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son of two men of considerable note in the medical profession, and was born at Lauffen in Franconia in 1695. He studied medicine at Nuremberg with so much reputation, that he was appointed director of the academy of the “ Naturae Curiosorum,” and, in conjunction with some of the members of the society, began a periodical work at Nuremberg in 1731, called “Commercium Litterarium ad rei Medicae et Scientiae naturalis incrementum institutum.” In this he inserted many useful papers, as far as the fifteenth volume, which, appeared in 1745, and published from time to time some splendid botanical works. He died in 1769. His principal works are, 1. “De vasis lingua salivalibus,” in a letter addressed to Haller, Nuremberg, 1734, 4to. 2. “Dissertatio de differentiis quibusdam inter hominem natum et nascendum intercedentibus,” ibid. 1736, 4to. 3. “Icones posthuma: Gesnerianae,” ibid. 1748, fol. These plates of Gesner came to him by purchase, as we have already noticed in our account of that celebrated botanist. 4. “Selectarum Plantarum Decades,” Vienna, 1750, fol. 5. “Librorum Botanicorum libri duo, quorum prior recentiores quosdam, posterior plerosque antiquos ad annum 1550 usque excusos recenset,” Nuremberg, 1752, fol. 6. “Plantae selectae quarum imagines ad exemplaria naturalia Londini in hortis curiosorum nutrita, manu artificiosa pinxit Georgius Dionysius Ehret, &c.” 1754, fol. His liberality to Ehret we have already recorded. (See EHRET.) 7. “Cedrorum Libani historia,” Nuremberg, 1757, 4to. In 1750 he engaged an artist to copy Mrs. Blackwell's plates, and himself supplied several defects in the drawings. He also substituted some entirely new figures in the room of the originals, very considerably reformed and amplified the text, translated it into German and Latin; and planned the addition of a sixth century of plates, but he did not live to finish this. The fifth century was published in 1765, and Dr. Trew dying in 1769, the supplemental volume, exhibiting plants omitted byMrs. Blackwell, articles newly introduced into practice, and figures of the poisonous species, was conducted by Ludwig, Bose, and Boehmer, and printed in 1773. Thus
reformed, Trew’s edition surpasses any other work of the same design."
* Eloy, Dict. Hist, de Medecine.—Pulteney's Sketches.—Haller's Bibl. Bot.
TRIBONIANUS, an eminent Roman lawyer, and the object of equal praise and censure, was a native of Side in Pamphylia, and esteemed a man of extensive learning. He is said to have written, both in prose and verse, on many subjects of philosophy, politics, astronomy, &c. but none of his writings have descended to us. From the bar of the praetorian praefects, he raised himself to the honours of questor, consul, and master of the offices. His knowledge of the Roman law induced Justinian the emperor to place him at the head of a committee of seventeen lawyers, who were to exercise an absolute jurisdiction over the works of their predecessors, from which they compiled the DIGEST or PANDECTs, which go by that emperor's name. Tribonianus has been represented by some writers as an infidel, and by others as extremely avaricious, and tampering with the laws to gratify this propensity. The former of these charges Mr. Gibbon very naturally wishes to impute to bigotry, but the latter is generally admitted. His oppressions were at one time so much the subject of complaint as to procure a sentence of banishment, but he was soon recalled, and remained in favour with Justinian for above twenty years. Tribonianus is supposed to have died about the year 546."
TRIGLAND (JAMEs), a learned divine, was born May 8, 1652, at Harlem. He acquired great skill in the Oriental languages, and the Holy Scriptures, of which he was professor at Leyden, in the place of Anthony Hulsius, and died in that city, September 22, 1705, aged fifty-four, after having been twice rector of the university there. He left several works and “Dissertations on the sect of the Caraites,” and other curious and important subjects. He also published the “Tribus Judaeorum” of Serarius, Drusius, and Scaliger, or a dissertation on the three remarkable sects, the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes, Delphis, 1703, 2 vols. 4to.”
TRIMMER (SARAH), a very ingenious lady, and a zealous promoter of religious education, was the daughter of Joshua and Sarah Kirby, and was born at Ipswich, Jan. 6, 1741. Her father, known in the literary world as the author of Taylor’s “Method of Perspective made easy,” and “The Perspective of Architecture,” was a man of an
h Gibbon's Hist. and references.—Saxii Onomast. * Moreri...—Dict. Hist. de L'Avocat.
