Court, and all other officers of the United States, to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of whuse sppointments are not herein otherwise provided very other State. And the Congress mny by general for, and which shall be established by law, but the luws prescribe

the manner in which such ucts, records Congress mny by law vest the appointment of such and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect inferior officers as they think proper in the President thereof. alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of depurt

SECTION 11.- Privilege of Citizens. ments. 3. The President shall have power to fill up all va.

1. The citizens of each Suate shall be entitled to cunces that may happen during the recess of the Sen. all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several ute, by granting commissions which shull expire ui Sintes. the end of their nex session.

2. A person charged in any State with treas in, felo.

py, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and le SECTION III.--Duties of the President.

found in another State, shall, on demand of the Exec. 1. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Itive nuthority of the State from which he fell, be information of the state of the Union, and recominend delivered up, to be removed to the state having juto their consideration such measures as le shull judge risdiction of the crime. necessary uni expedient; he may, on extraordinary 3. No person held to service or labor in one State un. occasious, convene botli Houses, or either of them, der the laws thereof, escuping into another, shall, in mund, in case of disay reement between them, with consequence of any law or regulation therein, be disrespect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn charged from such service or labor, but shall be deliv. thein to such time as he shall think proper: he shalisered up on claim of the party to whom such service receive ambulssadors and other public mmisiers ; he or labor may be due. shall take care that the laws be faithfwly executed,

SECTION II1. -Nerd States. and shall comunission all the officers of the United Stutes,

1. New States may be admitted by the Congress

into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or SECTION IV.-Impeachment of Officers. erected within the jur sdiction of any other Siate; nor 1. The President, Vice President, and all civil offi. any Stuite be fornied by the junction of two or more cors of the UHC:1 States, shall be removed froin office States, or parts of States, without the consent of the on impearhment for, and conviction of, treason, bri. Leg slatures of the States concerned, as well as of the bery, or other high crimnes and misdemeanors. Cougress.

2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of and ARTICLE 111.-JUDICIARY.

make all needful rules and regulations respecting the SECTION 1. - Courts - Judges.

territory or othe: property belonging to the United

States and nothing in this Constitution shall be so con. 1. The Jud cial power of the United States shall strued as as to prejudice any claims of the United be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior Stute, or of any particolar State. courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Jugęs, both of the Supreme and

SECTION IV.-State Governments-Republican. interior courts, shull hold their offices during good be. 1. The United States shall guaranty to every State huvior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their in this Union a republican form of government, and services, a compensation which shall not be diminish-shell protect each of them aguinst invasion; and un ed during their continuunce in office.

application of the Legislature, or of the Execu. SECTION II.-Judicial Powers--Civil-Criminal. tive, (when the Legislature cannot be convened,)

against domestic violence, 1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity, arising under this Const.tution, the

ARTICLE V.-AMENDMENTS. laws of the United States, and the trenties mule, or which shall be made under their authority; to all cuses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to

1. The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and con. this Constitution, or, on the application of the Ley's. suls; to all cases of nomiralty and maritane jurisd c-latures of two-thirds ef the several Stntes, shall callo tion to controversies to which the United States Convention for proposing amendmenis, in either shull be il party ; to controversies between two or mure cose, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, ns part Stute-between a Stut: and citizens of another state of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures -between citizens of difierent State-between citio of three-fourths of the several States, or by Conven. zens of the game Stute claiming laves under grants of tions in three.fourths thereof, as the one or the other different Stalo ---and between it State, or the citizens mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; there. f, and fore gn States, citizens or subjects. provided that no amendment which may be made

2. In’all cases uitecting umbussadors, other public prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and ministers and consuls, and those in which u State shall eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth be u party, the Supreme Court sha!! have original jy clauses in the ninth section of the first art cle; and risdictionIn all the other cases before mentioned, that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of the Sapreme Court shali bave appeilute juris :iction, its equal sutïruge in the Senate. buth as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under sich reguintions, 113 the Congress shall make.

ARTICLE VI.-DEBTS. 3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impench. 1. All deb's contracted and engagements entered meat, conll be by jury ; un sucn trial shall be held into, before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be the State where the said crimes shall have been committed ; but when not committed within any State, the s valid against the United States under this Constu. trulshall heat such place or places as the Congresition, as under the confederation.

