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The proviso, as amended by Sir 1,200,0001

. to carry out a porta
G. Lewis's suggestion, was agreed of the scheme of National Dhe
to.

fences which had been sanct.com
Mr. Bentinck moved that the by Parliament in 1860.
proposed works in Plymouth A debate of considerable i
Sound should be postponed, un- rest took place on the proposiar
lil 3 decision had been come to of the Government.
by the Government, respecting The Earl of Ellenborough
the forts at Spithead. This mo. he was not content with the more
tion, being resisted by the Go- in which the works for the e
vernment, was rejected by 149 fence of the country had be

carried out. He complained
Mr. Monsell contended that the distribution of these wo
the forts on Portsdown-hill, were over a series of years, especiu
useless, and a waste of public now that the powers of art.eu

to 89.

money, inasmuch as it had been and of iron-cased ships huis stated that an enemy could, with much increased. Immediate ste out being touched by the forts, ought, in his opinion, to be take approach near enough to Ports. to render England superior : mouth harbour to bombard the France, in the number of iros dockyards, and he moved to re. clad ships, as on our superiorin duce the vote for those forts from at sea our existence as an inde110,0001. to 40,0001.

pendent Power depended. For
The amendment was supported the repair of these iron ships ner
by Sir F. Smith.

and more extensive docks and
Sir G. Lewis, in replying to basins ought to be provided. A
Mr. Monsell, observed that, as- present we were in this position
suming that Portsmouth would --we had lost the protection
be attacked only by sea, the forts our forts without having the las
would be superfluous; but the compensated by a powerful ime
question was whether Portsmouth clad fleet. In case of a war wie
was not liable to an attack by France, England would star.
land, and it was to defend it from alone. France had an amp:
a land attack that the forts were army, which could be used in
intended.

invading this country, while #
Upon a division the amend. had only 43,000 regular troups
ment was rejected by 132 to 50. and about 200,000 irregulars

After the rejection of some defend ourselves. Such was at
other amendments, the Bill passed the position we ought to occupy
through the House of Commons, and the Government were man
but with an emphatic protest by to blame for their expenditure vi
Mr. B. Osborne, against the lavish money in unimportant
expenditure of public money upon and for their parsimony whepenen
the fortifications.

the object sought to be attained
The second reading of this was the efficient protection of the
important measure was moved in nation.
the House of Lords on the 25th The Duke of Somerset defended
July, by Lord de Grey and Ripon, the economy of the Adminis
who, in a short speech, explained both in regard to iron ships and
that the object was to raise the payment of the navy. He

had not applied for a supplemen- from various authorities how in-
tary vote for iron ships for the tently the invasion of this country
simple reason that the vote taken had been meditated by the First
for that purpose last year had not Napoleon, and how that invasion
yet been expended. The Govern. had only been frustrated by the
ment shipwrights were devoting victory of Trafalgar. Arguing
all their energies to the con from the example of France, who
struction of iron-cased ships on was increasing her fortresses in
various principles, for, as the every direction, he insisted on
whole system was a new one, it the necessity of having a proper
was necessary to derive from ex- system of forts for the defences
periments that knowledge which of the country.
no theory could give.

Earl Grey wished to know
The Duke of Cambridge as. whence the men to man these
serted that every economy con- fortifications were to come, if an
sistent with efficiency had been army was at the same time to be
practised in the army; and that, maintained in the field. If these
although the expenses for the men were not forthcoming, these
service had increased, they had fortifications would be an encum-
been rendered necessary by re- brance rather than assistance,
forms for the comfort of the and he believed that it would be
soldier called for by the public impossible to find sufficient men
themselves. Such expenses could to man them. What we ought
be at once diminished if neces to have was an efficient navy and
sary, but, if they were, the corre- a small army, but so arranged
sponding advantages would be that it could be thrown in a few
lost. We had not sufficient infan- hours on any given spot. Our
try at home, and, although he had policy, therefore, was, by nieans
endeavoured always to keep one- of railroads and electric tele-
third of our force, he could never graphs, to direct a large force in
succeed in so doing. Under a short time against any place
such circumstances, in case of attacked. These arguments seem-
invasion, our main force would ed to him conclusive against for-
consist of irregulars, who, while tifications, for it was certain that
the regular army kept the field, we could not spare men sufficient
would be most useful, and most to hold possession of such exten-
serviceably protected by fortifica- sive works. Although he did not
tions. The Government had de- intend to divide the House on
cided to postpone completing the Bill, he was entirely opposed
these works, but he hoped that to the principle on which it was
no economy would prevent our based.
defences being made efficient. Earl Russell agreed that our

