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As President, I have no eyes but constitutional eyes

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We are in danger of forgetting that a strong public desire to improve the public condition is not enough to warrant achieving the desire by a shorter cut than the constitutional way of paying for the change.

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But when men have realized that time has upset many fighting faiths, they may come to believe even more than they believe the very foundations of their own conduct that the ultimate good desired is better reached by free trade in ideasthat the best test of truth is the power of the thought to get itself accepted in the competition of the market, and that truth is the only ground upon which their wishes safely can be carried out. That, at any rate, is the theory of our Constitution. It is an experiment, as all life is an experiment. Every year if not every day we have to wager our salvation upon some prophecy based upon imperfect knowledge. While that experiment is part of our system I think that we should be eternally vigilant against attempts to check the expression of opinions that we loathe and believe to be fraught with death, unless they so imminently threaten immediate interference with the lawful and pressing purposes of the law that an immediate check is required to save the country:- Justice OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES.

Checks and balances were established in order that this should be “a government of laws and not of men.

The doctrine of the separation of powers was adopted by the Convention of 1787, not to promote efficiency but to preclude the exercise of arbitrary power. The purpose was, not to avoid friction, but, by means of the inevitable friction incident to the distribution of the governmental powers among three departments, to save the people from autocracy.—Justice Louis D. BRANDEIS.

I am not unconscious of the seriousness of this present moment. There is so much at stake; such an inheritance to pass on to our children.

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It goes back 2,000 years at least. It goes back to a time when a group of men were talking with one another on the shore of Galilee, and one of them was a young man 33 years of age. A coin was produced, with the image and superscription of Caesar upon it, and a question was asked and an answer was given: "Render unto Caesar (the state) the things that are Caesar's, but unto God the the things that are God's."

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Those who heard these words must have sensed in the deeper implication of them the greatest challenge to the totalitarian philosophy that was ever let loose upon this planet: that you don't need to render everything unto Caesar; that there is a line of jurisdiction between Caesar, the state, and God and God's creature, man,

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In that Constitution, which places limits upon Caesar, which says, “Thus far thou shalt go, and no farther"-a government of limited power and the great rights of man safeguarded by the Bill of Rights of the American Constitution—they again said the same thing that Jefferson had said in the Declaration of Independence and Christ had said at Galilee, because the Supreme Court of the United States on at least two occasions has stated that the Constitution of the United States is but the letter and the page of which the Declaration of Independence is the spirit and the soul. ---Congressman Samuel B. PETTENGILL.

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CONTROL OF FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE

REPORT

OF

SPECIAL SUBCOMMITTEE

TO THE

COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS

UNITED STATES SENATE

ON

STUDY OF PERNICIOUS EFFECT OF FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE AS IT EXISTS IN MEXICO AND ELSEWHERE, PROGRESS OF PROGRAM TO PREVENT ENTRY OF THE DISEASE INTO THE UNITED STATES, THE MOST EFFECTIVE METHODS OF COMBATING AND CONTROLLING THE DISEASE, AND THE PROPER LOCATION FOR THE

AUTHORIZED RESEARCH FACILITIES

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COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS

STYLES BRIDGES, New Hampshire, Chairman CHAN GURNEY, South Dakota

KENNETH MCKELLAR, Tennessee C. WAYLAND BROOKS, Illinois

CARL HAYDEN, Arizona CLYDE M, REED, Kansas

ELMER THOMAS, Oklahoma JOSEPH H. BALL, Minnesota

MILLARD E. TYDINGS, Maryland HOMER FERGUSON, Michigan

RICHARD B. RUSSELL, Georgia KENNETH S. WHERRY, Nebraska

PAT MCCARRAN, Nevada GUY CORDON, Oregon

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming LEVERETT SALTONSTALL, Massachusetts THEODORE FRANCIS GREEN, Rhode Island MILTON R. YOUNG, North Dakota

DENNIS CHAVEZ, New Mexico
WILLIAM F. KNOWLAND, California
HENRY C. DWORSHAK, Idaho

EVERARD H. SMITH, Clerk

SPECIAL SUBCOMMITTEE ON CONTROL OF FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE

KENNETH S. WHERRY, Nebraska, Chairman MILTON R, YOUNG, North Dakota.

ELMER THOMAS, Oklahoma Acting Chairman.

RICHARD B. RUSSELL, Georgia

THEODORE FRANCIS GREEN, Rhode Island EARL W. COOPER, Professional Staf Member

CONTROL OF FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE

Basis OF STUDY AND REPORT

On June 14, 1948, 6 days before the adjournment of the second session of the Eightieth Congress, a supplemental estimate was submitted to the Senate and referred to the Committee on Appropriations for an appropriation of $5,500,000 as the initial amount of a program totaling $30,000,000 for construction of research facilities for scientific investigations of foot-and-mouth and other animal diseases.