2. This Constitution, and the Inws of the United may by law have directed.

Sties which shall be made in pursuance thereu!; and SECTION III.-Treason.

all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the 1. Treason agninst the United States, shall consist law of the land; and the Judges in every Stale shall

authority of the United States, shall be the supreme only in levying, war against them, or in adhering to be bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws their enemies, thein aid and comfort. No per of any Stnte to the contrary potwithstanding. son shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimo

3. The Senators and Representatives befi:r2 mention. ny of two wiinesses to the sume uvert act, or on ed, and the members of the several Sta - Legislacontession in open court,

t ires, and all executive and judic al officer: both 2. The Congress shall have power to declare the of the United States and of the several states, shall be punishinent of treason, but nottninder of treitsun shal Sonnd by onth or affirmation, to support this Consti. work corruption of blood, or furleiture, except durini rution ; but no religious test shall ever be requireil as the life of the person attained.

i qualification to any office or public trust under the ARTICLE IV.-TATE RIGHTS.

Uni ed St:tes, SECTION 1.- Restitution and Privileges.

ARTICLE VII.-RATIFICATION. 1. Full ta th and credit shall be given in each Stnt 1. The ratification of the conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitusi

ARTICLK VIII. lion between the States 90 ratifying the same.

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive
Done in Convention, by the nnanimous consent of fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments in.

tho Stntes present, the seventeenth day of Sęptom. liicted.
her, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven
hundred and e, and of the Indepen.

dence of ihe United States of America, the The enumeration in the Constitution of certain

rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage oth. In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed ers retained by the people. our naines.

ARTICLE X. GEORGE WASHINGTON, President, The powers not delegated to the United States by and Deputy from Virginia.

the Constitution, nor privhibited by it to the States, are
reserved to the States respectively, or the people.


The judicial power of the United States shall not
Articles in addition to, and amendaient of, the Con- be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity

commenced «r proxecuted against one of the Uu ted stitution of the United States of America, pro. Sintes, by citizens of another State, or by citizens or posed by Congress, and ratified by the Leg slature, subjecis of any foreign state, of the several States, pursuant to the Fifth Article

ARTICLE XII. of the original Constitution.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States,

and vote by ballot for Pres dent and Vice President, ARTICLE I.

one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of Congress shall make ro law respecting an establish the same stare with themselves ; they shali name in meat of religion, or prohib ting the free exercise there. Their ballols the person voted for as President, and in of; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the Wixtinct bullots the person voted for as Vice Presi. ble, and to petit on the government for a redress oi voted for as Pre ident, and of ļall persons vuted for as pres; or the right of the people peaceably to assein, dened and they shall muke distinct lists of all persons

Vice President, and ot' the number of vetes for each, grievances.

which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit ARTICLE II.

sealed to the sent of government of the United States, A well regulated militia being necessary to the secu. directed to the President of the Sennte; the President rity of'u free state, the right of the people to keep and of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Sennt- and bear arms shall not be infringed.

House of Representatives, open all the vert:ficntes, and the rotes shall then be counted: the person having

the greatest nuinber of votes for Presulent, shall be ARTICLE III. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in whole number of Electors appointed ; and, if no per

the President, if such numlier be a major ty of the any house without the consent of the owner, nor i son have such mujor.ty, theil, from the persons huv. tiine of wat but in a manner to be prescribed by law. ing the highest nuinbers. nut exceeding three, on the

list of those voted for as Pres. dent. the House of RepreARTICLE IV.

sentatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the The right of the people to be secure in their per. President. But, in choosing the President, the votes sons, houses, papers and effects, agninst unreasonable shall be taken by States, the representation from each searches ami se zures, shull not be violated; and nu tate having one mt: & quorum for this purpose, Warrants shali 15311e but upon probable cause, support. shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds ed by onth or affirmation, and part.cularly describine of the States, and a major ty of all the States shall be the place to be searched, and the persoas or things tu necessary to a choice. And if the House of Repre. be seized.

sentatives shall not choose a President whenever the

right of choice șliall devolve upon them before the ARTICLE V.

fourth day of March next following, then the Vice No person shall be held to answer for a or President shall act as 'resident, us in the case of

the otherwise infamous criine, unless on a presentment or death or other constitutional disability of the President. indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in The person having the greatest number of votes as the land or nnval forces, or in the militia when in ac. Vice President, shall be the Vice President, if such tual.ervice, in time of war or public danger; nor shall number be a majority of the whole number of Elec. any persor: be subject, for the same offence, to be tors appointed ; and, if no person have a majority, twice put in jeopardy of life or imb; nor shail be then from the two highest nun bers on the list, the Sen.

compeiled in any criminal case to be a witness against ate shall choose the Vice President ; a quorum for the himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty or property, purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number w thout due process of law; nor shall private property of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be taken for public use without just coinpensation.

be necessary to a choice.

