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mented Sir G. Bowyer upon this tion which our Ministers pronew proof of his fidelity to his fessed to observe. Earl Grey Church, and of his zeal for a called the attention of the House falling cause —— though he had of Lords to this subject on the not done that cause much good 28th of July, and on the same by the manner in which he had evening it was brought under brought the subject before the notice in the House of ComHousc. He believed, in opposi- mons. The noble earl who tion to Mr. Maguire's prophecy, introduced the question in the that it was impossible the tem- Upper House, having moved for poral power of the Pope could copies of correspondence explainlast; every day the people of ing the footing upon which the Italy were thereby alienated more employment of British officers and more from his spiritual au- was authorized under the Gothority, so that it was the inte vernment of China, expressed his rest of the Pope to divest himself opinion that the policy adopted of his temporal power, which on this subject was so novel others so much abused. No and so hazardous in its possible doubt the question was in the results, that it was desirable Parhands of the Emperor of the liament, before its separation, French, and it depended en- should know what engagements tirely upon the presence of a Her Majesty's Government had French garrison at Rome, which thereby incurred. The step taken was a violation of the principle of was a departure from that neu. non-intervention recognized by trality we had hitherto observed France as well as by England, between the Chinese Govern. and a departure from the object ment and the rebels, which had of making Italy free. As to the been violated by our defenco of conduct of the British Govern- the recently-opened ports. At ment, all he could say was, that some length he reviewed the their course had met with the correspondence which had taken approval of the people of this place on the subject, and dwelt country, of whose generous feels on the desire manifested by the ings in favour of a nation Taepings to maintain friendly restruggling for political freedom lations with the Europeans, until the Ministers had been the faith. suddenly the allies took on them. ful organ.

selves the defence of Ningpo, and The discussion then termi- drove the rebels from that place. nated.

Why had this policy, fraught with The course taken by Her great danger, been adopted ?Majesty's Government in au- policy which had bound us in thorizing the employment of offensive and defensive relations some part of the British ma- with a Government incapable of rine force in operations against protecting either its subjects or the rebel party in China, was re- itself. garded by some persons in this The Duke of Somerset er. country as an impolitic inter- plained that a compact having ference with the quarrels of a been made between the Admiral foreign nation, and a departure and the Taepings, by which it from that rule of non-intervenwas agreed that the rebels were

not to come within 34 miles of pressing the Taepings, but to Shanghai, the Taepings had defend the treaty ports, and broken the agreement. "To pro- thereby to allow the Chinese tect the large amount of British Government to concentrate its property in that town the Chinese efforts against the rebels. Our Government had asked some Bri: object in so acting was not tish officers to organize a fleet of to provoke war, but to ensure gunboats to suppress the pirates, peace, for the development of and these officers had received trade depended on the suppresthe sanction of the Admiralty to sion of the rebellion. comply with the request. Up to Earl Grey in reply condemned the present time we had kept a the policy of our Government as police of small vessels there, and impolitic, unjust, and calculated the time had now come when we to embroil us with a large pormust either leave China and the tion of the Chinese people. recently opened ports, or afford The motion was agreed to. the assistance which the Chinese In the House of Commons, the Government required. There policy of our Government in rewas no objection to produce the gard to the recent operations in papers moved for.

China was called in question by Lord Stratford de Redcliffe Mr. White, one of the members supported the course adopted by for Brighton, who moved a Resothe Government.

lution in these terms :--" That it Earl Russell said that, al- is the opinion of this House that though the policy of the Govern- Her Majesty's Ministers should ment seemed to violate the neu- direct the British authorities and trality we had so far maintained, commanders of Her Majesty's the circumstances were excep. naval and military forces in China tional. The rapid increase of to avoid any intervention beyond our trade in China rendered it that absolutely necessary for the necessary to defend the vast in- defence of those British subjects terests we had there at stake. who abstain from all interference Ningpo had in consequence been in the civil war now raging in retaken, as it was found that the that country." In a speech of Taepings would not refrain from some length Mr. Wbite severely injuring property and molesting censured Lord Palmerston's trade. When the rebels ap Chinese policy, which had once proached Shanghai the French more dragged us into what in and English Ambassadors were reality amounted to war in that convinced that steps must be country. We had been dragged taken to defend the port, or all by that aggressive policy into an trade would be destroyed. Every open rupture with the Taepings, account of the Taepings yet re- and pledged to an alliance against ceived agreed in this, that they them with the Imperial Govern. were powerful to destroy, but ment. He demanded an explanaunable to create, a Government. tion of this from Lord PalmerUnder these circumstances, and ston, who, however, he feared, by the advice of Mr. Bruce, it was always disposed to support had been determined not to aid British officials abroad in acts of the Chinese Government in sup- aggression,

VOL. CIV.

