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Initiation and
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THE RELIGION OF JULIAN.-UNIVERSAL TOLERATION.—HE ATTEMPTS TO RE-

STORE AND REFORM THE PAGAN WORSHIP-TO REBUILD THE TEMPLE OF

JERUSALEM. - HIS ARTFUL PERSECUTION OF THE CHRISTIANS. — MUTUAL

ZEAL AND INJUSTICE.

Page | A.D.

Religion of Julian. . . . 135 He prohibits the Christians

351. His Education and Apostasy 136

from teaching Schools . . 163

He embraces the Mythology

Disgrace and Oppression of

of Paganism . . . . . 138

the Christians . . . . 164

The Allegories . . . . . 139 They are condemned to re-

Theological System of Julian 140

store the Pagan Temples . 165

Fanaticism of the Philoso-

The Temple and sacred Grove

phers . : ..: : :

of Daphne . . . . . . 167

Neglect and Profanation of

Julian . . . . . . 142

Daphne . . . . . . 168

His religious Dissimulation . 144 362. Removal of the dead Bodies,

He writes against Christianity 145

and Conflagration of the

361. Universal Toleration . . . 146

Temple . . . . . . 169

361-363. Zealand Devotion of

Julian shuts the Cathedral of

Julian in the Restoration of

Antioch . . . . . . 170

Paganism . . . . . . 147 George of Cappadocia op-

Reformation of Paganism . 149

presses Alexandria and

The Philosophers . . . . 150

Egypt . . . . . . . 171

Conversions . . . . . . 152 361. He is massacred by the

The Jews . .

154

People . . . . . . . 172

Description of Jerusalem. 155 He is worshipperl as a Saint

Pilgrimages . . . . . . 156

and Martyr . . . . . 173

363. Julian attempts to rebuild 362. Restoration of Athanasius . 174

the Temple . . . . . 158 He is persecuted and expelled

The Enterprise is defeated . 159

by Julian .. .... 175

Perhaps by a preternatural 361-363. Zeal and Imprudence of

Event . . . . . . . 160

the Christians . . . . 176

Partiality of Julian . . . 162

phrates. . . . . . 187

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363. State of the Church ... 228 | 370. Valentinian restrains the Ava-

Jovian proclaims universal

rice of the Clergy .. 253

Toleration . . . . . . 230 366-384. Ambition and Luxury

His Progress from Antioch. 231 of Damasus, Bishop of Rome 255

364. Jovian, with his infant Son, 364-375. Foreign Wars . . . 256

assumes the Name and En 365. I. GERMANY, The Alemanni

signs of the Consulship . 231

invade Gaul . . . . . 257

364. Death of Jovian . . .23 366. Their Defeat . .., . . 258

Vacancy of the Throne . . 232 368. Valentinian passes and forti-

364, Election and Character of Va-

fies the Rhine . . . . 259

lentinian . . . . . . 233 | 371. The Burgundians . . . . 261

He is acknowledged by the

The Saxons . . . . . . 262

Army . . . . . .

. 235

.

II. BRITAIN. The Scots and

Associates his Brother Valens 236

Picts . . . . . . . 265

364. The final Division of the East 343-366. Their Invasion of Britain 268

ern and Western Empires . 236 367-370. Restoration of Britain by

365, Revolt of Procopius . . . 238

Theodosius . . . . . 270

366. His Defeat and Death . . . 241 366. III. AFRICA. Tyranny of

373. Severe Inquisition into the

Romanus . . . . . . 272

Crime of Magic at Rome 372. Revolt of Firmus . . . . 273

and Antioch. . . . .

373. Theodosius recovers Africa. 274

364-375. The Cruelty of Valen 376. He is executed at Carthage . 275

tinian and Valens . . . 245 State of Africa . . . . .

Their Laws and Government 246 365-378. IV. The East. The

Valentinian maintains the re-

Persian War. . . . . 277

ligious Toleration . . . 248 384. The Treaty of Peace . . . 280

367-378. Valens professes Arian-

Adventures of Para, King of

ism, and persecutes the

Armenia ...... 280

Catholics . . . . . . 249 V. The DANUBE. Conquests

373. Death of Athanasius . . . 251

of Hermanric . . . . . 282

Just Idea of the Persecution 366. The Cause of the Gothic

of Valens . . . . . . 251

War . . . . . . 284

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MANNERS OF THE PASTORAL NATIONS. - PROGRESS OF THE HUNS FROM CHINA

TO EUROPE. — FLIGHT OF THE GOTHS. THEY PASS THE DANUBE.-- GOTHIC

WAR. — DEFEAT AND DEATH OF VALENS. - GRATIAN INVESTS THEODOSIUS

WITH THE EASTERN EMPIRE. HIS CHARACTER AND SUCCESS. - PEACE AND

SETTLEMENT OF THE GOTHS.

