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fected with the canker, that disease may be seen oozing through the Composition and adhering to the outside, like copper dust, or ruft of iron, and may be easily rubbed off with the hand. This appearance. I never could observe on the application of any other Composition ; which confirms my belief that it acts as a strong ; stimulant.

When the wounds in fruit trees are so large as not to heal up in the course of a twelvemonth, I renew the Composition annually, which, on its application, invigorates the trees, and seems to have the same effect on them as a top-dressing of dung has on land.

I have been solicited by some of my friends to add a chapter on forcing Grapes, Peaches, and Nectarines; and to give a de- scription of a house for that purpose; but as it would swell the book to too great a fize, and as the subject is fully treated of by many others, it seems unnecessary to say anything farther here, than just to observe, that the method of pruning and training recommended in this book is equally applicable to trees in a forcing-house as to those on a natural wall. When Vines are trained straight up the rafters of hot-houses, they throw out a few eyes only at top, and all the rest of the branch becomes naked; but when trained in a serpentine manner, they break equally..

Dwarf Peaches and Nectarines planted in the pits of forcinghouses Thould be trained horizontally; in which mode they will produce much more fruit than when they are trained fan-fashion.

It must be observed, that the Directions, &c. in the following pages are calculated for the neighbourhood of London ; it will, therefore, be necessary to make allowance, in other climates, for the earliness or lateness of their seasons, both with regard to the time of fruit being in perfection, and also for planting, pruning, &c. For the information of those who are not acquainted with

prac. tical gardening, the following explanation of what is called . Heading-down is given.

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When young trees are planted out from the Nursery, as soon as they begin to break in the Spring, they are cut down to three or four eyes, according to their strength, to furnith them with bearing wood: it this were not done, they would run up in long naked branches, and would not produce one quarter of the fruit which they do when this operation is properly performed. The same holds good in heading all kinds of old trees.

An opinion prevails, particularly in those parts where Appletrees are cultivated to any confiderable extent, that trees never bear well after bicading-down, and that it frequently kills them, This may, no doubt, happen when they are improperly hcadeddown all at once, by giving a sudden check to the fap, the few weak shoots not having strength to draw up what is supplied by the roots; and moreover, not being capable of theltering one another, they are chilled by the cold, and fo rendered at least unproductive, if they are not totally killed. But if heading were done gradually, that is, if every other branch all over the tree were headed at a proper length, cutting as near to those parts where the thoots appear as possible, in the month of February or March, or even as late as May, in the course of the Summer they would throw out fine long thoots. These should not be thortened the first year, unless it be neceilary to thorten a few to fill up

the head of the tree with bearing wood, and that should be done in the following Spring; cutting them to fix or eight inches long, according to their strength. In the next Spring after the first branches are headed, the remaining old branches may be cut out; and these will soon fill the head of the tree with fine bearing wood. In three years, if properly managed, trees so headed will produce a much greater quantity of fruit and of a better quality than they did before the operation was performed.

A

TREATISE

ON THB

CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT

OP

FRUIT TREES, &c.

CHAPTER I.

OF APRICOTS*.

Different Sorts described— Planting and Heading The Manage

ment of decayed Trees-- Pruning of Apricots, and how to Melter them from Cold.

THE Apricot, we are told, came originally from Armenia, whence it takes the name of Armeniaca, and was introduced into this country in 1562.

* We shall enumerate, under their respective heads, the principal sorts of fruit that are propagated in this country ; with the time of their ripening, as near as pollible. It is to be observed, however, that the diversity of seafons, together with that of foil and Situation, will fometimes make a month of difference in the ripening of the fruit.

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Linnæus,

Linnæus, according to the Sexual System, arranges it in the twelfth class, Icofandria Monogynia * ; and comprehends in the genus Prunus, the Apricot, the Cherry, and the BirdCherry; making them only different species of the same genus.

Although the above-mentioned plants are arranged under the same genus, yet the Cherry and Plum will never take upon each other, nor the Apricot upon the Cherry; but the Apricot will take upon all sorts of Plums, except the Brussels.

The Names and Qualities of Apricots commonly cullivated in

England, with the Time of their Ripening.

of July;

1. The Masculine. This is a small roundish fruit. It is the earliest of all the apricots, ripening about the latter end

and is chiefly esteemed for its tart taste. When fully ripe, it is of a red colour towards the fun, and of a greenish yellow on the other side.

2. The Orange. This is pretty large, but rather dry and insipid, and fitter for tarts than for the table. It is of a deep yellow colour when ripe, which is about the latter end of August. This is considered as the best for preserving.

3. The Algiers. This is a flatted oval-shaped fruit, of a straw colour, juicy, and high-flavoured. It ripens about the middle of August.

4. The Roman. This is larger than the Algiers, rounder, of a deep yellow, and not quite so juicy. It is ripe about the middle or latter end of August.

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* Most of our eatable fruits are arranged under this clafs; and it is remarkable, that there is not one poisonous fruit to be found in it.

5. The Turkey. This is larger, and of a deeper colour, than the Roman ; its shape more globular, and the flesh firmer and drier. It ripens about the latter end of August.

6. The Breda (brought from thence to England) is originally from Africa. It is large, round, and of a deep yellow colour; the flesh is soft and juicy. This is an excellent fruit, especially if ripened on a standard.

It ripens about the latter end of August.

7. The Brussels. This is held in very great esteem on account of its bearing so well on standards, or large dwarfs. It is of a middling size, red towards the sun, with many dark spots; and of a greenish yellow on the other side. This has a brisk flavour, is not liable to be mealy or doughy, and is preferred by many to the Breda ; but when the Breda is planted as a standard, the fruit is more juicy and of a richer flavour. This ripens in August on a wall, but not before the latter end of September on standards.

8. The Moor Park, called also Anson's, Temple's, and Dunmore's Breda. This is a fine fruit, and ripens about the latter end of August.

9. The Peach Apricot. This was introduced from Paris, by his Grace the Duke of Northumberland, at Sion-house, in 1767. It is the finest and largest of all Apricots, and is generally thought to be the same as the Moor-Park; but upon a minute examination the leaves will be found to differ. It ripens in August.

10. The Black Apricot. This has been very lately introduced, by Sir Joseph Banks, from France, in which country it is highly esteemed.

The trees that Sir Joseph planted at his seat in Spring Grove, near Hounflow, bore fruit last season, for the first

time

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