3 March 1863.

to whom and when such registered letter was delivered, which receipt shall be received in the courts as primâ facie evidence of such delivery.

96. The maximum standard weight for the single rate of postage on matter classed Ibid. & 33. as printed matter, and also on that classed as miscellaneous matter, is four ounces avoir- Single rate for dupois, subject to the exception in the next following section provided.

printed matter. 97. The rate of postage on transient mailable matter of the second class, and also on Ibid. & 34. all miscellaneous mailable matter of the third class (except circulars and books), shall Transient matbe two cents for each four ounces or fraction thereof contained in any one package to ter. one address; and such postage shall in all cases be fully prepaid by stamps, plainly affixed to the wrapper thereof; double these rates shall be charged for books. Unsealed circulars, not exceeding three in number, shall pass at the single rate of two cents, and in that proportion for a greater number, adding one rate for three circulars, or less number thereof, directed to one address. No extra postage shall be charged for a card printed or impressed upon an envelope or wrapper. These rates must in all cases be prepaid by stamps.

98. The rate of postage upon mailable matter of the second class, issued once a week, Ibid. 2 35. or more frequently, from a known ofice of publication, and sent to regular subscribers, Newspapers and shall be as follows: upon newspapers and other periodical publications, each not ex- periodi-als. ceeding the standard weight of four ounces, and passing through the mails or post offices of the United States, between any points therein, the rate for each quarter of the year shall be—for publications issued once a week, five cents; issued twice a week, ten cents ; issued three times a week, fifteen cents; issued six times a week, thirty cents ; issued seven times a week, thirty-five cents; and in that proportion, adding one rate for each issue more frequent than once a week. For weight exceeding four ounces, and not exceeding eight ounces, an additional rate shall be charged ; and on the same scale, an additional rate for each additional weight of four ounces or fraction thereof; and such postage must be prepaid for a term not less than one quarter nor more than one year, at either the office of mailing or of delivery, at the option of the subscriber, of which payments a record shall be made and preserved in the post office where paid ; and no such publication shall be delivered from the office until such payment is made; but the publishers of weekly newspapers may send to each actual subscriber within the county where their papers are printed and published one copy thereof free of postage.(a)

99. The rate of postage upon mailable matter of the second class, issued less fre- Ibid. & 36. quently than once a week, from a known office of publication, and sent to regular sub- Periodicals issued scribers, shall be as follows: upon newspapers, magazines and other periodical publi- less than weekly. cations, each not exceeding the standard weight of four ounces, and passing through the mails or post offices of the United States, between any points therein, the rate for each such paper or periodical shall be one cent, and an additi al rate of one cent for each additional weight of four ounces or fraction thereof : Provided, That the postmastergeneral may provide by regulation for the transportation of small newspapers in packages at the same rate, hy the standard weight of the package, when sent to one address; and the rates herein provided must be prepaid at either the office of mailing or of delivery, at the option of the subscriber, for a term not less than one quarter nor more than one year, except that newsdealers may pay the postage upon their packages as received, at the same rates pro rata as yearly or semi-annual subscribers, who pay postage quarterly in advance. 100. Publishers may enclose in their publications sent to regular subscribers the bills

Ibid. 2 37. for subscription thereto, without any additional charge for postage, and may write or Subscription print upon their publications, or upon the wrappers thereof, the name and address of bills may be enthe subscribers thereto, and the date when the subscription will expire; but any other enclosure or addition in writing or in print shall subject the same to letter postage, which shall be collected before delivery thereof.

101. The postmaster-general may, from time to time, provide by order the rates and Ibid. & 38. terms upon which route agents may receive and deliver, at the mail car or steamer, Delivery by routo packages of newspapers and periodicals delivered to them for that purpose by the pub- agents. lishers, or any news agent in charge thereof, and not received from nor designed for delivery at any post office.

102. The postmaster-general has authority to prescribe by regulation the manner of Ibid. & 39. wrapping and securing for the mails, all matter not charged with letter postage nor law

Wrappers. fully franked, so that the same may be conveniently examined by postmasters; and if not so wrapped and secured, the same shall be subject to letter postage. lle may also provide by regulation for ascertaining by furnished lists, by affidavit or otherwise, whether publishers send or have sent their publications unpaid through the mails to other than their regular subscribers.

(a) See infra 108. Vol. II.-33


Postmasters may remove wrappers.


