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faithful friend on such occasions), and he afterwards arranged for a meeting between the Akhund and the missionaries. On Tuesday morning we went to the house of Hadji Mirza Mehde, where we understood we were to meet the Akhund, but we found that they had not so arranged, expecting us to go from thence to the Akhund's house. At this we demurred but we finally consented to go for a friendly call on condition that these two men would take charge of our case. We asked but two things of them: First, that those Jews who had been free from wearing the patch and suffering other indignities on account of their relation to the missionaries should continue to enjoy this liberty; and second, that while we had nothing to say about their relations with the Jews of this city we reserved the right to report to our own and other foreign Governments any violence or indignities which may be imposed upon them. They accepted these conditions, and we made a call on the Akhund, at which time nothing but good will was expressed.

In this connection I would ask two favors: First, that you would kindly give the above report to the English legation as a matter of information; and second, that you would let us know on what conditions Mullah Abdullah returned to Hamadan. We understand, through English papers, that he gave bonds to keep the peace, and we would be glad to know if this is true. Yours, very sincerely,

JAS. W. HAWKES.

(Inclosure 2 in No.113.)
Dr. Holmes to Mr. Tyler.

HAMADAN, June 29, 1894. DEAR SIR: Mr. Watson and Mr. Hawkes are writing you to-day in regard to the renewal of the persecution of the Jews, which we have anticipated ever since the Akhund Abdullah returned from Teheran. The forcible entry of Mr. Hawkes's premises in pursuit of one of our Christian converts, who was taken by the Akhund's men literally out of Mr. Hawkes's hands, and severely beaten for his failure to wear the red patch which the Aklund has decided that the Jews, whether Christian converts or not, should wear, gave us an opportunity of making a vigorous protest against the imposition of such insignia of dishonor upon Christians; and also against the renewal of the cruel persecution of the Jews which was carried out by his orders last year. We have satisfied him that we propose to keep our own and the European Gov. ernments advised of any unusual acts of oppression perpetrated upon the Jews, and of any demonstrations menacing their lives or property.

We have, however, had a very pleasant interview with the Akhund himself, and also with Hadji Mirza Mehde, who is in sympathy with him, and we have assurances from the latter that our rights and those of the Jews shall be respected.

Mirza Hussein Khan, the Beglar Begi, who has just recently been promoted to Sarteeb, has in this matter, as at all times, shown himself a warm and efficient friend. We called to-day upon the vizier of the governor, Mirza Mahomet Reizza Khan, the prince himself being absent, and had a very pleasant interview. We have no doubt of his disposition to protect us; also the Jews, to the extent of his power; though if an emeute should occur, he could probably do little. Mehdi Khan Sertib Mansur-ed-Dowleh sent to me yesterday to inquire about the affair, and Ali Islam Serhaug, his lieutenant, intimated that the city was in a

men.

ferment, and that we were in danger of mob violence. I told him that we were in no danger at all if the Sertib and his friend the Zea-ul-Mulk, and the other men in authority and influence, did their duty in asserting the authority of the Shah, and not allowing a hostile demonstration to gain headway. We have seen a statement from the British foreign office that the Akhund was not permitted to return to Hamadan until the ssent of the British minister had been obtained, and this was not given until he had given bonds to keep the peace. If this is correct, as I doubt not it is, he should be required to respect the conditions of his release. I sent word to Mansur-ed-Dowleh and to the Zea-ul-Mulk that we had every confidence in their desire to protect us, but that, if they expected to do so, they must exert their influence and authority, they having the command of the most of the troops, I believe, to keep the peace; particularly as the Moharem is approaching, and the disor. derly and fanatical elements are easily acted upon then by designing

We do not feel that the situation is as yet at all critical, and hope that the excitement will entirely quiet down.

I had a personal interview with the Aklund after the affair at Mr. Hawkes's, and though everything was said pleasantly, I made it plain that the violation of our premises must not be repeated.

My purpose is not to invoke any assistance from Teheran, but to keep you advised of the situation, so that on receipt of a letter you would know how to act, and could, if necessary, advise the British and other legations.