excellent understanding, and of great piety: and so high was his reputation for knowledge of divinity, and so exemplary his moral conduct, that, as an exception to their general rule, which admitted no layman, he was chosen member of a clerical club in the town in which he resided. Under the care of such a parent it may be supposed she was early instructed in those principles of Christianity, upon which her future life and labours were formed. She was educated in English and French, and other customary accomplishments, at a boarding-school near Ipswich ; but at the age of fourteen she left Ipswich, with her father and mother, to settle in London, where Mr. Kirby had the honour of teaching perspective to the present king, then prince of Wales, and afterwards to her majesty. Miss Kirby, being removed from the companions of her childhood, passed her time during her residence in London in the society of people more advanced in life, and some of them persons of eminence in the literary world. Among these may be numbered, Dr. Johnson, Dr. Gregory Sharpe, Mr. Gainsborough, Mr. Hogarth, &c. By Dr. Johnson she was favoured with particular notice. The circumstance which first attracted his attention, was a literary dispute at the house of sir Joshua Reynolds, respecting a passage in the “Paradise Lost,” which could not be decided. Mr. Kirby, who, as well as his daughter, was present, inquired if she had not the book in her pocket, it being a great favourite of hers, and he probably knowing that it then made a part of her daily studies. The book was accordingly produced, and opened at the disputed part. Dr. Johnson was so struck with a girl of that age making this work her pocket companion, and likewise with the modesty of her behaviour upon the occasion, that he invited her the next day to his house, presented her with a copy of his “Rambler,” and afterwards treated her with great consideration. As the society in which she lived whilst in London was of rather too grave a cast for so young a person, she naturally had recourse to her favourite employment for recreation, and spent much time in reading. In this pursuit she was directed by her father, and from his conversation and instruction her mind acquired a thirst after knowledge, and was gradually opened and enlarged. Drawing was another occupation of her leisure hours: to this, however, she applied rather in compliance with the wishes of her father, than to gratify any inclination she felt for it. At his desire she went occasionally, under the care of a female friend, with other young people, to the society for promoting Arts, and once obtained a prize for the second-best drawing. Two or three miniatures, copies from larger pictures, are remaining of her painting, which, though not in the first style, are sufficiently good to show, that in this art she might have excelled, had her taste prompted her to pursue it. The knowledge of drawing, which she had acquired while young, became very useful to her when she was a mother, as it enabled her to amuse her children when in their infancy, and likewise to direct them afterwards in the exercise of their talents in that way. About 1759, Mr. Kirby removed to Kew, upon being appointed clerk of the works in that palace, and there his daughter became acquainted with Mr. Trimmer, and at the age of twenty-one, she was united to him, with the approbation of the friends on both sides. Mr. Trimmer was a man of an agreeable person, pleasing manners, and exemplary virtues; and was about two years older than herself. In the course of their union, she had twelve children, six sons and six daughters. From the time of her marriage till she became an author, she was almost constantly occupied with domestic duties; devoting herself to the nursing and educating of her children. She used to say, that as soon as she became a mother, her thoughts were turned so entirely to the subject of education, that she scarcely read a book upon any other topic, and believed she almost wearied her friends by making it so frequently the subject of conversation. Having experienced the greatest success in her plan of educating her own family, she naturally wished to extend that blessing to others, and this probably first induced her to become an author. Soon after the publication of Mrs. Barbauld's “Easy Lessons for Children,” about 1780, Mrs. Trimmer was very much urged by a friend to write something of the same kind, from an opinion that she would be successful in that style of composition. Encouraged by this opinion, she began her “Easy Introduction to the knowledge of Nature,” which was soon completed, printed, became very popular, and still keeps its place in schools and private families. The design of it was to open the minds of children to a variety of information, to induce them to make observations on the works of nature, and to lead them up to the universal parent, the creator of this world and of all things in it. This was fol. lowed by a very valuable series of publications, some of the higher order, which met with the cordial approbation of that part of the public who considered religion as the only basis of morality. Into the motions of a lax education, independent of the history and truths of revelation, whether imported from the French or German writers, or the production of some of our own authors, misled by the vanity of being thought philosophers, Mrs. Trimmer could not for a moment enter; and therefore in some of her later publications, endeavoured with great zeal to stop that torrent of infidelity which at one time threatened to sweep away every vestige of Christianity. She was also an early supporter and promoter of Sunday-schools, and at one time had a long conference with her majesty, who wished to be made acquainted with the history, nature, and probable utility of those schools. But the fame she derived from her meritorious writings was not confined to schools. She had the happiness of hearing that her books were approved by many of our ablest divines, and that some of them were admitted on the list of publications dispersed by the Society for promoting Christian knowledge. One of her best performances was rendered very necessary by the circumstances of the times. It was a periodical work, which she continued for some years, under the title of “The Guardian of Education.” She was led to this by observing the mischief that had crept into various publications for the use of children, which occasioned her much alarm, and she feared, if something were not done to open the eyes of the public to this growing evil, the minds of youth would be poisoned, and irreparable injury be sustained. There was indeed just cause for alarm, when it was known that the two principal marts for insidious publications of this kind, were under the management of men who had only avarice to prompt them, and were notorious for their avowed contempt for religion. This estimable woman died suddenly, in the sixty-ninth year of her age, Dec. 15, 1810. As she was sitting in her study, in the chair in which she was accustomed to write, she bowed her head upon her bosom, and expired. Her children, who were accustomed to see her occasionally take repose in this manner, could scarcely persuade themselves that she was not sunk in sleep : and it was not till after some time that they could be made to believe that it