But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office ARTICLE VI.

of President, shall be eligible to that of Vice President In all criminal prosecut:ons, the accused shall enjoy of the United States. the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impurtia!

ARTICLE XIII. jury of the State and d str ct where n the crime shall

If any citizen of the United States shall accept, have been committed, wh ch district shall have been pre: i.usly ascertained by law; and to be informed claim, receive or retain, any uur of nob:lity or honor; of the nature and cause of' t'e accusution; to be con retain any present, pension, office, or emolument of

or shall, without the consent of Congress, accept and fronted with the witnesses inguinst him; to have pulzory, process för vitnining witnesses in his taver; any kind whutever, from any emperor, king, prince,

or foreign power, such person shall cease to be a and to have the assistance of counsel für h.s detence.

citizen of the United States, and shall be incapable ARTICLE VII.

of holding any office of trust or profit under them,

or either of them. In suits at common law, where the value in contro. ver-y shall excoeltwenty dullars, the right of trial by (Note.-The 11th article of the amendments to the jury shall be preserved: and no fost tried by a jury Const tution, wns proposed at the second session shall be otherwise e.examined in any curt of the of the third Congress; the 12th article, at the first

Un ted Strites, than ai cording to the rules of the com- session of the eighth Congress; and the 13th arti. inon inw.

cle, at the second session of the eleventh Congress.)

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tions, contributed towards the organization and The period for a new election of a Citizen to administration of the Government, the best exadminister the Executive Government of the ertions of which a very fallible judgment was the United States being not far distant, and the capable. Not unconscious, in the ontset, of the time actually arrived, when your thoughts inferiority of my qualifications, experience in must be employed in designating the person my own eyes perhaps still more in the eyes of who is to be clothed with that important trust, others, has strengthened the motives to diffiit appears to me proper, especially as it may dence of myself; and every day the increasing conduce to a more distinct expression of the weight of years admonishes me more and more, Śpublic voice, that I should now apprize you of that the shade of retirement is as necessary to the resolution I have formed, to decline being me as it will be welcome. Satisfied that if any considered among the number of those out of circumstances have given peculiar value to my whom a choice is to be made.

services, they were temporary, I have the conI beg you, at the same time, to do me the solation to believe, that while choice and prujustice to be assured, that this resolution has not dence invite me to quit the political scene, pabeen taken, without a strict regard to all the triotism does not forbid it. considerations appertaining to the relation, In looking forward to the moment which which binds a dutiful citizen to his Country; to terminate the career of my public life, my and that, in withdrawing the tender of service, feelings do not permit me to suspend the deep which silence in my situation might imply. I acknowledgment of that debt of gratitude am influenced by no dimination of zeal for which I owe to my beloved Country, for the your future interest ; no deficiency of grateful many honors it has conferred upon me; still respect for your past kindness; but am sup- more for the steadfast confidence with which it

ported by a full conviction that the step is com- has supported me; and for the opportunities I patible with both.

have thence enjoyed of manifesting my invioThe acceptance of, and continuance hitherto lable attachment by services faithful and persein the office to which your suffrages have vering, though in usefulness unequal to my twice called me, have been a uniform sacrifice zeal. If benefits have resulted to our Country of inclination to the opinion of duty, and to a from these services, let it always be rememberdeference for what appeared to be your desire. ed to your praise, and as an instructive exam. I constantly hoped that it would have been ple in our annals, that ander circumstances in much earlier in my power, consistently with which the passions, agitated in every direction motives which I was not at liberty to disegard, were liable to mislead, amidst appearances to return to that retirement from which I had sometimes dubious vicissitudes of fortune, of

been reluctantly drawn. The strength of my ten discouraging, in situations in which, not uninclination to do this, previous to the last elec- frequently, want of success has countenanced tion, had even led to the preparation of an Ad- the spirit of criticism-the constancy of your dress to declare it to you; but mature reflection support was the essential prop of the efforts,

on the then perplexed and critical posture of and a guaranty of the plans by which they our affairs with foreign nations, and the unani- were effected. Profoundly penetrated with mous advice of persons entitled to my confi- this idea, Ishall carry it with me to my grave, dence, impelled me to abandon the idea. as a strong incitement to unceasing vows, that

I rejoice that the state of your concerns, ex- Heaven may continue to you the choicest toternal as well as internal, no longer renders the kens of its beneficence--that your union and Spursuit of inclinations incompatible with the brotherly affection may be perpetual—that the sentiment of duty or propriety; and am persua- free Constitution, which is the work of your ded whatever partiality may be retained for hands, may be sacredly maintained—that its my services, that in the present circumstances administration in every department may be

of our Country, you will not disapprove of my stamped with wisdom and virtue—that, in fine, determination to retire.

