr (Stream firth). On the shore of this firth they landed : the country was beautiful, and they made preparations for a winter residence ; but Thorhall wished to go in quest of Vineland in a north direction. Karlsefne, however, decided on going to the southwest. Thorhall, therefore, with eight men, quitted them, and was driven by westerly gales to the coast of Ireland, where, according to some accounts, they were taken and made slaves. Karlsefne and those that remained with him, in all one hundred