plea for inaction. Yet, as re- make energetic efforts for their garded the defence of the frontier, own defence. This hope had the Canadians had done nothing, been in some degree disappointed or what amounted to nothing, to as the alarm of invasion dimin. provide against an emergency. ished. Looking to the manner One of two courses must be in which the affair of the Trent adopted, if we did not desire to had been adjusted, Her Majesty's lose Canada; either we must very Government did not believe that largely increase our force there, there was any immediate probaor let it be distinctly understood bility of a rupture of diplomatic by the Canadians that, unless relations with the United States. measures were taken for their An invasion of Canada would be self-defence, the British troops a war with England. He did not, now in the colony would be with therefore, think there was any drawn.

ground for sending out a rein. Mr. A. Mills differed in some forcement of British troops, and, degree from Mr. Adderley. He as to the penal withdrawal of thought that the consequence of these troops, that would be a suggesting such an alternative as policy unworthy the Legislature the withdrawal of the British of this country. Although great troops would be to provoke and irritation existed on the part of irritate the Canadian Parliament, the Northern States of America and that a more dignified course against England, wholly unde. would be to allow the Parliament served by the conduct of its an opportunity of reconsidering Government, and which had been what it had done.

mainly caused by the recognition Sir De Lacy Evans expressed of the Southern States as a bel. his opinion that there was no pre- ligerent Power, he could not but sent danger to Canada; that the think that, as the contest in United States had no means of America proceeded, the Northern invading it, and that if the people States would, upon reflection, see of the colony were true to them- that England had no alternaselves, the whole strength of the tive. Northern States would fail against Mr. T. Baring deprecated any them.

harsh proceedings towards CaMr. Roebuck said England had nada, which, he thought, ought never derived any benefit from not to be coerced but conciliated. Canada, which had treated us as Lord Bury observed that, though aliens, levying heavy duties upon Canada might not have done what our trade. He wanted Canada to she could have done, what she understand that if we maintained had done was only an instalment her independence, it was for her of what he had no doubt she benefit, not ours.

would do. In the meantime he Sir George Lewis reminded the earnestly deprecated the employ. House of the circumstances under ment of irritating and derogatory which a reinforcement of British language towards the colony, troops had been sent out to the which had shown in the field a colony. and the reasons which had will and a power to maintain its led Her Majesty's Government to independence, and a desire to hope that the Canadians would evince its attachment to British

rule. He contended that the country desired a monopoly of efforts which Canada had made their defence. were under-valued, and explained The discussion then terminated. and defended the conduct of the The question of Colonial ExColonial Parliament with refer- penditure was about the same ence to the Militia.

time raised on a more extensive Mr. Disraeli, after tracing the scale, by a debate which arose causes which had placed Canada upon a motion made by the Earl in its present position towards of Carnarvon, in the House of the mother country, observed that Lords. Taking a comprehensive he trusted to the sense and spirit view of the subject, the noble of the Canadians, and to the lord discussed it in its several ability of their Governors in the bearings, in reference to the dif. conduct of their difficult rela- ferent classes of our Colonial tions. He pointed out what he possessions, and he complained considered to be the faults of the of the serious magnitude of our Home Government, which had expenditure upon the depen. not reposed sufficient confidence dencies of the Crown in various in the resources of Canada. In parts of the world, which in six June last, before the affair of the years had risen from 320,0001. to Trent, they had sent troops 937,0001., and which, if naval and thither, thereby damping the military expenditure were added, ardour of the Canadians, by in- would be four or five times as dicating a desire to monopolize much again. While he did not their defence. At the same time, grudge the outlay of money on he did not agree with Mr. Adder- such fortresses as Malta, Gibley in all his conclusions.

