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The anticipated violation of Persian law, by persons amenable to that law, is no ground for denying treaty rights of resideuce and calling to the menaced alien when he himself shall conform to law.
Moreover, the fifth article of our treaty provides for the orderly and legal settlement of all suits and disputes between Persian subjects and citizens of the United States before the competent tribunal. What “trouble and disputes” not comprehensible under this article are intended by his excellency I am unable to conjecture. It is regretted that his excellency did not "bring these objections plainly to the mind of” the diplomatic representative of the United States, as he expressed a wish to do. Under any circumstances, however, it is clear that nothing in the treaty contemplates the avoidance of such disputes by the restriction or prohibition of the residential rights of American citizens.
Dr. Hawkes has given the best proof of his intention to respect the law and peace of Persia by the form and manner of his application.
The result of your intended supplementary appeal to his excellency the prime minister is awaited with interest. I am, etc.,
W. Q. GRESHAM.
Mr. McDonald to Mr. Gresham.
LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES,
Teheran, April 4, 1894. (Received May 9.) SIR: In regard to the Kermanshah school his highness, as will be seen by the inclosed note, adheres to his previous decision not to grant permission for the opening of the same. In pressing this matter on his highness I spoke in the highest terms of the character and accomplishments of my countrymen, the missionaries; of the good they are doing by their disinterested and self sacrificing labors through the media of their schools, their hospitals, and churches; of the seeming inconsistency of allowing schools at other places (where they were working smoothly and well) and denying one for Kermanshah, where there was loud call for it-all of which his highness admitted, saying the humane work of the missionaries in Persia was fully appreciated by the Government; but still for some reason he has seen proper 10 withhold the permission asked for in this instance. I think there is some secret history about the matter which is not understood-perhaps some interference by rival and jealous religious propagandists. Our missionaries had secured property and made other arrangements for opening the school at Kermanshah, and are disappointed and placed at inconvenience by this decision of the Government; but I think I have pressed the matter as far as is advisable for the present and will, therefore, let it drop unless there are new developments. I am, etc.,
(Inclosure in No. 83.- Translation )
YOUR EXCELLENCY: I beg to inform you that the contents of your Letter of the 7th of the month of Ramazan (15th of March), 1894, with reference to the opening of a school at Kermanshah, at the request of the Jews and Armenians of that city. have been understood.
At another time, if it should be advisable to open this school, there would be no objection to the issue of the order granting permission, but to open a school of this kind at the present in Kermanshah is open to objection. I beg to trouble you with these few lines in reply to your letter.
I hereby renew, etc., [Seal of the prime minister.]
Mr. Tyler to Mr. Gresham. No. 95.)
LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES,
Teheran, May 7, 1894. (Received June 8.) SIR: I have the honor to report that in the absence of Mr. McDonald I have taken the liberty to open your No. 51, diplomatic series, dated March 29, 1894, commenting on the refusal of the Persian Government to allow the Rev. James Hawkes, a citizen of the United States, to open a school for the education of Jewish and Christian children in the town of Kermanshah.
The result of the further negotiations with the prime minister on this subject was communicated in Mr. McDonald's dispatch of the 4th of April.
If a favorable opportunity should present itself for reopening this question I shall not fail to take every advantage of the very pertinent and forcible arguments contained in your dispatch.
I ain informed that Mr. Hawkes has returned to the mission station at Hamadan. I have, etc.,
JOHN TYLER, Vice-Consul-General in charge.
Mr. Tyler to Mr. Gresham. No. 108.]
LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES,
Teheran, June 18, 1894. (Received July 19.) SIR: In reverting to the decision of the Persian Government on the application of the Rev. James Hawkes, of Hamadan, for permission to open a school for the education of Christian and Jewish children at Kermanshah, I respectfully beg to report that on the 15th instant I received a friendly visit from the Mushir-ul-Mulk, the official charged with the foreign business in the department of the prime minister,
In the course of conversation with his excellency, who is a friend of mine, I took advantage of the opportunity to introduce the subject of the proposed school. I told him that the Department of State, in view of the entirely benevolent and unselfish feelings which had prompted Mr. Hawkes, who was a gentleman of the most blameless character and superior intelligence, to accede to the pressing invitation of the Christians and Jews of Kermanshah, regretted very much the prime minister's decision; and I added that I should be very glad if he would give me the reasons which had induced his highness to come to this adverse conclusion.
He told me that the application had been laid before His Majesty the Shah, who, in consequence of the distance of Kermanshah from the capital, and the turbulent and fanatical character of the people and the tribes in that neighborhood, was afraid that some evil-disposed persons might stir up opposition and strife which would jeopardize the safety of those in charge of the school, and be a source of trouble to the state, and he, therefore, did not think it would be advisable to open a school there at the present.
The Mushir-ul-Mulk said that they all recognized and admitted to the fullest extent the civilizing and beneficial work of the missionaries; and that when, from a more extended intercourse with the outside world, more liberal views pervaded the population, there would be no objection offered to the work of the missionaries in Kermanshah. I remarked that I was under the impression that the Catholics were already, in some character or other, established there. He said he was not aware of it, but if I could prove that a mission of any kind was already in existence it would be an argument in favor of the application, and he would see what further could be done. I promised to make the necessary inquiries and let him know the result.
As the final decision had been given by His Majesty I did not think it prudent, in my position, to discuss the rights and obligations of the treaty.
In consequence of some maladministration and tyrannical exactions on the part of the late governor of Kermanshah, at the end of last year there was a serious rising of the populace against that official, and the Government was obliged to recall him. This circumstance may possibly have had some influence on the mind of the Shah, when this proposal was laid before him, and inclined him to an adverse decision. I have, etc.,
Mr. Tyler to Mr. Gresham. No. 118.]
LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES,
Teheran, August 6, 1894. (Received September 6.) SIR: In my No. 115 of July 25 I had the honor to transmit a copy and translation of a letter which I had addressed to the Mushir-ulMulk regarding the proposal of Mr. Hawkes, a missionary in Hamadan, to open a school in Kermanshah for the instruction of Jewish and Christian children in that city. I now beg to forward his excellency's reply, which, it will be observed, is still unfavorable.
Whether the troubles in Hamadan have had anything to do with this refusal I do not know, but at any rate the Government seem to have made up their minds on the subject, and I think that any further application would be useless at the present. I am, etc.,
(Inclosure in No. 118-Translation.)
Mushir-ul-Mulk to Mr. Tyler.
22D OF MUHARRAN, A. H. 1312. (JULY 26, 1894.) SIR: I have to acknowledge the receipt of your esteemed favor of the 15th of Ramazan, A. H. 1312, in regard to the proposal of Mr. Hawkes to open a school at Kermanshah for the instruction of Jewish and Christian children, and have understood its contents. I have reported the matter to the proper quarter, but in view of the unfavorable surroundings in connection with this proposal, and which have already been communicated to the legation, and which, should a favorable opportunity present itself, I may report in more detail to you personally, it seems that to open a school of this kind in that city would unquestionably give rise to troubles and disputes; and the Persian Government apologizes for not being able to concede the permission to Mr. Hawkes to open a school in that city. I take, etc.,
RELIGIOUS PERSECUTIONS AT HAMADAN AND DOMICILIARY RIGHTS
Mr. Tyler to Mr. Gresham.
LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES, Teheran, Persia, July 12, 1894. (Received August 15.) SIR: I have the honor to forward for your information copies of (1) a letter from the Rev. James Hawkes, an American missionary at Hamadan, relating to the renewed persecution of the Jews by a certain ecclesiastical dignitary in that city, and the forcible removal of a man wbo had taken refuge in Mr. Hawkes's house; (2) a letter from Dr. Holmes, the medical missionary at that station, in regard to the same subject; (3) extract from a letter from Dr. Holmes reporting the arrest of some of their teachers and pupils, probably Jews, who were, however, speedily released; (4) a letter from myself to Dr. Holmes express. ing my views of the situation, and requesting to be informed by telegraph in case affairs in Hamadan should assume a more serious aspeet; (5) a letter from Mr. Conyingham Greene, the English chargé d'affaires, to myself affirming his belief that Mullah Abdullah, the author of all these troubles, who was ordered up to Teheran by the Shah, was, before he was permitted to return, obliged to give securities for his future good behavior, and stating that the Sadr Azem had informed him that orders had been sent by the Shah which would have the effect of putting an end to these oppressions.
It appears from what I have been able to gather from various sources that for some time past there has been a considerable movementamongst the Jewish population in Hamadan towards Christianity. This may or may not be a reaction against the persecutions and indignities whieh they have suffered at the hands of the ecclesiastical and ruling authori. ties. It may also be, and on which I do not profess to offer an opinion, the result of religious convictions. Whichever may be the active cause, or it may even be both, it is quite evident that the Akhund, Mullah Abdullah, considers it a reflection on himself and the Moslem
religion as well. He is a violent bigot and fanatic, and this phase of
(Inclosure l in No. 113.]
HAMADAN, June 28, 1894. DEAR MR. TYLER: Having received your favor of the 19th instant, I am pleased to learn that you still interest yourself in our efforts to establish a school at Kermanshah. I hope you may be eventually successful in obtaining the necessary permit.
The Catholics have no mission at present in Kermanshah, but I understand they are making preparations to open one shortly. Last winter during our stay there the Catholics gave us a separate petition, which I forwarded to our U.S. minister. You can no doubt find it in its proper place. The Christian community at Kermanshah numbers about six or eight families, almost entirely Catholic, and the Jewish community about four hundred families, or more.
As a matter of information I wish to report the following particulars of a little encounter with the Akhund, Mullah Abdullah.
On Sunday last he caused to be arrested a former pupil and teacher of our school, Mirza Salazar Faraj, who, since bis older brother's death, has been carrying on that brother's business as a merchant When he was present the Ahkund reviled him for accepting Christianity instead of Islam, and ordered him to be taken to the said Akhund's house. The attendants beat him in the Akhund's presence. On his way to the Akhund's he slipped out of the hands of the attendants as he was passing near my house and came into my yard.
The attendants followed him, and after a contest, in which I tried to rescue him from their hands, they carried him off by force. I, being single-handed on account of the absence of my servants who were eating their dinners, was not able to effectually resist so many. Some of the number turned upon me, but a neighbor and a sayed helped me to put them out and close the door. Shortly afterwards the Akhund's servant returned, ordering me to appear before the Akhund immediately, and threatened violence in case I did not respond. This I refused to do, and again closed the door in his face; (he is an exceedingly impudent sayed and the cause of almost all the Akhund's contests).
Dr. Holmes, who had arrived before this sayed's return, went out by another door and pacified him and brought him in. After considerable talk Dr. Holmes went with him to see the Akhund and talked the whole matter over with him. He attempted to make me out a transgressor, which Dr. Holmes denied, asserting that I had only asserted my right within the bounds of my premises.
Among many things which were said, the Akhund virtually defied the Shah, etc., but the interview ended in a friendly parting and the promise of another interview. That evening the missionaries called upon Hussein Khan Sarteeb, Beglar Begi (who has always proved a