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the city of Leyden-beroic Leyden-to struggle for her new-born liberty through a siege attended by slaughter and famine and all the superadded sufferings and horrors which cruelty could afflict or courage endure. And what was the magnificent answer of these gallant, far-seeing Dutchmen to their grateful stadtholder when he proffered them exemption from taxation as a reward for their matchless constancy and valor Like their descendants, they loved their guilders, but they rejected the proffered boon; with a love of letters only exceeded by their love of country, to a man they exclaimed, “Give us a university!" And thus the great university of Leyden came into the world, where for centuries it has stood and still stands, the proudest monument of Dutch courage and Dutch intelligence. From its ancient and honored halls hosts of illustrious men have gone forth to benefit and bless mankind. Need we do more than name Grotius, the jurist, whose exalted equity and transcendent genius, curbing the violence of war, has given law to the nations, or Boerhaave, the physician, whose world-wide fame, spreading far beyond the uttermost limits of Christendom, brought mighty potentates from Asia to acknowledge his consummate, unequaled skill? My friends, let not such examples be lost.

Heaven has cast our favored lot in the early morning of our national existence; let us in grateful remembrance hand down to our descendants proof of our wise and provident regard in institutions deeply engrafted upon the affections of the people, and which shall brighten and adorn the coming days of our Republic, great and enduring seats of science, where learning and liberty, knowledge and virtue shall flourish side by side with law and order in ever-increasing vigor to the latest moment of time.

Dudley Observatory, the third institution inaugurated as a part of the proposed national university, named after Charles E. Dudley, of Albany, and built and endowed by his widow, was incorporated April 3, 1852. The inaugural address was delivered August 26, 1856, by Edward Everett, during the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The institution ere long received contri. butions to the amount of $150,000. The charge of it was intrusted to Profs. Bache, Henry, Gould, and Peirce. Subsequently Prof. Mitchell was appointed director, and was succeeded by Prof. George W. Hough. The observatory also became afterwards a part of Union University.'

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Profound interest in the general proposition was also shown by the remarks of eminent citizens at the opening of the fifth session of the American Association for the Advancement of Education, held at New York in 1855.

(1) By Alex. Dallas Bache, Superintendent of the Coast Survey, retiring president:

Allow me now, however, before yielding my place, to say a few words upon the themes which, had opportunity been offered, I would have desired to bring in a more appropriate shape before you. These are, a great university, the want of our country, in this our time, and the common school and college, fragments of systems requiring to be united into one. The various efforts made to establish a great university within the last thirty years are well known to you.

A great university, in the full organization of its faculties of science and letters, and, if you please, of law, medicine, and theology, is, I am persuaded, the want of our country.

1 Historical and Statistical Record of the University of the State of New York, pp. 173_'7.

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The mode of organization of such a university I can not now touch upon, but would merely say a few words in regard to the relations which its faculty of sciences would sustain to education generally and to the progress of science.

Such an institution requires a large endowment, not to be expended in costly buildings, but in museums, laboratories, collections of nature and art, and in sustaining liberally a corps of professors worthy of the institution and of the country.

If the common school were so organized as to be fit for all, as it is already in some of our cities; if it led to the high school and college, and then to the university, so that our youths who have the time and talent necessary should find an open way from the beginning to the end of the system, these institutions would help, not hinder each other; waste of time, money, and intellect would be avoided, and the youth of our country be truly educated. 1

(2) By Rev. Charles Brooks, Massachusetts: The Anglo-Saxon blood on this side of the globe must faithfully educate and peacefully lead the other races. It is our destiny and we must fulfill it. We must, therefore, establish a national system of free and universal culture upon the broadest basis of pure democratic republicanism, and then carry it into effect by the united wisdom and the resistless energy of a rich, powerful, intelligent, and Christian people.

Such a system, suited to our thousand years of future growth and nameless millions of inhabitants, will place us at the head of the nations, while it becomes the progressive agency, the conservative power, and the eternal blessing of our national life.

And the natural continuation of this system is the true republican idea of education. Carry out this republican idea, that every child has a right to culture, that every town is bound to see that its children receive education, and it follows that every State is morally and politically bound to develop all the talents that God sends into it, and it is therefore the duty of the State to establish a free college, and thus to carry education still onward and make each child what God designed that he should be. This, I apprehend, is the true republican idea of education. This is the idea which I wish to see established in all the republics of South America; and after all this comes the noble plan which has been so admirably and eloquently described by our retiring president, a university into which the best scholars from our colleges may go and receive from the country such culture of the peculiar talents which each possesses as shall fit him to answer the purpose for which he was born into the world; that he may fill the spot which God ordained that he should fill; that he may work without friction in his own proper place in the world.?

