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competition, 22.

Electric lamps, decree concern-
ing, 68.

Ely, Prof. R. T., 39 note, 48

competition between, 30; the
two great classes, 337.
EMPLOYERS, combinations of,
here to stay, 10; debt of, to
employes, 172; deny interest
of labor in industry, 296;
fight against labor, 163; or-
ganizations, 53; relations of,
with employes, 158, 162;
right of, to combine as
against labor unions, 344
note; welded together by at-
titude of labor, 128.
question for actuaries, 179;
changes in law of, 178; the
economic view, 178; the law
in New York, 175.
EMPLOYES and provision for in-
jury and pension, 164; as
members of employers' as-
sociations, 57; economy to
provide for welfare of, 165;
sex, age, and nationalities of,

164; wages and hours of la-
bor of, 164.

Encyclopædia Britannica, defin-
ition of competition in, 19.
Engineers' attitude toward re-
duction of hours of labor,

Engineers' threatened strike,

England, conditions in, 364;
Parliamentary inquiry of 1833
in, 367.

Ethical significance, open-price
policy, 122.

Ethical standards, 17.
ETHICS, competition contrary

to, 13; fair trade and higher
business standards and, 355;
sacrificed at the basis of
progress, 14; tendency of,
towards higher standards in
trade, 351.
EVOLUTION and social relations,
14; of competition, II; rights
of the strong against the
weak and, 15; struggle for
existence and, 61; survival of
the rich and powerful and,
16; the human law survival
of all, 16; will the fittest sur-

vive? 32.

Exchange builders, 107.
Exchange, industrial, 101.
Exemption of labor and agricul-
tural associations from anti-
trust laws, 346, 382. See
Chap. XIX.

Factory system, 43.
Failures, liabilities, 266.

Family a coöperative unit, 24.

FARMERS are partly free to
combine, 342; as capitalists,
337; as employers of labor,
338; associations of, in grain
growing states, 331; coöper-
ative creamery, 331; coöper-
ative societies of, 33, 36, 51,
330; organization of, in Illi-
nois, 37 note.


Firemen and engineers, brother-
hoods of, 323.
Fires, losses by, 268.

Fitch, John A., 165 note, 169

note, 168 note.
Fixing re-sale prices, 67.
Florida Fruit Producers' Asso-
ciation, 332.

Foreign trade illusion, 42.

conditions in, 368; law pro-
hibiting unfair competition
in, 372; number of syndicates
in, 372; socialistic conditions
in, 181 note.

Gilds, Medieval, 40, 109.
GOVERNMENT and competition,

27, 219 note; duty of, to see
that prices are maintained,
218; it should be the object of
some department of, to help
manufacturers and dealers,
346; maintains railroad rates,
218; method of purchasing
supplies and letting contracts
by, criticized, 228; work for,
bidding on, 198.

Governors and cotton grow-
ers, 9.

Fraud, false representations Hadley, President, 18-20, 27, 246

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LABOR, aggregation of, 297;
and capital, conflict between,
4; and the farmer, 338; and
the industry it works for,
162; conditions of, and asso-
ciations of employers and
employes, 171; conditions of,
twelve hour shifts, 168; di-
vision of, is coöperation, 25;
in connection with peak
loads, 255; is free, 342; in-
tegration of, a natural devel-
opment, 300; interest of, in
an industry, 293; opposition
of employers to advancement
of, 163; problem of, integra-
tion versus aggregation, 293;
provisions for injury, disa-
bility or death, 172; scheme
of integration of, 297; short-
er hours opposed by certain
associations of, 169; the eight
hour day and, 170; troubles
in, underlying propositions,

LABOR UNIONS, 51, 53; and
competition, 8, 89; and me-
dieval gilds, 40; and social-
ism, 3; approved by courts,
340; as aggregates, 299; at-
titude of, regarding interest
of employes in industries,
296; attitude of, towards
competition, 2; compel em-

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La Follette, Senator, 59-60-61- Macrosty, H. W., 276 note, 365.

63, 80.