It has been reported that Sayed Ali, the servant of Akhund, had two ribs broken in the affair at Mr. Hawkes's. This was absurd, as Mr. Hawkes was alone at the time and no blows were struck; but it was evidently believed by the native physician in attendance. At the request of Sayed Ali, I visited him and found him suffering from an attack of asthma to which he was subject, and for which I had previously treated him. He had a pleuritic pain, which was thought to depend on a fracture of the rib. It is needless to say that the sayed had no fracture, nor did he make any pretense that he had been hit by anybody.

Everything is now quiet and we come and go as usual. We do not wish to have any special action taken in the matter unless we should be compelled to do so by the action of the Akhund. Yours, very truly,

GEO. W. HOLMES.

(Inclosure 3 in No. 113.]

Dr. Holmes to Mr. Tyler.

HAMADAN, July 6, 1894. DEAR SIR: I wrote you last week about the trouble here, which I thought then was quieted down. Soon after this other of our teachers and pupils were arrested, but on our application were promptly released by the Akhund. It turns out that the aggressor in this instance, and the instigator in the other case, was a former servant of Miss Schenck's, who used this method of revenging himself for his dismissal from her service and her unwillingness to meet his demands for more pay, etc. We hope to have the man punished, as he has made threats of violence to our missionary ladies. But the authorities are disposed to protect our interests, and the Akhund has done nothing about which we care to make complaint since I wrote you last week. Yours, etc.,

GEO, W, HOLMES.

[Inclosure 4 in No. 113.)
Mr. Tyler to Dr. Holmes.
LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES,

Teheran, July 10, 1894. DEAR SIR: I wrote a few lines on the 3d instant, to inform you that Mr. Hawkes's letter of the 28th and yours of the 29th ultimo had just arrived; and I have now to acknowledge the receipt of yours of the 6th instant.

It appears from what you report concerning the persecution of the Jews of Hamadan, and the forcible removal from Mr. Hawkes's premises of a former pupil and teacher of your school, that these are matters requiring serious consideration. They may not be of very grave import in themselves, but it is possible that if they are allowed to go ou unchecked and unredressed, time after time, they may eventually assume alarining proportions. You are, no doubt, being on the spot, better able than I am to judge of the actual state of public feeling and the general position of affairs in Hamadan, and therefore, in accordance with your expressed wishes, I shall, at the present time, make no official representation to the central authorities on these irregularities. I think, however, that it would not be advisable to allow too many repetitions of this lawlessness or too frequent threats to be used toward the ladies of the mission without some remonstrance being made, if the local governor is powerless to act effectively. I feel it, therefore, my duty to ask you, that in case the position should assume a more threatening aspect, you will let me know by telegraph.

I trust you will be able to get the instigator of these acts of aggression • and indignity, Miss Schenck's late servant, punished by the authorities.

If this is carried out in an exemplary manner, it will probably have the effect of deterring others in the future.

Any complaint that you may feel it necessary to make to this legation will be attended to with the utmost expedition.

I have already communicated Mr. Hawkes's report to the English legation, where, I have no doubt, it will receive due attention. I remain, etc.,

JOHN TYLER.

(Inclosure 5 in No. 113.)
Mr. Conyngham Greene to Mr. Tyler.

SULHEK, July 9, 1894. SIR: In reply to the inquiry contained in the last paragraph of your letter of the 7th instant, I beg to state that I believe it is the case that Mullah Abdullah gave securities for his good behavior before his return to Hamadan, but whether at the instance of Sir Frank Lascelles or not, I can not say. Sir Frank, I know, made strong representations to the Persian Government on the subject of the action of the Mullah.

I myself received a petition last month purporting to come from the Jewish community of Hamadan, complaining of the oppression of Mul. lah Abdullah, but, as it was neither signed nor sealed, I do not know if it was authentic.

I spoke to the Sadr Azem on the subject, who told me that orders have been sent by the Shah which would have the effect of putting an end to the oppression complained of by the Jewish community of Hamadan. I am, etc.,

CONYNGHAM GREENE.

Mr. Gresham to Mr. Tyler.

No. 72.)

DEPARTMENT OF STATE,

Washington, August 18, 1894. SIR: I am in receipt of your No. 113 of the 12th ultimo, inclosing correspondence relating to renewed persecution of Jews at Hamadan and the forcible removal of a man who had taken refuge in the house of the Rev. James Hawkes, an American missionary at that place.

With regard to the invasion of Mr. Hawkes's premises by the Persian authorities and the forcible arrest of a fugitive therein, it is regretted that this act should have been brought about by an untenable assertion of asylum for a Persian subject. This Government does not claim that its official agents have the right to afford asylum.