(3) By Prof. Benjamin Peirce, of Cambridge, Massachusetts:

There is one subject spoken of in the address of the retiring president in which, with him, I have taken great interest, and with him have suffered disappointment. It is the establishment of a great university. I can, as he can, speak upon the subject, now at least, with independence. There was a time, when we were engaged in our efforts at Albany, when I should have been willing to embark in such an institution; when, against the entreaties and almost the tears of my family and friends, I should have been willing, for the sake of the cause of education in the country, to have abandoned existing connections with another plan of learning to join that institution. But since that time I have designedly made such engagements as will make it impossible now. I am, therefore, as free as the president to speak upon the subject. It seems to me to have a very close and important connection with the subject referred to by Rev. Mr. Brooks—the duty of the Government to educate every citizen; its duty because, if for no other reason, it is good economy on the part of the State to educate every one of its citizens to the utmost extent; just as good

1 Barnard's Journal of Education, Vol. I, p. 477.

Id., Vol. II, p. 87.

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economy as for the farmer to make the most of every portion of his stock. The State will be benefited by educating every man to the highest point that he can be, and it will by the best investment it can make of its funds to invest them in intellect developed to its utmost capacity.

It seems to me that a great university in connection with the colleges and high schools is of the greatest importance, because it gives the only means of adapting education to every variety of intellect.

I know it is a popular doctrine that genius will find its way; but I doubt whether genius will necessarily be developed of itself. We have another popular doctrine which is much nearer to the truth, which is, that opportunity makes the man. We can not have a great man unless he has ability, but neither can we have a great man who has not an opportunity worthy to develop him. It is important, therefore, that in our public provision for education we should afford this opportunity.'

The oration of Dr. Benjamin Apthorp Gould, the astronomer, on July 15, 1856, before the Connecticut Beta of the Phi Beta Kappa Fraternity of Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut, should also be cited:

The purport of my words to-day is this: Shall our zone-bounded realm, lighted by Southern Cross and Northern Crown, shaded by its fir and larch and palm and vine, bearing in its maternal bosom the hope, not of a hemisphere, but of a world; whose presence is a speck in contrast with its awfully portentous future; with a richness of resources and a teeming wealth surpassing that of any other empire on the earth

shall we Americans never aspire to what suffering Leyden craved, what conquered Prussia looked to for regeneration, and without which all the clustered glories of the Rhine lacked their highest charm No more must the long procession of our youth toil through its weary pilgrimage across the Atlantic wave in search of that mental sustenance which it has the right to demand at the hands of its fatherland.

But it may be asked by some: What means all this clamor for a university when we have already a hundred and twenty-seven in the land, and every year is adding to its numbers?

The reason is very simple. It is not of colleges that we are speaking; it is of a university.

By college I understand the high educational seminary which, if not the most exalted for the students of specialties, is yet the highest for the youth who seek that mental discipline, that classic culture, that literary refinement which must be drawn from the bosom of an alma mater, and of which we say emollit mores nec sinit esse feros.

By “university,” on the other hand, I understand the universitas litterarum, the Tlaverlorhulov, an institution where all the sciences in the complete and rounded extent of their complex whole are cultivated and taught, where every specialty may find its votaries, and may offer all the facilities required by its neophytes. Its aim is not so much to make scholars as to develop scholarship, not so much to teach the passive learner as to educate investigators, and not merely to educate but to spur

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on.

Surely there can be no confusion as to the boundary line between these two distinct institutions. One is designed to answer the demands of the community and of the age; the other to point out the paths and lead our country on to a high, nobler, holier, sublimer eminence than it could otherwise attain or than would otherwise be striven for.

Centralization is a word and an idea now far from popular. But this, like most other principles, has its good as well as evil consequences. And while we, under democratic and republican institutions, feel the full force of the objections to that political centralization under which we see so many nations of the old world tottering and sinking, we are too apt to overlook the incalculable, the unspeakable ad

1 Barnard's Journal of Education, Vol. II, p. 88.

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vantages which flow from the concentrated accumulation of a whole nation's genius and talent.

There is no substitute for the "encounter of the wise." Like that of flint and steel it strikes out without cessation the glowing sparks of truth; like that of acid and alkali it forms new, unexpected, and priceless combinations; like the multiplication of rods in the fagot, it gives new strength to all while taking it from none. A spiritual stimulus pervades the very atmosphere electrified by the proximity of congregated genius, its unseen but ever active energy-floating in the air, whispering in the breeze, vibrating in the nerves, thrilling in the heart-prompts to new effort and loftier aspiration through every avenue which can give access to the soul of man.

Such centralization is eminently distinguished from political centralization, and by this peculiarity, among others, that far from being a combination for the sake of arguing and exercising a greater collective power, it acts, on the contrary, to angment individual influence. While forming a nucleus for scientific, literary, artistic energy, it is not a gravitation center toward which everything must converge and accumulate, but is an organic center whose highest function is to arouse and animate the circulation of thought and mental effort and profound knowledge. It is a nucleus of vitality rather than a nucleus of aggregation.