raltar, and Bermuda, he doubted Lord Palmerston observed that the wisdom of expending large our colonies must be looked at as sums on such places as the part and parcel of the British Mauritius, St. Helena, and Corfu, empire, and, so far from wishing and condemned altogether the to see the day approach when fortifications at Jamaica, Nova these great communities would Scotia, New Brunswick, and Newdesire to separate from the mother foundland. If these latter cocountry, he hoped that day would lonies valued their connection be long deferred. But the con- with England they ought to denection must be preserved by the pend principally on their own link of mutual interest, and he efforts. He was quite ready to regretted very much that the local grant any expenditure for colonial Legislature had declined to make defences, if our honour and inadequate provision for self-de- terest rendered the position worth fence, which it was their duty to fortifying, and if the position was make. He denied that the send. capable of being fortified. He ing of 3000 troops to Canada in wished to see some definite plan, June had anything to do with the instead of none at all, on which refusal of the Legislature to pro. our colonial defences should be vide an adequate Militia. So based. In conclusion, he referred small a force could not have led to the Militia Bill recently passed the Canadians into the mistake in Canada, and declared its proof supposing that the mother visions totally inadequate for the defence of the colony, and unfair Lord Ellenborough concurred to the mother country by throwing in regretting that the Canadian the burden of protection upon her. Parliament had not passed the He moved for correspondence on Militia Bill, and could not un. the subject.

derstand by what infatuation The Duke of Newcastle pointed they had so acted. Enthusiasm out errors in the figures on colo. was no match for disciplined nial civil expenditure quoted by troops, and it would be idle to Lord Carnarvon, and asserted oppose the American army by it. that, instead of increasing, those If Canada wished to be defended, figures had been steadily de- it must rise like the Southern creasing for many years past. It States, and come foward in dewould be more correct, instead fence of its soil. of three classes, to divide our for- Lord Wodehouse thought tresses into five classes—three Canada should not shrink from for imperial, commercial, and her duty as long as this country naval purposes; one for the pro- was ready to aid and support tection of persons on the West her. Canada had recently preCoast of Africa; while the fifth ferred her own to Imperial incomprehended forts of small terests, and, while enjoying the value, and which might be aban- advantages of our protection, had doned. He could not defend a refused to share the burden. great deal of the expenditure on Earl Grey thought Her Macolonial defences, but he main. jesty's Government should intained the necessity of fortifying struct the Governor to call tothe Mauritius to protect the im. gether the Canadian Parliament, mense trade passing between and present them with the alterIndia and the Cape, assigned dative of making such arrangereasons for keeping a strong gar- ments as would afford our troops rison at Corfu, and pointed out support, or of seeing the troops the advantages of Port Royal as withdrawn from the colony. a naval station for stores for the After some remarks from Lord fleet. Passing to the North Lyveden, Lord Stuart de Red. American colonies, he showed cliffe, and Earl Powis, the the necessity of fortifying the Motion was agreed to. colonial harbours for the defence The debates of the Session of our fleets in case of war with on questions of foreign policy America, and assured the House were not, if we exclude those that measures were under con: relating to the United States sideration for the reduction of which have been already nocolonial military expenditure. ticed, either numerous or imThere never were so sew British portant. Some occasions, howtroops in our dependencies as at ever, arose on which the affairs present. In regard to the Canada of foreign States were brought Militia he concurred with the re- under the consideration of Parliamarks of Lord Carnarvon, and ment, the principal of which may much regretted that the first Bill here be adverted to. The condi. on the subject had not been tion of Poland was first brought passed. He had no objection to under discussion in the House of produce the papers moved for. Lords, on the 25th of March, by the Earl of Carnarvon, who said been made by this country by that he did not wish to treat the the expression of opinion in bo question as one of sympathy, but half of Poland. Since the comto consider how Russia had kept mencement of the reign of the the pledges she had given to present Emperor of Rnssia, con Europe with respect to Poland. cessions had been made to the Having shown how the national. Poles which fully showed that ity of the Duchy of Warsaw had the Emperor felt himself bound been extinguished, he recounted to carry out the guarantees given at great length the disturbances by Russia to Europe, at the Conand scenes of bloodshed which gress of Vienna, in favour of had occurred last year, and the Poland. But at this crisis the harsh means by which the riots disturbances of last year broke had been suppressed; referred to forth-disturbances which had the concessions which had been been checked by the officials with subsequently made in a circular undue precipitation and harshof Prince Gortschakoff (but which ness, although he believed that had never been carried out); and Prince Gortschakoff had no ininquired whether Prince Gorts- tention to act with cruelty. In chakoff's circular bad been com- regard to the present state of municated to Her Majesty's Go. siege, it was not for him to criti. vernment. He then dwelt on cize the measures which a Gothe condition of the Poles under vernment might take to maintain a state of siege, and considered its own internal tranquillity, but, the present time singularly op- as such a mode of governing was portune for Her Majesty's Go. of necessity of a temporary nature vernment to make representations only, he trusted that it would to the Russian Government in soon be considerably mitigated, behalf of the Poles, who had now if not abated. Nothing would relapsed into a state of tranquillity. give the Government of this With every wish to make allow- country greater satisfaction than ances for the difficulties of Russia, to see happiness and peace estahe felt that Poland was not only blished in Poland, but he did not a source of anxiety to Russia, but think any interference or remon. of danger to Europe ; but, while strance on the part of Her Mait was politic to remove this jesty's Ministers to the Russian danger by timely concessions, he Government would promote that did not believe that Poland was object. yet ripe for independence, nor 'The discussion then terminated. could he agree with those of her The condition and prospects admirers and sympathizers who of the new kingdom of Italy, the urged extreme measures.