13 Stat. 337.

3 Mar. 1863 & 40. 103. Postmasters at the office of delivery are authorized, and it shall be their duty,

to remove the wrappers and envelopes from printed and other matter not charged with letter postage, nor lawfully franked, for the purpose of ascertaining whether there is upon, or connected with, any such printed matter, or in such package, any matter or

thing which would authorize or require the charge of a higher rate of postage thereon. Ibid. & 41. 104. The postmaster-general may require an affidavit, in form to be prescribed by A fidavit of pub- general regulation, to be taken by any publisher, or any clerk, agent or servant of such

publisher of any paper or periodical, which, by the terms of this act, may be sent to regular subscribers without prepayment of postage, at the mailing office, to the effect that neither he nor any other proprietor, clerk, agent or employee, within his knowledge, has sent, or caused or permitted to be sent, through the mails, without prepay

ment by postage stamps, any copies of such paper or periodical (naming it), except the Penalty for send- same were sent to bona fide and regular subscribers thereto. And if it be ascertained than subscribers. that such papers or periodicals have been thus unlawfully sent, with the knowledge or

consent of such proprietors, or of the agent or clerk in charge of that business, or if such affidavit, when required by the postmaster-general, or by a special agent of the post office department, shall be refused, the person guilty of such offence, or refusing such oath, shall be liable to a fine of fifty dollars, in each case, to be recovered by suit before any court of competent jurisdiction, one-half of which when recovered shall be

paid to the informer. Ibid. & 43. 105. All publishers of periodicals, magazines and newspapers which shall not exceed Exchanges. sixteen ounces in weight shall be allowed to interchange their publications reciprocally

free of postage: Provided, That such interchange shall be confined to a single copy of

each publication. 1 July 1861 & 8. 106. The uniform rate of United States postage, without reference to distance, upon

letters and other mailable matter addressed to or received from foreign countries, when Rates of foreign forwarded from or received in the United States by steamships or other vessels regu

larly employed in the transportation of the mails, shall be as follows, viz.: ten cents per single rate of half an ounce or under, on letters ; two cents each on newspapers; and the established domestic rates on pamphlets, periodicals and other articles of printed matter; which postage shall be prepaid on matter sent, and collected on matter received: Provided always, That these rates shall not apply to letters or other mailable matter addressed to or received from any foreign place or country, to and from which different rates of postage have been or shall be established, by international postal con

vention or arrangement already concluded or hereafter to be made. 12 June 1866 & 1. 107. Prepaid and free letters shall be forwarded, at the request of the party addressed,

from one post office to another, without additional postage charge ; and returned dead

letters shall be restored to the writers thereof free of postage. 27 July 1868 2 3. 108. Section thirty-five of the act of March 3d 1863,(a) shall be so construed as to

permit weekly newspapers, properly folded and addressed, when sent to regular subWeekly papors to scribers, in the county where printed and published, to be delivered free of postage, county, to be free when deposited at the office nearest to the office of publication ; but nothing in this act of postage.

shall be so construed as to require carriers to distribute said papers, unless postage is paid upon them at the rate of five cents per quarter, and such postage must be prepaid for a term of not less than one quarter or more than one year, either at the office of mailing or of delivery, at the option of the subscriber.

XI. POSTAGE STAMPS. 27 Feb. 1861 2 2. 109. The postmaster-general shall be and he is hereby authorized, to procure and

furnish letter sheets with postage stamps impressed thereon (combining in one both a Stamped lettore

sheet and envelope), and to adopt such other improvements as may be deemed advisable, from time to time, in connection with postage stamps or stamped envelopes for letters or newspapers, subject to the provision that such stamps or envelopes shall be sold at the cost of procuring and furnishing the same, as near as may be, and to all other provisions of the 8th section of an act of congress entitled “An act to establish certain

post roads and for other purposes," approved August 31st 1852.(6) Ibid. 2 3. 110. The penalty of fifty dollars, provided by section 8th of an act of congress entitled Penalty to do in- “An act to establish certain post roads and for other purposes," approved March 3d curred by second 1853, (c) shall apply as well to the using of a stamp cut from a stamped letter or news

paper envelope as to the re-use of the envelope entire. 17 July 1862 21: ill. That the secretary of the treasury be and he is hereby directed to furnish to the

assistant treasurers, and such designated depositories of the United States as may be by Postage stamps him selected, in such sums as he may deem expedient, the postage and other stamps

of the United States, to be exchanged by them, on application, for United States notes ;
(a) Supra 98.
(6) 1 vol. 788, pl. 193.

(c) 1 vol. 789, pl. 194.

14 Stat. 59.

16 Stat. 195.

12 Stat. 167.

sheets to be furnished.