the happiness of the people of these States, unThe impressions with which first under- der the auspices of Liberty, may be made comtook the arduous trust, were explained on the plete, by so careful a preservation and so pru

proper occasion. In the discharge of this trust, dent a use of this blessing, as will acquire to I will only say, that I have with good inten-/them the glory of recommending it to the ap

plause, the affection and adoption of every na-ples. You have in a common cause fought tion which is yet a stranger to it.

and triamphed together; the independence and Here, perhaps, I ought to stop. But solici- liberty you possess are the work of joint countude for your welfare, which cannot end bui cils and joint efforts, of common dangers, sufferwith my life, and the apprehension of danger ings and successes. natural to that solicitude, urge me, on an occa- But these considerations, however powerfulsion like the present, to offer to your solemn ly they address themselves to your sensibility, contemplation, and to recommend to your fre are greatly outweighed by those which apply quent review, some sentiments which are the more immediately to your interest. Here every result of much reflection, of no inconsiderable portion of our Country finds the most commandobservation, and which appears to me all-im-ing motives for carefully guarding and

preservportant to the permanency of your felicity as a ing the union of the whole. people. These will be offered to you with the The North, in an unrestrained intercourse more freedom, as you can only see in them the with the South, protected by the equal laws of disinterested warnings of a parting friend, who a common Government, finds in the productions can possibly have no personal motive to bias of the latter, great additional resources of mari his counsel. Nor can I forget, as an encour-time and commercial enterprize, and precious agement to it, your indulgent reception of my materials of manufacturing industry The sentiments on a former and not dissimilar occa- South in the same intercourse; benefiting by sion.

the agency of the North, sees its agriculture Interwoven as is the love of Liberty with grow, and its commerce expand. Turning every ligament of your hearts, no recommenda- partly into its own channels the seamen of the tion of mine is necessary to fortify or confirm North, finds its particular navigation invigothe attachment.

rated-and while it contributes, in different The unity of government which constitutes ways, to nourish and increase the general mass you one people, is also now dear to you. It is of the national navigation, it looks forward to justly so; for it is a main pillar in the edifice of the protection of a maritime strength, to which your real independence, the support of your itself is unequally adapted. The East, in a like tranquility at home, your peace abroad; of your intercourse with the West, already finds, and safety; of your prosperity; of that very Liber- in the progressive improvement of interior comty which you go highly prize. But, as it is easy munication, by land and water, will more and to foresee, that from different causes and from more find a valuable bent for the commodities different quarters, much pains will be taken, which it brings from abroad, or manufactures many artifices employed, to weaken in your at home. The West derives from the East minds the conviction of this truth ; as this is the supplies requisite to its growth and comfortpoint in your political fortress, against which and what is perhaps of still greater consethe batteries of internal and external enemies quence, it must of necessity owe the secure enwill be most constantly and actively (though joyment of indispensable outlets for its own often covertly and insidiously) directed, it is of productions to the weight, influence, and the infinite moment that you should properly esti- future maritime strength of the Atlantic side of mate the immense value of your National Un- the Union, directed by an indissoluble commuion ; to your collective and individual happi- nity of interest as one Nation. Any other tenness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual ure by which the West can hold this essential and immoveable attachment to it; accustoming advantage, whether derived from its own sepyourselves to think and speak of it as of the arate strength. or from an apostate and unnatupalladium of your political safety and prosperi- ral connection with any foreign power, must ty, watching for its preservation with jealous be intrinsically precarious. anxiety; discountenancing whatever may sug- While, then, every part of our Country thus

gest even a suspicion that it can in any event feels an immediate and particular interest in be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon union, all the parts combined cannot fail to find the first dawning of every attempt to alienate in the united mass of means and efforts, greater any portion of our country from the rest, or to strength, greater resource, proportionably greatenfeeble the sacred ties which now link toge- er security from external danger, a less frether the various parts.