Lord Malmesbury rejoiced that first reliance ought to be on Her Majesty's Government had the navy, but insisted that it brought forward this Bill, as it pro. was our duty to have fortificavided for the safety of the country tions to protect those docks in cases of invasion. He proceed- and arsenals where the navy ed to refute the opinions of those was equipped and repaired. He who derided the idea of an refuted the attacks made invasion by France, and showed French policy, and pointed out VOL. CIV.

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matters

on

that the Emperor of the French alarm abroad and discontent at
was not antagonistic to this home, nor by allowing the de-
country, or, like Louis XIV. or fences of the country to fall
the First Napoleon, an enemy to below their proper standard.
the liberties of mankind. In his The Bill was then read a second
opinion the Government had time, and having shortly after-
wisely adopted a medium course wards passed through its remain.
on this subject, by neither increas- ing stages, received the Royal
ing our forces so as to excite Assent.

Co

that the Emperor of the French alarm abroad and disconteti i was not antagonistic to this home, nor by allowing the bo country, or, like Louis XIV. or fences of the country to fi the First Napoleon, an enemy to below their proper standard. the liberties of mankind. In his The Bill was then read a sexe opinion the Government had time, and having shortly aftə wisely adopted a medium course wards passed through its res on this subject, by neither increas- ing stages, received the Prin ing our forces so as to excite Assent.

CHAPTER VI.

COLONIAL AND FOREIGN AFFAIRS-Military Expenditure for the Colo

nies--Mr. Arthur Mills moves a Resolution in the House of Commons, afirming the obligation of Colonies enjoying self-government to contribute to their own defence-Mr. C. Fortescue, on behalf of the Government, assents to the Resolution, with some modifications suggested by Mr. Baxter - The Motion is agreed to-Mr. Adderley calls attention to the duty of Canada to provide for her own security against invasion-Remarks of Mr. A. Mills and Mr. Roebuck-Sir George Lewis states the views of the Government with respect to the protection of Canada and the employment of the British force there-Speeches of Mr. T. Baring, Lord Bury, Mr. Disraeli, and Lord Palmerston The Earl of Carnarvon, in the House of Lords, enters at large into the subject of Colonial Expenditure in general--Observations of the Duke of Newcastle, the Earl of Ellenborough, Lord Wodehouse, Lord Lyceden, and other Peers. Foreign Affairs — The State of PolandThe Earl of Carnarvon addresses the House of Lords upon the condition in which that country is placed, and the policy pursued towards it by Russia_Earl Russell's Speech in answer. The New Kingdom of Italy-State of opinion in England upon Italian Affairs The Marquis of Normanby takes a conspicuous part in denouncing the new régime-He charges the King's Government with unconstitutional and tyrannical conduct--Earl Russell controverts the facts alleged, and rindicates the King of Italy's policy - The Earl of Malmesbury justifies the policy pursued towards that country by the Government under which he acted as Foreign Secretary-Lord Wode. house arraigns the correctness of Lord Normandy's representationsThe Marquis of Normandy a second time brings forward accusations against the Government of Italy-His statements are controverted by the Earls of Russell, Ellenborough, and Harrowby, and by Lord Brougham--Sir George Bouyer makes a vehement attack upon the policy of the English Government towards Italy in the House of Commons-He is answered by Mr. Layard--Mr. Pope Hennessy defends the Papal Government from the imputation of misgovernment-The Chancellor of the Exchequer, in a very effective speech, confutes Sir George Bouyer's arguments-Speeches of Mr. M. Milnes, Mr. Stansfeld, Mr. Maguire, Lord Palmerston, and other Members. Operations in ChinaEmployment of the British force against the Rebels in