An intellectual center for a land is a heart, but subject to no induration; it is a brain, but liable to no paralysis; an electric battery which cannot be consumed; it is a sun without eclipse, a fountain that will know no drought. To such a university our colleges would look for succor in their need, for counsel in their doubt, for sympathy in their weal or woe. There is no one of them but would develop to new strength and beauty under its genial emanations; none so highly favored or so great that its resources and powers would not expand; none too lowly to imbibe the vitalizing, animating influences which it would diffuse like perfume.

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We want no university keeping up with the times and commending itself to the public approval. We want one which shall be just as far ahead of the age as is consistent with being within bail; which shall enlarge and expand the mind and taste and appreciation of the public, compelling the admiration of the public, not soliciting its approval. We want a university which, instead of complying with the demands of the age, shall create, develop, and satisfy new and unheard-of requisitions and aspirations—which, so far from adapting itself to the community, shall mold that community unto itself, and which through every change and every progress shall still be far in advance of the body social, guiding it, leading it, urging it, drawing it, pulling it, hauling it onward.

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The university will contain a soul, a restless, striving, throbbing, impelling, shaping, creative vitality; and will become, not an Italian, nor a French, nor an English, nor a Spanish, nor a German, but preëminently an American university-glowing with American fire, pulsating with American aspirations, and, strange as the words may sound to us to-day, radiating with what will then be American scholarship, American depth of thought, American thoroughness of research, American loftiness of generalization.

It will bring the refining power of ancient lore and classic elegance to balance and counteract the all-pervading tendency to mere material science; it will leaven the tone of thought throughout the world by introducing the precision of exact science where the vagueness and confusion of the school men have long reigned; it will lift the philosophical and philological sciences to a far higher scope and standard as specialties, while it unfetters the struggling mind from the incubus of an antiquity which recoguizes no progress, a conservatism which excludes all things which are or ever have been new. For I assure you that there never existed a university which surrendered either to conservatism or radicalism; uever a university which was not eminently nationalizing in its tendency.

Under the most absolute despotisms the uuiversities have been

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nurseries of political liberty; under the most intolerant of creeds they have fostered freedom of thought.

Found the American university and throngs of European youth shall crowd its balls, carrying back with them American ideas to ennoble their own lands, bringing hither with them counterpoises of transatlantic thought that shall ennoble ours, and both by their coming and their going cementing the family of nations in bonds of mutual sympathy and attachment; found it, though it cost the whole revenues of a capital. Let earth, air, and sea bring their tribute; let California and India pour in their gold, and the busy marts of men their gains, till this great work is done. Thus shall we achieve the glory of a nation, the welfare of a continent, the advancement of the race, and crown the clustering hopes of humanity with more than full fruition. 1

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The paper contributed by "An Alabamian” (possibly the able president of the University of Alabama) to the American Journal of Education, in 1857, is in the same vein:

That end is the enlistment of the United States of America in the enterprise of founding a great national university. This can only be accomplished through the million. A people is to be enlightened in regard to a thing which they can not comprehend, but which, by possibility, they may be made to apprehend sufficiently to lead to action. What grander labor ever awaited performance! It is to be done, if at all, through the instrumentality of American scholars. They are fully alive to its importance, but they contemplate with aching hearts the diftilculty of the task.

Here, then, we may rehearse in brief the three chief reasons why the idea of an American university, so timely and beneficent in its conception and so respectably enunciated to the world, seems to have fallen immediately into oblivion.

1. A want of confidence in the permanency of the Federal Union.

2. A lack of ability on the part of the people to discern the need of such an insti. tution.

3. The inadequacy of the means hitherto employed in its promotion.

We are in pressing need of an American university. We can have one if we will. Let us use the requisite means. We have excellent colleges; let them be sustained We have excellent State universities, (so called); let the States rally to their sup port. But the more these are multiplied and patronized, the louder and more urgent is the demand for a national university.

In order to be national it should be located upon common ground. Under existing circumstances it would be wholly impracticable in New York, or Alabama, or anywhere outside the District of Columbia. The Smithsonian Institution and the National Observatory form a worthy nucleus. If each State should appropriate $200,000 toward an endowment a fund would thus be created of more than six millions, upon the strength of which a very respectable beginning could be made. Its permanent nationality would seem to require that each State be equally represented, both in the fund and in the management.

And it may not be amiss to add that a great Southern university is already spoken of; the establishment of which would defeat forever the project herein considered. It would doubtless be followed (if not preceded) by a great Northern university, and then a great Western university. There would then be three grand centers of attraction and influence, tending rather to destroy than cement the Union. To avert such a consequence, let the plan of an American university be matured without unnecessary delay. Sectional enterprise can not long be held in abeyance. Shall we hear a response from the North ? 2

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1 Barnard's Jour, of Education, 1856, pp 273–293.
Jour. of Education, Vol III, p. 215.

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