365. Earthquakes . . . . . . 293 | 378. Victory of Gratian over the

376. The Huns and Goths . . . 294

Alemanni . . . . . . 331

The pastoral Manners of the

Valens marches against the

Scythians or Tartars . . 295

Goths.

Diet . . . . . . . . 296 Battle of Hadrianople . . . 335

Habitations . . . . . . 297

The Defeat of the Romans. 336

Exercises . . . . . . . 299

Death of the Emperor Valens 336

Government . . . . . . 300 Funeral Oration of Valens

Situation and Extent of Scy-

and his Army ... 337

thia or Tartary . . . . 303 The Goths besiege Hadrian-

Original Seat of the Huns . 307

ople . . . : : : :33

Their Conquests in Scythia . 307 378, 379. They ravage the Roman

A.C.

Provinces . . . . . . 339

201. Their Wars with the Chinese 309 378. Massacre of the Gothic Youth

141-87. Decline and Fall of the

in Asia . . . . . . . 341

Huns ... . . . . . 310

379. The Emperor Gratian invests

A.D.

Theodosius with the Em-

100. Their Emigrations . . . . 312

pire of the East . . . . 342

The White Huns of Sogdiana 312 Birth and Character of Theo-

The Huns of the Volga . . 313

dosius . . . . . . . 343

Their Conquest of the Alani. 314 | 379-382. His prudent and success-

375. Their Victories over the Goths 316

ful. Conduct of the Gothic

376. The Goths implore the Protec-

War. . . . . . . . 346

tion of Valens

Divisions, Defeat, and Sub-

They are transported over the

mission of the Goths. . 348

Danube into the Roman 381. Death and Funeral of Atha-

Empire . . . . . . . 320

naric, . . . . . . . 349

Their Distress and Discontent 322 386. Invasion and Defeat of the

Revolt of the Goths in Mæsia,

Gruthungi, or Ostrogoths . 351

and their first Victories : 324 383-395. Settlement of the Goths

They penetrate into Thrace . 326

in Thrace and Asia . . . 352

377. Operations of the Gothic War 328 Their hostile Sentiments . . 354

Union of the Goths with the

Huns, Alani, &c. . . . 330

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• MAP OF WESTERN Asia, SHOWING THE MARCHES OF JULIAN

AND HERACLIUS . . . . . . . . . . . .

Frontispiece.

THE

HISTORY

OF

THE DECLINE AND FALL

OF THE

ROMAN EMPIRE.

CHAPTER XX.

THE MOTIVES, PROGRESS, AND EFFECTS OF THE CONVERSION OF CONSTAN

TINE. — LEGAL ESTABLISHMENT AND CONSTITUTION OF THE CHRISTIAN OR CATHOLIC CHURCH.

TINE. — LEGATROGRESS, AND EF

The public establishment of Christianity may be considered as one of those important and domestic revolutions which excite the most lively curiosity, and afford the most valuable instruction. The victories and the civil policy of Constantine no longer influence the state of Europe ; but a considerable portion of the globe still retains the impression which it received from the conversion of that monarch ; and the ecclesiastical institutions of his reign are still connected, by an indissoluble chain, with the opinions, the passions, and the interests, of the present generation.

In the consideration of a subject which may be examined with impartiality, but cannot be viewed with indifference, a difficulty immediately arises of a very unexpected nature—that conversion of

Constantine. of ascertaining the real and precise date of the conversion of Constantine. The eloquent Lactantius, in the midst of A.D. 306. his court, seems impatient' to proclaim to the world the glorious

1 The date of the Divine Institutions of Lactantius has been accurately discussed, difficulties have been started, solutions proposed, and an expedient imagined of two original editions—the former published during the persecution of Diocletian, the latter under that of Licinius. See Dufresnoy, Præfat. p.v. Tillemont, Mém. Ecclésiast. tom. vi. p. 465–470. Lardner's Credibility, part ii. vol. vii. p. 78-86. For my own part, I am almost convinced that Lactantius dedicated his Institutions to the sovereign of Gaul, at a time when Galerius, Maximin, and even Licinius, persecuted the Christians; that is, between the years 306 and 311.

VOL. III.

Date of the

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