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country-Earl Grey calls attention to these circumstances, and im. peaches the policy of interference pursued by the British Government - The Duke of Somerset explains the grounds upon which the employment of a British Marine force has been sanctioned— Lord Stratford de Redcliffe approres of the course adopted-Earl Russell justifies the conduct of the Government --Mr. White raises the same question in the House of Commons, and mores a Resolution adrerse to interference --Mr. Cobden disapprores of the action of the Government-It is defended by Lord Palmerston and Mr. Layard Mr. White's Resolution is rejected by 197 to 88. Joint Expedition of France and England against Mexico - Lord Robert Montagu impugns the Policy of our Government in joining in the operations in that country-He is answered by Mr. Layard, who enters into a statement of the circumstances that had called for interference - The debate is brought to a premature close, the House being counted out. Indian Finance — Sir Charles Wood, Secretary of State for India, makes his Annual Statement on this sula ject-Differences between Sir C. Wood and Mr. Laing, late Finance Minister in CalcuttaRemarks of Mr. H. Seymour, Mr. Smollett, Mr. Crawford, Mr. Kinnaird, and other Members - The Resolutions proposed by the Minister are agreed to. Treaty between Great Britain and the United States of America for the Suppression of the Slave Trade-It is laid on the Table of the House of Lords by Earl Russell - Congratulatory remarks of Lord Brougham and other Peers.

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ferred to in the preceding chap- Empire to Imperial aid in their ter, the protection of our Colonial protection against perils arising possessions against aggression, from the consequences of Impeand the provision to be made for rial policy) is of opinion that their military expenditure and Colonies exercising the rights of fortifications, were brought on self-government ought to under. several occasions this year under take the main responsibility of the notice of Parliament. In the providing for their own internal preceding Session a Select Com. order and security." He indimittee of the House of Commons cated the area to which the in: had been appointed, to which quiries of the Committee had the general subject of Colonial been limited, and said his object military expenditure was referred, was to restrict the effect of his and a Report was made by them Resolution to those points within to the House. To this Report that area upon which the Com. attention was called early in the mittee had been unanimous. He present Session by Mr. Arthur read extracts from the evidence Dlills, who proposed Resolu- taken by the Committee in supa tion, founded upon the unani- port of his Resolution, which, mous conclusion of the Com- he thought, embodied the right mittre, for adoption by the principle on which the Imperial House. The Resolution was in authority ought to act in dealing these terms :-" That this House with those parts of our Colonial

these terms:-"That this House with those parts of our Colonial

country-Earl Grey calls attention to these circumstances

, ani's peaches the policy of interference pursued by the British Governance -- The Duke of Somerset explains the grounds upon which the pas ment of a British Marine force has been sanctioned-Lord No de Redcliffe approves of the course adopted Earl Russell jetisie a conduct of the Gorernment --Mr. White raises the same guests. the House of Commons, and mores a Resolution adrerse to interfere

: --Hr. Cobden disapproves of the action of the Gorernment–1142 fended by Iord Palmerston and Mr. LayardMr. White's Relics is rejected by 197 to 88. Joint Expedition of France and Enx's against Mexico - Lord Robert Montagu impugns the Policy of our ly vernment in joining in the operations in that countryHe is angreresu Mr. Layard, who enters into a statement of the circumstances tha: la called for interference --The debate is brought to a premature clox. 3 House being counted out. Indian Finance — Sir Charles Wide

Secretary of State for India, makes his Annual Statement on this who ject Differences between Sir C. Wood and Mr. Laing, late Fires: Minister in Calcutta Remarks of Mr. H. Seymour, Mr. Smais Mr. Crawford, Mr. Kinnaird, and other Members - The Resolutie proposed by the Minister are agreed 10. Treaty between Gres Britain and the United States of America for the Suppressie of the Slave Trade-It is laid on the Table of the House of Lords ! Earl Russell --Congratulatory remarks of Lord Brougham and othe Peers.

