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Part 3-SUITS ox TORT CLAIMS AGAINST TIE UNITED STATES

JURISDICTION Sec. 410. (a) Subject to the provisions of this title, the United States district court for the district wherein the plaintiff is resident or wherein the act or omission coinplained of occurred, including the United States district courts for the Territories and possessions of the United States, sitting without a jury, shall have exclusive jurisdiction to hear, determine, and render judgment on any claim against the United States, for money only, accruing on and after January 1, 1945, on account of damage to or loss of property or on account of personal injury or death caused by the negligent or wrongful act or omission of any employee of the Government while acting within the scope of his office or employment, under circumstances where the United States, if a private person, would be liable to the claimant for such damage, loss, injury, or death in accordance with the law of the place where the act or omission occurred. Subject to the provisions of this title, the United States shall be liable in respect of such claims to the same claimants, in the same manner, and to the same extent as a private individual under like circumstances, except that the United States shall not be liable for interest prior to judgment, or for punitive damages. Costs shall be allowed in all courts to the successful claimant to the same extent as if the United States were a private litigant, except that such costs shall not include attorneys' fees.

(b) The judgment in such an action shall constitute a completo bar to any action by the claimant, by reason of the same subject matter, against the employee of the Government whose act or omission gave rise to the claim. No suit shall be instituted pursuant to this section upon a claim presented to any Federal agency pursuant to part 2 of this title unless such Federal agency has made final disposition of the claim: Provided, That the claimant may, upon fifteen days' notice given in writing, withdraw the claim from consideration of the Federal agency and commence suit thereon pursuant to this section: Provided further, That as to any claim so disposed of or so withdrawn, no suit shall be instituted pursuant to this section for any sum in excess of the amount of the claim presented to the Federal agency, except where the increased amount of the claim is shown to be based upon newly discovered evidence not reas

asonably discoverable at the time of presentation of the claim to the Federal agency or upon evidence of intervening facts, relating to the amount of the claim. Disposition of any claim made pursuant to part 2 of this title shall not be competent evidence of liability or amount of damages in proceedings on such claim pursuant to this section.

PROCEDURE

Sec. 411. In actions under this part, the forms of process, writs, pleadings, and motions, and the practice and procedure, shall be in accordance with the rules promulgated by the Supreme Court pursuant to the Act of June 19, 1934 (48 Stat. 1064); and the same provisions for counterclaim and set-off, for interest upon judgments, and for payment of judgments, shall be applicable as in cases brought in the United States district courts under the Act of March 3, 1887 (24 Stat. 505).

REVIEW

Sec. 412. (a) Final judgments in the district courts in cases under this part shall be subject to review by appeal

(1) in the circuit courts of appeals in the same manner and to the same extent as other judgments of the district courts; or

(2) in the Court of Claims of the United States: Provided, That the notice of appeal filed in the district court under rule 73 of the Rules of Civil Procedure shall have affixed thereto the written consent on behalf of all the appellees that the appeal be taken to the Court of Claims of the United States. Such appeals to the Court of Claims of the United States shall be taken within

three months after the entry of the judgment of the district court, and shall be governed by the rules relating to appeals from a district. court to a circuit court of appeals adopted by the Supreme Court pursuant to the Act of June 19, 1934 (48 Stat. 1061). In such appeals the Court of Claims of the United States shall have the same powers and duties as those conferred on a circuit court of appeals in respect to appeals under section 4 of the Act of February 13, 1925 (43 Stat. 939). (b) Sections 239 and 240 of the Judicial Code, as amended, shall apply to cases under this part in the circuit courts of appeals and in the Court of Claims of the United States to the same extent as to cases in a circuit court of appeals therein referred to.

COMPROMISE

Seo. 413. With a view to doing substantial justice, the Attorney General is authorized to arbitrate, compromise, or settle any claim cognizable under this part, after the institution of any suit thereon, with the approval of the court in which such suit is pending.

Part 4PROVISIONS COMMOX TO PART 2 AND Part 3

ONE-YEAR STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS

Sec. 420. Every claim against the United States cognizable under this title shall be forever barred, unless within one year after such claim accrued or within one year after the date of enactment of this Act, whichever is later, it is presented in writing to the Federal agency out of whose activities it arises, if such claim is for a sum not exceeding $1,000; or unless within one year after such claim accrued or within one year after the date of enactment of this Act, whichever is later, an action is begun pursuant to part 3 of this title. In the event that a claim for a sum not exceeding $1,000 is presented to a Federal agency as aforesaid, the time to institute a suit pursuant to part 3 of this title shall be extended for a period of six months from the date of mailing of notice to the claimant by such Federal agency as to the final disposition of the claim or from the date of withdrawal of the claim from such Federal agency pursuant to section 410 of this title, if it would otherwise expire before the end of such period.

