Educational Philosophy in the French Enlightenment: From Nature to Second Nature

Forside
Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 28. jun. 2013 - 314 sider

Though Emile is still considered the central pedagogical text of the French Enlightenment, a myriad of lesser-known thinkers paved the way for Rousseau's masterpiece. Natasha Gill traces the arc of these thinkers as they sought to reveal the correlation between early childhood experiences and the success or failure of social and political relations, and set the terms for the modern debate about the influence of nature and nurture in individual growth and collective life.

Gill offers a comprehensive analysis of the rich cross-fertilization between educational and philosophical thought in the French Enlightenment. She begins by showing how in Some Thoughts Concerning Education John Locke set the stage for the French debate by transposing key themes from his philosophy into an educational context. Her treatment of the abbé Claude Fleury, the rector of the University of Paris Charles Rollin, and Swiss educator Jean-Pierre de Crousaz illustrates the extent to which early Enlightenment theorists reevaluated childhood and learning methods on the basis of sensationist psychology. Etienne-Gabriel Morelly, usually studied as a marginal thinker in the history of utopian thought, is here revealed as the most important precursor to Rousseau, and the first theorist to claim education as the vehicle through which individual liberation, social harmony and political unity could be achieved. Gill concludes with an analysis of the educational-philosophical dispute between Helvétius and Rousseau, and traces the influence of pedagogical theory on the political debate surrounding the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1762.

 

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Innhold

Introduction
1
The Educational Philosophy of John Locke
21
Lockes Educational Theory in Relation to his Philosophical and Political Thought
23
The Natural External Lockes Some Thoughts Concerning Education
35
Locke Father of Social Engineering or Champion of Liberty in Education?
53
Early Enlightenment Educational Theory Claude Fleury Charles Rollin and JeanPierre de Crousaz
63
Sources of French Educational Thought and the Legacy of the Jesuits
65
Childhood and Education in the Works of Claude Fleury Charles Rollin and JeanPierre de Crousaz
73
Morelly and Social Education Essai sur le coeur humain
143
Morelly and the Politicization of Education
149
The HelvétiusRousseau Controversy
161
The Scandal Over Helvétiuss De lEsprit and the Origins of the HelvétiusRousseau Controversy
163
Helvétiuss De lEsprit The Argument for Full Equality
169
Rousseaus Emile Books IIII Individual Education
181
Emile Books IVV and Emile et Sophie ou les solitaires Social and Moral Education
205
The Crisis of 1762 Children Belong to the State
227

The Limits of Reform and the Concept of Utility in Fleury Rollin Crousaz and Mme de Lambert
99
The Educational Philosophy of EtienneGabriel Morelly
115
Educational Theory at MidCentury
117
Morelly and Individual Education Essai sur lesprit humain
127
The Expulsion of the Jesuits and the Educational Reformers of the 1760s
229
The Influence of EducationalPhilosophical Concepts on the Reform Plans of the 1760s
235
Disciples and Critics The Impact of French Enlightenment Educational Thought
255
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Om forfatteren (2013)

Natasha Gill is research associate at Barnard College, Columbia University.

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