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CONTENTS OF VOL. III.

CHAPTER XXIII.

THE RELIGION OF JULIAN.—UNIVERSAL TOLERATION.—HE ATTEMPTS TO RE-

STORE AND REFORM THE PAGAN WORSHIP—TO REBUILD THE TEMPLE OF

JERUSALEM.—HIS ARTFUL PERSECUTION OF THE CHRISTIANS. — MUTUAL

ZEAL AND INJUSTICE.

A.D. Page

Religion of Julian . . . .135

351. His Education and Apostasy 136

He embraces the Mythology

of Paganism 138

The Allegories 139

Theological System of Julian 140

Fanaticism of the Philoso-

phers 141

Initiation and Fanaticism of

Julian 142

His religiouB Dissimulation . 144

He writes against Christianity 145

361. Universal Toleration . . .146

361-363. Zeal and Devotion of

Julian in the Restoration of

Paganism 147

Reformation of Paganism . 149

The Philosophers .... 150

Conversions 152

The Jews 154

Description of Jerusalem . . 155

Pilgrimages 156

363. Julian attempts to rebuild

the Temple 158

The Enterprise is defeated . 159

Perhaps by a preternatural

EveDt 160

Partiality of Julian . . .162

CHAPTER XXIV.

RESIDENCE OF JULIAN AT ANTIOCH. — HIS SUCCESSFUL EXPEDITION AGAINST

THE PERSIANS. — PASSAGE OF THE TIGRIS. — THE RETREAT AND DEATH OF

JULIAN. — ELECTION OF JOVIAN. — HE SAVES THE ROMAN ARMY BY A DIS-

GRACEFUL TREATY.

The Caesars of Julian . . .179

362. He resolves to march against

the Persians 180

Julian proceeds from Constan-

tinople to Antioch . . . 181

Licentious Manners of the

People of Antioch . . .182

Their Aversion to Julian . 183

Scarcity of Corn and public

Discontent 183

Julian composes a Satire

against Antioch .... 185

344-390. The Sophist Libanhis . 185

363. March of Julian to the Eu-

phrates 187

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Map Of Western Asia, Showing The Marches Of Julian

And Heraclius Frontispiece.
THE

HISTORY

OF

THE DECLINE AND FALL

OF THE

ROMAN EMPIRE.

CHAPTER XX.

The Motives, Progress, And Effects Of The Conversion Of ConstanTine. Legal Establishment And Constitution Of The Christian Or Catholic Church.

The public establishment of Christianity may be considered as one of those important and domestic revolutions which excite the most lively curiosity, and afford the most valuable instruction. The victories and the civil policy of Constantine no longer influence the state of Europe; but a considerable portion of the globe still retains the impression which it received from the conversion of that monarch; and the ecclesiastical institutions of his reign are still connected, by an indissoluble chain, with the opinions, the passions, and the interests of the present generation.

In the consideration of a subject which may be examined with impartiality, but cannot be viewed with indifference, a diffi- nhe culty immediately arises of a very unexpected nature—that conversion of

« .. , , .iff, • Constantine.

oi ascertaining the real and precise date of the conversion

of Constantine. The eloquent Lactantius, in the midst of *■»• 306.

his court, seems impatient1 to proclaim to the world the glorious

1 The date of the Divine Institutions of Lactantius has been accurately discussed, difficulties have been started, solutions proposed, and an expedient imagined of two original editions—the former published during the persecution of Diocletian, the latter under that of Licinius. See Dufresnoy, Prtefat. p. v. Tillemont, Mom. Eccldsiast. torn. vi. p. 405-470. Lardner's Credibility, part ii. vol. vii. p. 78-86. For my own part, I am almost convinced that Lactantius dedicated his Institutions to the sovereign of Gaul, at a time when Galerius, Maximin, and even Licinius, persecuted the Christians; that is, between the years 306 and 311.

Vol. III. B

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