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27 Instructions to Boards of Examination. 96, 380
88 Instructions to County Superintendents
Intellect in Politics..
29, 60, 94, 129, 1911, 228, 279, 312, 328, 376, 409 Johnny becomes ac quainted with some-
Kindergarten, Prize Essay on Frobel's
Education, Art .....
Lessons, Fri:nary Drawing..
197 School Matters, Contemplated Legislation
279. 412 School Officers, Instructions to.
.29, 60, 94, 196, 225, 279, 312, 379, 409
195 Scieuce and our Educational system.. -20
290 Sei'se, Pcrreption o-Object Teaching .5, 37
382 Siskiyou, Modoc and Sonoma Coun ies,
376 skeleton of Leaves, Preparation of..... 184
Sonoma. Siskiyou and Modoc Counties.
25 Manner of Apportioning School Fund of 382
103, 134, 198 State Board of Education, Meetings of.. 62, 229
57 Siate Board of Examination.. .95, 279, 412
State Norinal School....
10., 134, 198
Statistics of Common Schools of san Fran-
Statistics of Common Scbools of the State. 129
.... 29, 60, 95, 196, 223, 279, 312, 379, 409
23 System of Class Division in Prussia........ 92
53 Teaching, Hints on Methods of
92 Teaching Language, Fundamental Princi-
10, 43 Teaching of Course of Studies, Programme
227 Technical Education, Popular Delusions on 212
312 The Support of Our ('ommon Schools .... 140
166 Tyndall's Youthful Experiences....
180 Use of Rules in the Study of Language.... 324
Valleys and Mountains, Formation of ... 26
376 Various sorts of Tea, Names of..... 23
312 Water, Circulation of, on Surface of the
.69, 106, 1694, 205, 257
82 | Youthful Experiences of Tyndall. 224
(For the California Teacher.] FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING LANGUAGE.
III. Having now spoken, firstly, of the principles of teaching language, I will, secondly, designate what, in my opinion, are the main points in the plan of teaching language; these, however, need not necessarily be considered in the following order :
a. This instruction is to be given conjointly with a readinglesson. The reason why is found in the foregoing. But it is not meant by this that all oral instruction or discussion in regard to language, not connected with a reading-lesson, is to be avoided.
On the contrary, such separate discourse is often advisable.
b. The reading lesson is to be read by teacher and by pupils in conformity with the foregoing requirements, and, when too long or when the ability of the pupils is insufficient, then, by questioning, let it be drawn out by sections or paragraphs from the pupils themselves, or, where possible, let them repeat it by sections.
c. Unintelligible or obscure expressions which, in reading, questioning, and recitation, bave been brought to the notice of the teacher, are to be explained to the pupils and erroneous ideas corrected.
d. The reading lesson is to be considered in its separate sections—that is, the principal or larger groups are to be noticed.
e. The different thoughts contained in the separate sections or larger groups of thoughts, are to be so brought out that the learner becomes a rare of them. By mere reading these thoughts pass in too quick succession through the child's mind, so that, often, the chill does not know what he has read.
f. The particular manner of utterance or expression of these separate thoughts is remarkel upon, also the reference or rela. tion of these thoughts to each other, and here with we enter upon the proper and peculiar sphere of instruction in language. IIere the attention is to be fixed upon the separate sentences of the reading lesson, and the pupils must learn to perceive the signification of the pbrases and separate parts of the sentence, their relation to the complete sentence and the ideas and forms of words, etc., thus introduced. Still further, this will lead us to notice classes and families of words, separate words, and the manner of writing them. In this treatment of Instruction in Language in its essential characteristics, I would offer to consideration the following points confirmed by my own experi. ence:
1. Not to direll too long upon the reading of one and the same picce. In general but few lessons are to be given to one selection. Otherwise, besides the danger of losing the interest of the pupil, we also fail of our aim in bringing before the young mind many and varied forms and structures of language-language pictures-and neglect many other things already mentioned. What one is thus olliged to omit in regard to one piece selected for reading, can be introduced in regard to future oncs.
2. In this method of linking instruction in language to a read. ing lesson, it is necessary to keep to some systemutic order of gradual progress. By this I mean that the teacher is not to lay holl indiscriminately of some reading lesson and then speak promiscuously of grammar, orthography, etc.; but that, having fixed upon the subject matter to be taught anl arranged it in the form of a successive scries, he shall, in connection with this selection for reading, take up one or more of these themes according to their order. Whatever is introduced that is new