EXCEPTIONS
Sec. 421. The provisions of this title shall not apply to

(a) Any claim based upon an act or omission of an employee of the Government, exercising due care, in the execution of a statute or regulation, whether or not such statute or regulation be valid, or based upon the exercise or performance or the failure to exercise or perform a discretionary function or duty on the part of a Federal agency or an employee of the Government, whether or not the discretion involved be abused.

(b) Any claim arising out of the loss, miscarriage, or negligent transmission of letters or postal matter.

(c) Any claim arising in respect of the assessment or collection of any tax or customs duty, or the detention of any goods or merchandise by any officer of customs or excise or any other law-enforcement oflicer.

(d) Any claim for which a remedy is provided by the Act of March 9, 1920 (U. S. C., title 46, secs. 741-752, inclusive), or the Act of March 3, 1925 (U. S. C., title 46, secs. 781-790, inclusive), relating to claims or suits in admiralty against the United States.

(6) Any claim arising out of an act or omission of any employee of the Government in administering the provisions of the Trading with the Enemy Act, as amended.

(f) Any claim for damages caused by the imposition or establishment of a quarantine by the United States.

(g) Any claim arising from injury to vessels, or to the cargo, crew, or passengers of vessels, while passing through the locks of the Pánaina Canal or while in Canal Zone waters.

(b) Any claim arising out of assault, battery, false imprisonment, false arrest, malicious prosecution, abuse of process, libel, slander, misrepresentation, deceít, or interference with contract rights.

(i) Any claim for damages caused by the fiscal operations of the Treasury or by the regulation of the monetary system.

(j) Any claim arising out of the combatant activities of the military or naval forces, or the Coast Guard, during time of war.

(6) Any claim arising in a foreign country.

(1) Any claim arising from the activities of the Tennessee Valley Authority.

ATTORNEYS' FEES SEO. 422. The court rendering a judgment for the plaintiff pursuant to part 3 of this title, or the head of the Federal agency or his designee making an award pursuant to part 2 of this title, or the Attorney General making a disposition pursuant to section 413 of this title, as the case may be, may, as a part of the judgment, award, or settlement, determine and allow reasonable attorney's fees, which, if the recovery is $500 or more, shall not exceed 10 per centum of the amount recovered under part 2, or 20 per centum of the amount recovered under part 3, to be paid out of but not in addition to the amount of judgment, award, or settlement recovered, to the attorneys representing the claimant. Any attorney who charges, demands, receives, or collects for services rendered in connection with such claim any amount in excess of that allowed under this section, if recovery be had, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall, upon conviction thereof, be subject to a fine of not more than $2,000 or imprisonment for not inore than one year, or both.

EXCLUSIVENESS OF REMEDY

Sec. 423. From and after the date of enactment of this Act, the authority of any Federal agency to sue and be sued in its own name shall not be construed to authorize suits against such Federal agency on claims which are cognizable under part 3 of this title, and the remedies provided by this title in such cases shall be exclusive.

CERTAIN STATUTES INAPPLICABLE

SEC. 424. (a) All provisions of law authorizing any Federal agency to consider, ascertain, adjust, or determine claims on account of damage to or loss of property, or on account of personal injury or death, caused by the negligent or wrongful act or omission of any employee of the Government while acting within the scope of his office or employment, are hereby repealed in respect of claims cognizable under part 2 of this title and accruing on and after January 1, 1945, including, but without limitation, the provisions granting such authorization now contained in the following laws:

Public Law Numbered 375, Sixty-seventh Congress, approved December 28, 1922 (42 Stat. 1066; U. S. C., title 31, secs. 213-217).

Public Law Numbered 207, Sixty-sixth Congress, approved June 5, 1920 (41 Stat. 1054; V. S.C., title 33, sec. 853).

I’ublic Law Numbered isi, Seventy-fourth Congress, approved March 20, 1936 (49 Stat. 1181; U.S.C., title 31, sec. 224b).

Public Law Numbered 112, as amended, Seventy-eighth Congress, approved July 3, 1943 (37 Stat. 372; U. S. C., title 31, secs. 223b, 223c, and 223d).

Public Law Numbered 182, as amended, Sixty-fifth Congress, approved July 1, 1918 (40 Stat. 705; U. S. C., title 34, sec. 600).

Section 4 of Public Law Numbered 18, Sixty-seventh Congress, approved June 16, 1921 (42 Stat. 63), as amended by Public Law Numbered 456, Seventy-third Congress, approved June 22, 1934 (48 Stat. 1207; U. S. C., title 31, sec. 224c).

(b) Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to repeal any provision of law authorizing any Federal agency to consider, ascertain, adjust, settle, determine, or pay any claim on account of damage to or loss of property or on account of personal injury or death, in cases in which such damage, loss, injury, or death was not caused by any negligent or wrongful act or omission of an employee of the Government while acting within the scope of his office or employment, or any other claim not cognizable under part 2 of this title.

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