12 Stat. 592.

to circulate as currency

13 Stat. 37.

13 Stat. 337.

14 Stat. 60.

age stamps.

15 Stat. 196.


12 Stat. 703.

and from and after the first day of August next, such stamps shall be receivable in pay- 17 July 1862. ment of all dues to the United States less than five dollars, and shall be received in exchange for United States notes, when presented to any assistant treasurer or any designated depositary selected as aforesaid in sums not less than five dollars.

112. That the postmaster-general be and he is hereby authorized and empowered, to 25 Mar. 1864 2 7. suspend the operation of so much of the 8th section of the act of the 31st of August 1852,(a) as authorizes the conveyance of letters otherwise than in the mails, on any such mail routes as in his opinion the public interest may require.

113. The postmaster-general is authorized to sell or cause to be sold to individuals, 1 July 1864 79. corporations and business firms, postage stamps, in quantities of not less than one hundred dollars in value, at a discount not exceeding five per centum from the face Sale of postage

stamps. value of such stamps; and to sell or cause to be sold stamped envelopes, in packages containing not less than five hundred envelopes, at a discount not exceeding five per centum from the current prices thereof when sold in less quantities.

114. Whenever it shall become expedient, in the opinion of the postmaster-general, 12 June 1866 2 7. to substitute a different kind of postage stamps for those now in use, he shall be and is hereby authorized to modify the existing contract for the manufacture of postage Contract for poststamps, so as to allow to the contractors a sum sufficient to cover the increased expenses,


any, of manufacturing the stamps so substituted. 115. That section nine of an act of congress, approved July 1, 1864,(6) authorizing 27 July 1868 a 12. the sales of postage stamps and stamped envelopes at a discount, be so modified that the quantities of each sold, at any one time, to the same party shall not exceed one sales of postage hundred dollars in value; and such sales shall be restricted to certain designated agents who will agree to sell again without discount, under rules to be fixed by the postinaster-general.

XII. LETTER CARRIERS. 116. Whenever the postmaster-general shall have perfected the carrier system in any 3 Mar. 1863 & 12 postal district so as, in his judgment, to justify him therein, he is authorized to make delivery, within any prescribed postal district, of mail matter, by letter carriers, as Deliveries. frequently as the public convenience in such district shall require, and shall make all proper regulations for that purpose. 117. The postmaster-general is authorized, when in his judgment, the public interest

Ibid. & 13. or convenience may require it, to establish one or more branch post offices, and also Branch offices pillar-boxes or other receiving-boxes, for the safe deposit of matter for the mails and and receiving for delivery; and in case of such establishment of a branch office, the person in charge thereof shall be appointed and his salary fixed, as in the case of a letter carrier, and the like bond required : Provided, That the post officer in charge of the branch office Sale of stamps. may also be a depository for the sale of stamps, to be delivered to him for that purpose, by the postmaster of that postal district, in sums not at any time to exceed one-half of the penalty of his bond.

118. The postmaster of any office where letter carriers are employed may contract Ibid. 2 15. with the publishers of any newspapers or periodicals, and with the publishers of any Delivery of circulars, for the delivery by postal carriers, within his postal district, of any such printed matter. publications not coming through the mails, at rates and upon terms to be agreed upon, such arrangement and terms being equally open to all like publishers; but such contract shall have no force or effect until approved by the postmaster-general. The postmaster-general may also provide by regulation for the delivery by such carriers of small packets other than letters or papers, and not exceeding the maximum weight of mailable packages; but such packages must be prepaid by postage stamps at the rate of two cents for each four ounces or fraction thereof.

119. Letter carriers shall be employed at such post offices as the postmaster-general 11 July 1864 2 14. shall direct, for the delivery of letters in the places respectively where such post offices are established; and for their services they shall severally receive a salary to be pre- Salaries of letter scribed hy the postmaster-general, not exceeding eight hundred dollars per year: Provided, That, on satisfactory evidence of their diligence, fidelity and experience as When to be incarriers, the postmaster-general may increase their respective salaries, from time to time, to any sum not exceeding one thousand dollars; and each of the said carriers shall give Bonds. bond, with sureties, to be approved by the postmaster-general, for the safe custody and delivery of all letters, packets and moneys received by him.

120. All expenses for the letter carriers, branch-offices and receiving-boxes or inci- Ibid. & 15. dent thereto, shall be entered and reported in a separate account from the ordinary Payment of expostal expenses of such post office, and shall be shown in comparison with the proceeds penses. of the postages on local mail matter at each office, in order that the postmaster-general (a) 1 vol. 788, pl. 193.