LAW, a conservative force,
348; a federal, industrial, like
Interstate Commerce Law,
215; as a rule of conduct,
168; has little meaning to
most men, 347; passed to
curb progress, 349; splitting
hairs with, 124; to regulate
instead of destroy, 341.
LAWS, anti-trust, and social-
ism, 4; confusion of, 76; de-
mand for constructive, 274,
350; destructive, fallen into
disrepute, 350; encourage

brutal competition, 15; favor-
ing labor and farmers' combi-
nations, but denouncing
manufacturers, 314; new, sug-
gested, 353; of Canada
regarding trusts and combina-
tions, 359; of England regard-
ing trusts, 354; theory of anti-
trust, 28.

Legislation, constructive, 347.
Levy, Hermann, 366-367.
Lockout must go, 317.
Lottery, business as a game of
chance, 203.

Louisiana, rice growers' associ-
ations in, 333; class legisla-
tion in, 326.

Mail order houses, 39, 60, 66;
and competition, 31.

and dealers
are not free to combine, 342;
caught between farmers' or-
ganizations and labor unions,
34; timid, 345.
Marketing organizations, 54.
Market price, no tangible exist-

ence, 250.
Massachusetts law against un-
fair competition, 76.

Master and servant notion, 57.
McVey, F. L., 207 note.
Men no longer wish to fight,


Methods of business changing,


MICHIGAN, class legislation in,
327; Grape Growers' Associa-
tion in, 330; Tamarack Asso-
ciation in, 339.
Middleman, 55, 64.

Miles Medical Co. case, 6.
Mill, John Stuart, 20..
MINNESOTA, class legislation in,
327; Farmers' Elevator Com-
pany in, 333; law against un-
fair competition in, 77.
Missouri law limiting size of
corporations, 48.

Mogul Steamship Company
case, 364.

MONOPOLIES, artificial, 28; and
unfair competition, 79; a few
real exist, 29 note; when
trusts are, 48.
Montana, class legislation in,

Napoleon, 42.

Nature is merciless, 15.
Nebraska, class legislation in,
325; law against unfair com-
petition in, 77.

North Carolina, class legisla-
tion in, 327.

Ohio, class legislation in, 327.
One-price policy, 57, 113.
122, 151-156; advances the in-
terests of the public, 227; by
buyers, 153; and labor, 110,
166, 172; better prices not cer-
tain under, 152; blanks used,
144; brutal buying, 190; Com-
mittee on Relations with Em-
ployes and, 164; complaints,
140; control of manner of
bidding and, 198; control of
prices and, 227; danger ahead
of, 109; deals with actual
transactions, 126; definite
economic method, 122; de-
mands concerted action, 120;
discussion of business, 139;
distribution of information,
134; effect of, on competition,
103; ethical significance of,
122; experiment worth trying,
107; failures of, 155; filing of

contracts is the final step, 139;
formed for not less than one
year, 146; form of organiza-
tion of, 132; frankness and
truthfulness, 161; industrial
exchanges, 106; legal, 125,
345; means a higher individ-
ualism, 151-156; means stable
prices, 115; means that sellers
and buyers coöperate to con-
trol fluctuation, 228; method
of operation, 132; notification
of revision of bids, 136; not
like old line pools, 127; open
bidding, 135; order of busi-
ness, 147; parties interested,
108; pension and workmen's
compensation, 188; promotes
fair, uniform, and
and stable
prices, 218; promotes har-
mony between employer and
employe, 163; publicity, 148;
record of proceedings of,
149; relations among mem-
bers of, 158; relations of,
with competing plants, 160;
relations of, with employers
and employes, 162; relations
of, with customers, 190; re-
lations of, with sellers, 203;
relations of, to the public,
158, 225; results of, 114,
150; retail trade and, 110;
revision of bids not fair to
customer, 137; secret advan-
tages and, 141; small manu-
facturer and, 113; some of
the difficulties in organizing,
142; steps to establish, 128;
suppression of unfair prac-
tices by, 218; the big fellow

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