quent interruption of their peace by foreign naFor this you have every inducement of sym- tions; and, what is of inestimable value, they pathy and interest. Citizens, by birth or must derive from union an exemption from choice, of a common Country, that Country has broils and wars between themselves, which so a right to concentrate your affections. The frequently afilict neighboring countries, not tied name of AMERICAN, which belongs to you in together by the same government; which their your national capacity, must always exalt the own rivalships alone would be sufficient to projust pride of patriotism, more than any appella- duce, but which opposite foreign alliances, attion derived from local discriminations. With tachments and intrigues would stimulate and slight shades of difference, you have the same lembitter. Hence, likewise, they will avoid religion, manners, habits and political princi- the necessity of those overgrown military establishments, which under any form of govern- sever them from their brethren, and connect ment, are inauspicious to Liberty, and which them with aliens ? are to be regarded as particularly hostile to Re- To the efficacy and permanency of your Unpublican Liberty. In this sense it is, that your ion, a government for the whole is indispensaUnion ought to be considered as a main prop ofble. No alliances, however strict, between the your Liberty, and that the love of the one parts can be an adequate substitute; they must one ought to endear you to the presorvation of inevitably experience the infractions and interthe other.

ruptions which all alliances in all times have

experienced. Sensible of this momentous These considerations speak a persuasive language to every reflecting and virtuous mind, truth, you have improved upon your

first essay, and exhibit the continuance of the Union as a better calculated than your former for an inti

by the adoption of a constitution of government primary object of a patriotic desire. Is there a

mate Union, and for the efficacious management doubt, whether a common Government can em- of your common concerns. This Government. brace so large a sphere ? Let experience solve the offspring of your own choice. uninfluenced it. To listen to mere speculation in such a

and unawed, adopted upon full investigation,and case were criminal. We are authorized to

mature deliberation, completely free in its prinhope that a proper organization of the whole,

with the auxiliary agency of governments for ciples, in the distribution of its powers, uniting the respective subdivisions, will afford a happy security

with energy, and containing within it

self a provision for its own amendment, has a issue to the experiment. It is well worth a fair and full experiment with such powerful Respect for its authority, compliance with its

just claim to your confidence and your support. and obvious motives to union, affecting all parts laws, acquiescence in its measures, are duties of our Country,

while experiment shall not have enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true ways be reason to distrust the patriotism of Liberty:. The basis of our political systems is those who, in any quarter, may endeavor to their constitutions of government.

the right of the people to make and to alter

But the weaken its bands.

Constitution which at any time exists, until In contemplating the causes which may dis- changed by an explicit and authentic act of the turb our Union, it occurs as a matter of serious whole people, is sacredly obligatory upon all. concern that any grounds should have been The very idea of the power and the right of the furnished for characterizing parties, by, geo-people to establish government, pre-supposes graphical discrimination-Northernand South- the duty of every individual to obey the estabern Atlan'ic and Western; whence designing lished Government. men may endeavor to excite a belief, that there All obstructions to the execution of the laws, is a real difference of local interests and views.all combinations and associations, under whatOne of the expedients of party to acquire influ- ever plausible character, with the real design ence, within particular districts, is to misrepre- to direct, control, counteract or awe the regular sent the opinions and aims of other districts.- deliberation and action of the constituted authoYou cannot shield yourselves too much against rities, are destructive of this fundamental printhe jealousies and heart-burnings which spring ciple, and of fatal tendency. They serve to or

from these misrepresentations; they tend to ganize faction--to give it an artificial and extrarender alien to each other, those who ought to ordinary force—to put in the place of the delebe bound together by fraternal affection. The gated will of the Nation, the will of a party, inhabitants of our Western country have lately often a small but artful and enterprising minorhad a useful lesson on this head. They have ity of the community; and, according to the al

seen in the negotiation by the Executive, and ternate triumphs of different parties, to make 3 in the unanimous ratification by the Senate, of the public administration the mirror of the illthe Treaty with Spain, and in the universal concerted and incongruous projects of faction, satisfaction at the event throughout the United rather than the organ of consistent and wholeStates, a decisive proof how unfounded were some plans digested by common councils, and the suspicions propagated among them, of a po modified by mutual interests. licy in the General Government and in the At- However combinations or associations of the lantic States unfriendly to their interests in re-above description may now and then answer gard to the Mississippi; they have been wit-popular ends, they are likely, in the course of nesses to the formation of two Treaties, that time and things, to become potent energies, by with Great Britain and that with Spain, which which cunning, ambitious and unprincipled secure to them every thing they could desire. men will be enabled to subvert the power of in respect to our foreign relations, towards con- the people, and to usurp for themselves the firming their prosperity. Will it not be their reins of government; destroying afterwards the wisdom to rely for the preservation of these ad- very engines which have lifted them to unjust vantages on the Union by which they were nominion. procured? Will they not henceforth be deaf Towards the preservation of your Governto those advisers, if such there are, who would'ment, and the permanency of your present hap

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