Empire which had undertaken Resolution, there being some of the office and exercised the the dependencies of the Crown powers of self-government. He to which it could not be readily suggested reasons why the Colo. applied. With respect to the nies should have the responsi- Ainendment, as it had been mobility of self-defence cast upon dified by Mr. Baxter, he agreed them, in local quarrels, instead to it on the part of the Govern. of leaning upon the mother ment, since it only enlarged, and country.

properly enlarged, the scope of This Motion was seconded by the Resolution. But he again Mr. Buxton, who disclaimed, as warned the House of the diffiMr. Mills had done, any desire culty of a sweeping and rapid for the dismemberment of our application of the principle it Colonial Empire.

embodied. Mr. Baxter approved the Reso Sir J. Ferguson thought that lution so far as it went, but, in Mr. Baxter's amendment went too his opinion, it did not go far far: it did not originate in the enough, and did not grapple with Report of the Committee, and he the main grievance. He moved, was sorry that the Government as an Amendment, to add the had adopted it. following words :-" That such Mr. Haliburton disapproved of Colonies ought to assist in their the Motion as ill-timed. He de.. own external defence." He cited fended the legislation of the an opinion expressed by the Com- North American Colonies, and inmittee and evidence taken by it sisted that Canada did not want in favour of this Amendment. British soldiers kept in the

Mr. C. Fortescue said he agreed country. It was hard, therefore, to with Mr. Mills that the employ. charge the colony with their cost. ment of the Queen's troops in After a few words from Mr, internal disorders in the Colonies Childers, the Resolution, was most objectionable. But in amended, was agreed to. giving, on the part of the Govern Towards the end of the Sesment, his assent to the Resolu- sion the same subject, as far as tion, he observed that there were referred to Canada, was renewed some exceptional cases, which by Mr. Adderley, who called the did not come within this general attention of the House of Comcondemnation. He concurred mons to the defences of that with Mr. Baxter that the policy country, and required of the recommended in the Resolu- Government that they should tion would not wenken, but declare, before Parliament sepastrengthen, the Colonies; he rated, their intentions on the subhad no doubt it would augment ject. Was the colony, he asked, their means of defence, and he thought to be exposed to danger? hoped that such a Resolution of If not, why were 12,000 British the House of Commons would troops retained there? If there impress this truth upon the was danger, to what was the minds of the colonists. He re- colony to look for protection ? He peated, however, that there were contended that it was bound to partial and temporary exceptions make exertions for its own deto the rule laid down in the fence, and that it had no special

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of the national defences re- of all portions of the Britis

:
ferred to in the preceding chap- Empire to Imperial aid in their
ter, the protection of our Colonial protection agaiust perils arisi:
possessions against aggression, from the consequences of Ime
and the provision to be made for rial policy) is of opinion
their military expenditure and Colonies exercising the rights »
fortifications,' were brought on self-government ought to unde
several occasions this year under take the main responsibility i
the notice of Parliament. In the providing for their own interna
preceding Session a Select Com. order and security.He ini
mittee of the House of Commons cated the area to which the I
had been appointed, to which quiries of the Committee bei
the general subject of Colonial been limited, and said his obje"
military expenditure was referred, was to restrict the effect of Ls
and a Report was made by them Resolution to those points with
to the House. To this Report that area upon which the Cox
attention was called early in the mittee had been unanimous. Hi
present Session by Mr. Arthur read extracts from the evidenx
Mlills, who proposed a Resolu. taken by the Committee in sup
tion, founded upon the unani- port of his Resolution, which,
mous conclusion of the Com he thought, embodied the rigti
mittee, for adoption by the principle on which the Imperia
House. The Resolution was in authority ought to act in dealing

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