policy of the Emperor of the Earl Russell, having alluded French in regard to Ronie, and to the restrictions which, as Fo- the critical position of the Papal reign Secretary, prevented him Government, were matters of from speaking as freely as he great interest to the English could wish, unless he was pre public at this time, and did not pared to give official effect to his fail to engage the attention of words, adverted to the ceaseless Parliament. Upon these sub. and vigorous efforts which had jects, indeed, opinions both in

the Legislature and in the nation ment and its agents, he concluded were in almost exact accordance, by drawing a sad picture of the but there were some exceptions present state of Italy, where tax. to the general unanimity, and ation was about to be doubled, the opponents of the Sardinian civil insurrection was in full sway, Government and the advocates and the country was divided by of the temporal power of the two contending factions. Papacy made up by their zeal and Earl Russell explained the cir. pertinacity for the paucity of their cumstances under which he had numbers in supporting the un- given explanations on a former popular cause. Among these occasion concerning a military champions of the old régime proclamation issued in Southern the Marquis of Normanby was Italy, and repudiated any intenconspicuous, and in this, as in tion of accusing the editor of the preceding Sessions, availed him- paper in which it appeared of self of every occasion to censure forgery. Having read to the the policy of the King of Italy, Hlouse a letter from Mr. Bonham and invoke sympathy for the on the subject, from which it apexiled potentates of the Italian peared that the proclamation, Peninsula. At an early period drawn up by a Major command. of the Session the noble Mar. ing a battalion, was immediately quis, in moving for various de cancelled by the General com. spatches relating to Government manding the district, on its prosecutions of the press in Italy being submitted for his apduring the last two years, to proval, he observed that he arbitrary military proclamations thought the Armonia had not issued in the Neapolitan territory, acted fairly in suppressing that and to statements of facts as to fact when it published the prothe condition of Southern Italy clamation. The English Gomade by the Neapolitan deputies vernment was not responsible for in the Parliament at Turin, ex- arbitrary acts committed in Italy; pressed himself in very strong but if arbitrary acts in regard to terms against the prosecutions of the press were perpetrated now, the press which had occurred in it was only fair to contrast the Italy both before and since the present liberty of the Italian death of Count Cavour. He ad. press with what it was not many vised the Foreign Secretary and years ago. He denied the exthe Duke of Argyll to obtain bet istence of a civil war in Italy, for ter information on the subject of the brigands had no large armies. Italian clemency before they de- had taken no large town, nor fended the military proclamations were able for a moment to hold of the Piedmontese, and hoped their own against the Piedmon. that as news of the capture of tese. If the Neapolitan districts Alcanura had been just rc. were disorganized, it was due to ceived, Lord Russell would no the demoralizing influence of the longer deny that civil war exinted displaced Government. In sup in South Italy. After entering port of this view he quoted the into a detailed account of the va opinions of Mr Bonham and of Ge. rious unconstitutional and tyran- neral La Marmora, who described nical acts of the Italian Govern- the bands in South Italy not

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