(6) Supra 113.


13 Stat. 339.



13 Stat. 507.



15 Stat. 197.

be uniformed.

12 Stat. 11.

with writer's addreas, not to be

12 stat. 168.


1 July 1844. may be guided in the expenditures for that branch of the postal service by income

derived therefrom. 3 March 1865 2 5. 121. Nothing contained in the act entitled “An act to amend the laws relating to

the post office department," approved March 3d 1863, shall be so construed as to repeal Delivery of let or modify the 2d section of the act entitled “An act making appropriations for the

service of the post office department, during the fiscal year ending the 30th of June 1861,” for the delivery of letters and other mail matter from post offices where the system of free delivery by carriers has not been established: Provided, nevertheless, That the system of free delivery shall be established in every place containing a population of fifty thousand within the delivery of the office thereof, and at such other

places as the postmaster-general in his judgment shall direct: And provided further, Postage on drop That the prepayment postage on drop letters, in all places where free delivery is not

established, shall be one cent only. 27 July 1868 & 20. 122. The postmaster-general is hereby authorized to prescribe a uniform dress to be

worn by the letter carriers, at the several free delivery offices; and any person not Letter carriers to connected with this branch of the service, who shall wear the uniform that may be

prescribed in accordance herewith, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and being convicted thereof, shall, for every such offence, be fined not more than one hundred dollars, or imprisoned not more than six months, or both, in the discretion of the court before which such conviction shall be had.

XIII. UNCLAIMED LETTERS. 6 April 1860 21. 123. When any person shall endorse on any letter his or her name and place of resi

dence, as writer thereof, the same after remaining uncalled for, at the office to which it Letters endorsed is directed, thirty days, or the time the writer may direct, shall be returned by mail

to said writer; and no such letters shall be advertised, nor shall the same be treated as & lvertised, &c.

dead letters, until so returned to the post office of the writer, and there remaining un

called for, one quarter.(a) 27 Feb. 1861 2 6. 124. Letters which have been advertised under existing laws (vide section 26, act of

March 3d 1825,() and section 5, act of March 3d 1851,(c) shall be returned to the when you claimed post office department as dead letters, if unclaimed, two months after the date of the to the dead letter advertisement: Provided, [That] letters at seaports intended for persons on board of

certain designated vessels expected to arrive, and letters specially marked to be retained a longer period, shall be excepted from the operation of this act: And provided further, That said letters shall be returned, under regulations to be prescribed by the postmaster

general. Ibid. 27. 125. The unclaimed money from dead letters, now appropriated to the use of the Disposition of

department under section 26, act of March 3d 1825,(d) may be exclusively applied, in money found in future, to promote the efliciency of the dead letter office, by providing for a more careful

examination of letters, and the return of a larger number to the writers (whether with or without valuable enclosures): Provided, (That) said officer shall make a detailed

report of his proceedings to congress during the next session thereof. 21 Jan. 1862 1. 126. That the postmaster-general be authorized to return all dead letters, except those

containing circulars and other worthless matter, to their writers, whenever their names Dead letters to be can be ascertained. [All valuable letters to be charged treble, and all others double the

ordinary rate of postage, to be collected from the writers.] Ibid. & 2.

127. To enable this to be done, the postmaster-general is authorized to employ not Additional clerks exceeding twenty-five additional clerks, at salaries not exceeding an average of eight to be employed. hundred dollars per year, and no one to receive over twelve hundred dollars per year:

Provided, He is satisfied that the receipts for dead letter postage will amount to a sum sufficient to pay the aggregate compensation of the said clerks. And he shall report to the next session of congress the additional income from this source, with its cost and

statistical results. 3 March 1863 27. 128. The postmaster-general is hereby authorized to regulate the periods during which

undelivered letters shall remain in any post office, and the times such letters shall be Postmaster geno- returned to the dead letter office, and to make regulations for their return to the writers lations as to un from the dead letter office, when he is satisfied they cannot be delivered to the parties

addressed. He is authorized also to order the publication of the list of non-delivered Publication.

letters at any post office, in his discretion, by writing, posted in a public place or places,

in any daily or weekly newspaper, regularly published within the post office delivery, having the largest circulation within such delivery ; and where no daily paper is published within the post office delivery, such list may be published in any daily newspaper of an adjoining delivery, having the largest circulation within the delivery of the post (a) See infra 134.

(c) I vol. 790. pl. 203. (b) 1 vol. 790, pl. 200.

(d) I vol. 790, pl. 200.

uclaimed letters.

