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of 11,851 strikes, or 32.24 per cent of all strikes, were for this cause alone. This cause, in combination with other causes, produced 3,117 strikes, making 40.72 per cent of all strikes attributable in whole or in part to demands for increase of wages.

The next most fruitful cause of strikes was disagreement concerning recognition of union and union rules. This cause alone produced 18.84 per cent of all strikes, and both alone and combined with other causes produced 23.35 per cent of all strikes. Objection to reduction of wages alone and combined with other causes produced 11.90 per cent of all strikes. Demands for reduction of hours alone and combined with other causes produced 9.78 per cent of all strikes.

Of the total number of establishments involved in strikes, 57.91 per cent were involved in strikes caused either in whole or in part by demands for increase of wages.

The most important cause of lockouts was disputes concerning recognition of union and union rules and employers' organization, which cause, alone and combined with various causes, produced nearly one-half of all lockouts and included more than one-half of all establishments involved in lockouts.

The greatest number of strikes that occurred in any one industry was in the building trades, which embraced 26.02 per cent of all strikes and 38.53 per cent of all establishments involved in strikes. In the coal and coke industry were 9.08 per cent of all strikes and 9.39 per cent of all establishments involved in strikes. Many strikes were found in the following industries: Boots and shoes; clothing, men's; foundry and machine shop; and tobacco (cigars and cigarettes). The coal and coke industry included more strikers than any other industry, also more employees thrown out of work. The second industry in order in this respect was the building trades. In the building trades were 16.49 per cent of all lockouts, more than one-half of all the establishments involved, and about 30 per cent of all the employees locked out and of persons thrown out of work.

In 1903 there were 3,494 strikes, a greater number than in any other year. The number was 471 in 1881, the first year of the period, while in 1905 the number was 2,077. More strikers went out in the year 1902 than in any other year, and more employees were thrown out of work in 1894 than in any other year.

Lockouts were more frequent and included more employees in 1903 than in any other year of the period.

In the North Atlantic division were more than one-half of all strikes, establishments involved, strikers, and employees thrown out of work. In the North Central division were almost one-third of the totals in these items named.

The percentages of the total number of strikes in the principal industrial States were as follows: New York, 27.75 per cent; Pennper cent, and Ohio, 6.99 per cent. Of the strikers, 25.12 per cent of

the total number were in Pennsylvania, 21.15 per cent in New York,

13.31 per cent in Illinois, 6.36 per cent in Ohio, and 5.25 per cent in

Massachusetts. These States named were also the States in which
the greatest number of lockouts occurred.

A number of interesting tables have been prepared from the gen-
eral tables shown in the body of the report and are presented in this
chapter. These tables, as well as the general tables, do not include
strikes or lockouts of less than one day's duration. An explanation
of the various terms used in the tables of this report will be found in
the discussion and explanation of the general tables, page 107 et seq.

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0 113

Agricultural implements...

87

93 1.1 16,997 195 22,912

Agriculture

35

131

3.7 13,065 373 13,227

378

Automobiles and bicycles.

79

93

1.2 5,579

71

9,073

115

Awnings, tents, and sails.

10

30

3.0

374

37

374

37

Bakery...

424

6,423

15.1 29,811

70 32,531

77

Blacksmithing and horseshoeing.. 88

2,979 33.9 7,423

81 7,576

86

Boots and shoes.

1,101 1,555 1.4 88,553

80 160,059

145

Brass and brass goods.

119 281

2.4 12,536 105 13,729

115

Brewing.

166

874

5.3 16,651 100 18,177

110

Brick and tile.

332 1,476 4.4 81,391 215 90, 410

Brooms and brushes.

272

42

1.5 1,691

40

Building trades (r).

2,050

9,564 69,899 7.3 917,905

96 01,083,699

Canning and preserving.

48

113

2.4 6,928 144 9,164

191

Car building

614

1.4 66,181

150 89,277

202

Carpets..

175 426 2.4 37,830 216

66,109

375

Carriages and wagons.

125

1,420 11.4 20,512

161 23,351

187

Clothing, men's.

1,147 15,996 13.9 372,214

325

459,059

400

Clothing, women's.

640 4,918 7.7 215,595 337 232,154

303

Coal and coke.

3,336 17,025 5.1 2,006,353 601 2,460,743

738

Collins and undertakers' goods.

15

27

1.8

411

29

916

61

Confectionery

17

39

2.3 1,383

81 2,820

166

Cooperage.

323 1,086 3.4 25,652

79 27,474

85

Cotton and woolen goods.

111

440 4.0 38,308 315

Cotton gools.

64,928

585
605 832 1.3 166,357 250

277,470

117

Cutlery and edge tools.

93

96

1.0

5,202

56

8,402

00

Domestic service..

338

2,924 8.7

31,803

Electric and gas apparatus and

32,212

supplies...

64

111

1,7 6,361

99

Electric light and power.

6,768

106

82

150 1.8 4,117

4,371

53

Flour mill products.

42

89

2.1

3,880

92 4.723

112

Foundry and machine shop..

1,668 4,722 2.8 208, 352 125 282,706

169

Freight handling and teaming

916 5,665 6.2 249,515 272 275,483

301

Furnishing goods, men's...

202

885

21,919 109 30,297

150

Furniture and upholstering..

535 1,551 2.9 51,135 1 101 61,869 116

a Including 1 strike involving nearly all industries in New Orleans, the principal industry affected
being building trades.

STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, STRIKERS, AND EMPLOYEES THROWN

OUT OF WORK, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO 1905-Concluded.

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& Not including 2 strikes involving 33 establishments not reported.

The coal and coke industry was second in importance so far as
number of strikes and establishments involved were concerned, but
first in number of strikers and employees thrown out of work. In
the coal and coke industry there were 3,336 strikes, 17,025 establish-
ments involved, 2,006,353 strikers, and 2,460,743 employees thrown
out of work. The average per strike was 5.1 establishments, 601
strikers, and 738 employees thrown out of work. So far as the aver-
age number of establishments involved was concerned, the strikes in
the coal and coke industry were considerably smaller than the strikes
in the building trades, but both the average number of strikers and
the average number of employees thrown out of work were more
than six times as great in the coal and coke strikes as in the building
trades strikes.

The average number of establishments involved per strike varied

from 1 to 33.9. Two industries averaged 1 establishment each, and

one industry (blacksmithing and horseshoeing) averaged 33.9 estab-

lishments per strike.

• The average number of strikers per strike varied from 29 in the

manufacture of coffins and undertakers' goods to 684 in slaughtering

and meat packing.

The average number of employees thrown out of work per strike

varied from 37 in the manufacture of awnings, tents, and sails to 839

in slaughtering and meat packing.

The average number of strikers and of employees thrown out of work

indicate the size of a strike, but a strike of only a few men in certain
occupations or industries may as successfully tie up the establish-
ment or industry temporarily as a much larger number in other
occupations or industries.

The presentation by States and geographical divisions follows:

STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, STRIKERS, AND EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT

OF WORK, BY STATES AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1881 TO 1905.

(See Table V, pages 480 to 485, for notes relating to general strikes extending into two or more

States.)

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