adequate safety-valves. Eventually, however, the pressure may become too great for even a democratically organized Orient -if such can be conceived-to refrain from relieving it by forcing entrance for its population into territory of high-standard peoples.

It is indeed true that important influences are at work to mitigate the rivalry of nations. The progress of invention is making possible the extraction of increasing amounts of utility from any given quantity of raw material; conservation policies are husbanding the wealth available for high-standard peoples; there are vast natural resources yet untouched; the lowering of the birth-rate throughout the world is tending to lessen the pressure of population for an outlet.

Nevertheless it is apparent from the preceding analysis that the nations of the world, as now constituted, cannot be expected always to reconcile their divergent interests without resort to force. The divergencies are likely to be too great at times for even arbitration to discover means of reconciliation.


What then shall be said? Can no practical principles of action be discovered? Is the problem of producing a permanent international peace utterly hopeless?

Not so. For the analysis previously given points very definitely to the fundamental principle that will ultimately lead to a solution. That principle is this. Let there be produced sufficient likeness among the peoples of the world, and harmonious organization based on sympathy will follow of itself. If there be created a sufficient likeness among all peoples in ideals of progress, in the desire for the betterment of the entire human race, and in other equally important mental and moral respects, then world harmony, based on sympathy, will ultimately develop in the same way that the present harmony within homogeneous nations has resulted, in large part, from a sympathy spontaneously created by resemblance in race, language, religion and customs.

Already there is a world-wide interest in practical projects. for human betterment. All ethical religions foster this ideal.

The common people instinctively favor it. Many leaders of opinion are thoroughly imbued with the spirit of it. Already there is partial internationality in science-especially in medicine on this basis, and a partial rapprochement of even the most divergent of religions. International congresses and junketing expeditions of great variety are held, and many undertakings requiring joint action by several nations have been successfully completed. The production of a mental and moral like-mindedness among the peoples (not the governments) of the world-a like-mindedness which transcends all difference of race, religion, language and customs-has thus begun on a considerable scale. In the language of sociology, there has thus begun on a large scale a common response to similar stimuli, a response which is both the resultant of common interest in human progress and a creator of that common interest.

It remains to multiply like responses of this sort until a mental and moral resemblance transcending resemblances of race, language, religion and customs develops among the peoples of the world, and until a resulting spontaneous and largely unpremeditated sympathy throughout the world becomes the supreme basis of human relations. When such conditions. obtain, international peace will become as stable as the internal harmony of homogeneous nations is now. Temporary appeal to the interests of nations will of course be found expedient from time to time. The production of likeness in ideals for human betterment, however, and the furthering of projects that will create mental and moral likeness among the peoples of the world must become the fundamental and final principle of action for all who hope for a permanent, as distinguished from a temporary, international peace.


Now, therefore, we approach the practical suggestions promised at the outset. It should be said here, however, that the suggestions about to be made are intended merely as illustrations of the sort of thing which the fundamental principle requires. They are but a few of the possible practical plans which should be

developed for the purpose of putting the fundamental principle at work.

Practical suggestions for the production of mental and moral resemblance throughout the world divide themselves naturally into two parts. First, those which by lessening differences in race, religion, language and customs, tend to produce toleration. Second, those which create new stimuli of a character calculated to evoke similar responses from the people (not the governments) of the world, and thus create like-mindedness in the people themselves. To some extent, the fact of increasing inter-communication is in itself producing toleration. The systematic encouragement of travel and of discussion, consciously intended for the production of toleration, is also having its effect. Projects consciously inaugurated for the systematic production of like-mindedness by the discovery of new bases of common interest and common response do not, however, seem to have been so well organized. Apparently in the inauguration of international undertakings, attention has been centered chiefly upon obtaining coöperation among national governments, or among particular classes of men in each nation. Possibly attempts to obtain a wide, common response to undertakings of world-interest by the peoples back of the governments have been few because the full significance of such attempts has not been recognized. Men may have shrunk from the inevitable outcome of such attempts, if successful, namely the ultimate establishment of a permanent central executive organization responsible not to the national governments, but to the peoples of the world back of all governments. That final permanent international peace can come, however, only on the basis of world-wide like-mindedness is the chief contention of this essay. If this contention is correct, advocates of international peace must not only adopt policies calculated to produce like-mindedness, but must not shrink from the endeavor to produce the central executive organization-the natural result of like-mindedness, and in itself, if established, a creator of like-mindedness.

From the standpoint of producing like-mindedness it is of comparatively small moment what one of a number of possible

projects is used for the initial attempt. It is of supreme importance only that the project chosen should be the one most likely to succeed in evolving common response and coöperation.

The practical suggestions which follow, therefore, are based on these two notions: first, the desirability of creating likemindedness among the peoples of the world on a plane above race, religion, language and customs; and second, the desirability of creating a central executive organization, so far as possible responsible to the peoples behind each national government, rather than responsible to constituent governments. They suggest action on the basis of combining the two most stable forms of harmonious organization, namely, the sympathy form growing out of like-mindedness, and the democratic-control-expert-executive form of the utility type.


The first suggestion under the principles thus outlined is that there be established a world consular staff, to assume some at least of the functions of the present national consular services. The first duty undertaken by a world consular service would be to systematize, for the benefit of business the world over, such investigations as are now carried on in a somewhat haphazard way by each national consular service. By centralization, much duplication of effort would be eliminated and a much more comprehensive plan of investigation carried out. The results, as now, would be available for all business men of all nationalities. From the beginning, so far as possible, the chief executives of such a consular staff should be elected by the people of each nation, rather than appointed by governments-the purpose of this being to create in each voter the world over, some sense of participation in a world-undertaking, and to some extent a sympathy with other voters the world over. The cost both of the consular service and of the election of the executive officers of the service should be met, not by appropriations from national governments, but by a fixed percentage of the revenues of each nation. The usefulness of the service itself to all the people of the world would be, eventually, the guarantee that the contribution of this percentage would be maintained. Pro

posed changes in the percentage would ultimately have to be submitted to the voters of all peoples.

The suggestion as thus outlined is an ideal not likely to be soon realized, but it is possible that some beginning toward a world consular service could be provided for by the peace treaty to be signed at the close of the present war. Such a beginning might well be a provisional world-chamber of commerce, organized on the basis of constituent national chambers, the character and organization of which should be provided for in the treaty. The subject will hardly receive notice during the peace negotiations, however, unless, as the result of previous publicity and discussion, the possibilities of world organization latent in the proposition are fully realized.


The second suggestion for the production of world-wide like-mindedness is that there be undertaken a world investigation into the natural resources of the earth, and that a central world-conservation investigation commission be created. the present time the conservation movement is organized on national rather than on world-wide lines, and the natural result is to strengthen local rather than international sympathy. The principle of scientific management would become much more effective if adopted from a world standpoint. Moreover, there is no reason why the results of a world-wide conservation investigation should not produce recommendations that, through appeals to the peoples back of the national governments, the governments themselves would be forced to heed. The machinery for the conservation investigation might develop out of the world consular service or become a part of the work of that service.

The third suggestion for the production of world-wide likemindedness is that there be established a central bureau of advice and information on all "human betterment" projects. Thus far we have not advanced beyond the point of developing national bureaus of commerce and labor, hygiene, child welfare and other similar interests, and of holding "international congresses." A permanent world bureau would be far more systematic in the dissemination of knowledge of successful experiments. It would also tend to create world sympathy. With

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