12 Stat. 332.


12 Stat. 702.

ciaimed letters.


13 Stat. 32.

13 Stat. 5:.

office publishing (the) list; but in no case shall compensation for such publication be 3 March 1863. allowed at a rate exceeding one cent for each letter so advertised ; (a) and no such pub- Compensation. lication shall be required except where the postmaster-general shall decide that the public interest requires it: Provided, That letters addressed to parties foreign born may be published in a journal of the language most used by the parties addressed, if such be published in the same or an adjoining delivery. 129. The postmaster-general may provide by regulation for the disposition, for the

Ibid. 29. benefit of the department, of printed matter which remains in any post office, or in the Disposition of undepartment, not called for by the party addressed ; but the postmaster shall notify the claimed printed publisher of any newspaper or periodical of the fact, when any subscriber shall refuse to take the same from the office, or shall neglect to call for the same for the period of one month, which notice may be sent free, under regulation to be provided by the postmaster-general.

130. The action of the post office department respecting foreign dead letters shall be Ibid. 2 10. subject to conventional stipulations with the respective foreign administrations.

131. Dead letters containing valuable enclosures shall be registered in the depart- 1 July 1864 2 15. ment; and when it appears that they can neither be delivered to their address nor to the writers, the contents thereof, so far as available, shall be used to promote the effi- Dead letters with ciency of the dead-letter office, according to the provisions of the 7th section of act Mires, low disapproved February 27th 1861, entitled “An act to establish certain post routes ;" and puzcd of. the amount thereof shall be shown in the annual report, and shall be subject to reclamation by either the party addressed or by the sender, for four years from registry thereof, careful account being kept of the same.(6) All other letters deemed of value or of importance to the party addressed, or to the writer, and which it appears cannot be returned to either destination, shall be disposed of as the postmaster-general shall direct.

132. All domestic letters, except letters lawfully franked, and duly certified letters 3 March 1905 ? 1. of soldiers and mariners in the service of the United States, which are deposited for mailing in any post office of the United States, on which the postage is unpaid, shall what !ters to be sent by the postmaster to the dead-letter office in Washington. And all letters depo- dead-letter Aice. sited for mailing, paid only in part, shall be forwarded to destination, charged with the unpaid rate, to be collected on delivery.

133. That the 7th section of the act entitled “ An act to amend the laws relating to the post office department," approved March 3d '1863, (c) be and the same is hereby componentiva amended, so as to authorize the postmaster-general to allow for the publication in newspapers of the list of non-delivered letters at any post office, compensation at a rate not ters. to exceed two cents for each letter so advertised.

134. When any writer of a letter, on which the postage is prepaid, shall endorse in 27 July 18, 8? 1. writing or in print, upon the outside thereof, his name and address, the same, after remaining uncalled for, at the post office to which it is directed, thirty days, or the time the prepaid letters :0 writer may direct, shall be returned to the said writer without additional postage, without request. whether a specific request for such return be endorsed on the letter or not.

XIV. POSTAL MONEY ORDERS. 135. To promote public convenience, and to insure greater security in the transfer 17 May 1844 ? 1. of money through the United States mails, the postmaster-general is hereby authorized to establish, under such rules and regulations as he may find expedient and necessary, Money.orilor a uniform money-order system, at all post offices which he may deem suitable therefor, established. and which shall be designated and known as “money-order offices." And it shall be the duty of the deputy-postmaster at every money-order office to issue, in such manner and form as the postmaster-general may prescribe, an order for a sum of money paya- Postal money ble by the deputy-postmaster of any other money-order office which the person apply. issued. ing therefor may select; and the deputy-postmaster who issues such order shall be required to send through the mails, without delay, to the deputy-postmaster on whom it is drawn, due notice thereof, and he shall not deliver such order to the applicant Notice to drawee. therefor until the latter shall first have deposited with him the amount of money for which such order is drawn, together with the proper charge or fee therefor, as hereinafter provided. And it shall not be lawful for any deputy-postmaster to issue a money order on any other deputy-postmaster without having previously received the money therefor; and any person who shall violate this provision shall be deemed guilty of Penalty for misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof, shall be fined in any sum not less than fifty nor without receiv. more than five hundred dollars.

ing money. 136. A money order shall not be valid or payable unless it be drawn on a printed or

Ibid. & 2. engraved form, which shall be furnished to the money-order offices by the postmaster(a) See infra 133. (6) See infra 156.

(e) Supra 125.

Ibil. 2 1.

for uvertini, unclaimed 141

15 St:et. 194.

13 Stat. 70.

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