The supplemental estimate was considered in connection with the second deficiency appropriation bill, 1948, and Senate Report No. 1769 on the bill contains the following statement of the Committee on Appropriations:

The committee thoroughly discussed the establishment of the authorized research facilities for the study of methods of preventing foot-and-mouth disease in animals, and it came to the conclusion that the subject is so fraught with danger to the animal herds of this country that further scrutiny of it is essential. In particular, the committee has concluded it is necessary to study the proper methods of procedure and exactly the proper location of the research facilities.

The committee recommends, therefore, that the Department of Agriculture conduct the necessary survey and report to the Senate Committee on Appropriations when the next Congress convenes on the best possible means to be utilized in preventing within the United States the occurrence of this animal disease. In the meantime, it is the intention of the committee, through an appropriate subcommittee, to study the pernicious effect of the illness as it exists in Mexico and elsewhere, and endeavor to determine the most effective methods of combating the disease.

MEMBERS AND STAFF CONDUCTING THE STUDY Senator Kenneth S. Wherry, of Nebraska, was named by Chairman Bridges in August as chairman of the special subcommittee, but he was compelled to withdraw from the investigation due to the illness of his brother.

Senator Milton R. Young, of North Dakota, was requested to take charge of the investigation as acting chairman. He directed the planning for the investigation and remained in charge of the group during the entire study.

Senator Elmer Thomas, of Oklahoma, remained with the group until their return from Mexico, when other engagements compelled him to return to Oklahoma City. He again joined the group on their inspection of Prudence Island in Narragansett Bay, R. I.

Senator Richard B. Russell, of Georgia, remained with the group until their return from Mexico, when other engagements compelled him to return to Georgia.

Senator Theodore Francis Green, of Rhode Island, remained with the group during the entire study.

In addition to the members of the special subcommittee, other Senators participated in the investigation, as follows:

Senator Leverett Saltonstall, of Massachusetts, joined the group on their inspection of Prudence Island in Narragansett Bay, R. I.

Senator William F. Knowland, of California, arranged for and participated in the hearing held at San Francisco, Calif.

Senator Edward J. Thye, of Minnesota, chairman of a subcommittee on the same subject from the Agriculture and Forestry Committee, participated in the hearing held at El Paso, Tex.

Dr. William A. Hagan, dean of New York State Veterinary College at Cornell University, was named as adviser to the special subcommittee on veterinary matters. He remained with the group during their investigations in Mexico, when other engagements compelled him to return to Ithaca, N. Y. He again joined the group on their inspection of Prudence Island in Narragansett Bay, R. I.

Nr. Albert K. Mitchell, Tequesquite Ranch, Albert, N. Mex., was named as adviser to the special subcommittee in behalf of the range livestock group. His engagements prevented him from joining the group on their investigations.

Mr. W. S. Moscrip, Twin City Milk Producers Association, St. Paul, Minn., was named as adviser to the special subcommittee in behalf of the dairymen's group. His engagements prevented him from joining the group on their investigations.

Mr. Earl W. Cooper, member of the professional staff of the Appropriations Committee, accompanied the group and assisted the subcommittee in gathering information for their investigations.

Mr. Ralph E. Hanson, of Aberdeen, S. Dak., was named as consultant to the special subcommittee, and accompanied the group during their investigations in Mexico and of the border activities at Laredo and El Paso, Tex.

Miss Patricia Byrne, of Senator Young's office, was named as ex officio clerk of the subcommittee, and accompanied the group to assist the members in clerical duties.

Dr. B. T. Simms, Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry, Department of Agriculture, accompanied the group to Fargo, N. Dak., and participated in the hearing there. He also accompanied the group on their inspection of Prudence Island in Narragansett Bay, R. I.

Dr. M. R. Clarkson, head of the Inspection and Quarantine Division, Bureau of Animal Industry, Department of Agriculture, accompanied the group during their entire study, participated in the hearings, and aided the subcommittee as technical adviser.

Other representatives of the Department of Agriculture as well as other Government agencies assisted the subcommittee at various points in connection with the investigation.

EXTENT OF INVESTIGATION BY THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE The special subcommittee began its investigations with a public hearing held at Justin Morrill Hall, of the North Dakota Agricultural College at Fargo, N. Dak., on November 8. In addition to Department of Agriculture representatives, the subcommittee heard statements from veterinary, livestock, and related interests from the four States of North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Minnesota.

Transportation for the special subcommittee was furnished by the Air Force in special mission aircraft. The subcommittee traveled over

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