By the seventh article of the treaty of 1856 between the United States and Persia, it is stipulated that

The diplomatic agent or consuls of the United States shall not protect, secretly or publicly, the subjects of the Persian Government, and they shall never suffer a departure from the principles here laid down and agreed to by mutual consent.

The domiciliary rights of citizens of the United States in Persia may not be expanded to embrace the protection by them of Persian subjects, when such protection is explicitly disclaimed by the Government of thé United States, and when its assertion by their diplomatic and consular representatives is positively inhibited. I am, etc.,

W. Q. GRESHAM.

Mr. Tyler to Mr. Gresham.

No. 122.]

LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES,
Teheran, Persia, August 23, 1894.

(Received September 27.) SIR: In continuation of No. 116, diplomatic series of the 6th instant, relating to the religious persecutions in Hamadan by the fanatic, Akhund Mullah Abdullah, and the danger to the lives and property of American citizens and their dependents by his reckless, cruel, and wanton proceedings, I have the honor to transmit copies of further local correspondence on this subject.

举 *

I have inclosed the whole of the correspondence up to date, so that the Department might be put into possession of all the material facts. At one time it appeared as if the situation was becoming grave, and that the missionaries were in real danger. I had, however, the satisfaction of knowing that they would do nothing to complicate matters or infuse a bad spirit into the disputes.

The immunity from severe punishipent which members of the priestly class enjoy always makes them insolent and reckless, and they can generally depend upon the support of the lowest and most dangerous part of the population. They are not generally liked by intelligent and independent people, and very uncomplimentary terms are used of them, but, on account of their great numbers and their wide influence, outward deference and respect are observed toward them.

Not printed.
FR 94 -32

(Inclosure 4 in No. 113.)
Mr. Tyler to Dr. Holmes.
LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES,

Teheran, July 10, 1894. DEAR SIR: I wrote a few lines on the 3d instant, to inform you that Mr. Hawkes's letter of the 28th and yours of the 29th ultimo had just arrived; and I have now to acknowledge the receipt of yours of the 6th instant.

It appears from what you report concerning the persecution of the Jews of Hamadan, and the forcible removal from Mr. Hawkes's premises of a former pupil and teacher of your school, that these are matters requiring serious consideration. They may not be of very grave import in themselves, but it is possible that if they are allowed to go ou unchecked and unredressed, tiine after time, they may eventually assume alarining proportions. You are, no doubt, being on the spot, better able than I am to judge of the actual state of public feeling and the general position of affairs in Hamadan, and therefore, in accordance with your expressed wishes, I shall, at the present time, make no official representation to the central authorities on these irregularities. I think, however, that it would not be advisable to allow too many repetitions of this lawlessness or too frequent threats to be used toward the ladies of the mission without some remonstrance being made, if the local governor is powerless to act effectively. I feel it, therefore, my duty to ask you, that in case the position should assume a more threatening aspect, you will let me know by telegraph.

I trust you will be able to get the instigator of these acts of aggression and indignity, Miss Schenck's late servant, punished by the authorities, If this is carried out in an exemplary manner, it will probably have the effect of deterring others in the future.

Any complaint that you may feel it necessary to make to this legation will be attended to with the utmost expedition.

I have already communicated Mr. Hawkes's report to the English legation, where, I have no doubt, it will receive due attention, I remain, etc.,

JOHN TYLER,

(Inclosure 5 in No.113.)
Mr. Conyngham Greene to Mr. Tyler.

SULHEK, July 9, 1894. SIR: In reply to the inquiry contained in the last paragraph of your letter of the 7th instant, I beg to state that I believe it is the case that Mullah Abdullah gave securities for his good behavior before his return to Hamadan, but whether at the instance of Sir Frank Lascelles or not, I can not say. Sir Frank, I know, made strong representations to the Persian Government on the subject of the action of the Mullah.

I myself received a petition last month purporting to come from the Jewish community of Hamadan, complaining of the oppression of Mullah Abdullah, but, as it was neither signed nor sealed, I do not know if it was authentic.

I spoke to the Sadr Azem on the subject, who told me that orders have been sent by the Shah which would have the effect of putting an end to the oppression complained of by the Jewish community of Hamadan. I am, etc.,

CONYNGHAM GREENE.

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