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Mr. Layard (Under-Secretary for the interest of this country for Foreign Affairs) described the and China, and for the encourageTaepings as a mere band of ruth- ment of trade. The Taepings less marauders and plunderers, were the enemies of all order, whose political and religious sys. trade, and property, and in simply tem was alike absurd, and quoted defending our treaty ports and the opinion to that effect of men their immediate neighbourhood who had at first thought them from their attacks we were merely worthy of support. Our inter- doing what our interest eompelled ference was limited to the protec- us to do. In conclusion he hoped tion of our own interests from that Mr. White and Mr. Cobden these robbers, and to giving a having shown that they could moral support to the Government, “sympathise with the lowest and representing the party of order, basest of mankind," would not as against the Taepings, repre- persevere with their motion. senting the party of disorder. Mr. Whiteside supported the

Mr. Cobden expressed his great Resolution. dissatisfaction with Mr. Layard's Mr. Walpole, though disap. speech. We ourselves were part- proving of the policy of our Go. ly responsible for the present vernment in China, opposed the state of anarchy in China, and Resolution, as being a direction our Chinese policy was radically to the Government from the wrong. Our attempts to open up House on a subject on which a trade with China by an aggres. they were imperfectly informed. sive policy were not only un- The motion was negatived on justifiable, but had not actually a division by 197 to 88. been followed by any real exten- The operations which were sion of commerce. Our true taking place in Mexico, under policy was to avoid, as much as the combined forces of France possible, all political contact with and England, were made the China, and let trade and com- object of a rather severe criticism. merce run in their natural courses. just before the end of the Session, He also recommended our with- by Lord Robert Montagu, who drawal from some of the treaty accused the Queen's Government ports, and the concentration of our of needless intervention, and untrade at Shanghai and Canton. due subserviency to France. War

Lord Palmerston said that if, had been entered into, the noble as Mr. Cobden asserted, the Tae. Lord said, without the consent or ping rebellion was the result of even knowledge of Parliament. our wrongfully undermining the When, too, a convention had been Imperial Government, he was agreed upon, giving us the redress bound, on his own principle that we sought, our Government had, a just retribution would overtake in deference to France, who had those who refused to redress an clearly outwitted us, repudiated acknowledged wrong, to assist the arrangement. He concluded the Chinese Government in put- by moving for certain papers. ting down that rebellion. He The conduct of our Govern. defended the policy now pursued ment in these transactions was in China at great length, asserting vindicated by Mr. Layard, L'nderthat it was the best possible both Secretary for Foreign Affairs.

Money had been pillaged, heM r. A. W. Kinglake then rose said, from British residents by to address the House, but there authority of the Mexican Govern not being forty members present, ment, and the diplomatic rights it was counted out. of our Ambassador violated, and One of the latest proceedings we had clearly a right to demand in the House of Commons, before and obtain redress for such out the expiration of the Session, was rages. Juarez, on obtaining the the Annual Statement respecting Presidency, had authorized fresh the Finances of India, which was outrages, and the Mexican Legis made by the Minister for that lature had rejected the convention Department, Sir Charles Wood. entered into with him, so that it Some additional interest was im. could not be said that we had parted to this statement by the been offered redress. The repre- dissension on' several material sentative of France, however, points of financial policy between under the influence, apparently, the Secretary of State for India of General Almonte, had advanced and Mr. S. Laing, the Finance into the interior, in the hope of Minister who had been sent from rallying round him a monarchical England to Calcutta as successor party which in reality did not to the late Mr. James Wilson. exist. The English and Spanish The disapprobation expressed of representatives feeling this to be some of Mr. Laing's financial beyond the objects for which statements by Sir Charles Wood they were acting in Mexico, in his despatches had led to had refused to be parties to the resignation of his office by an attempt to raise up a feeling the former gentleman, but his for the throne in Mexico, contrary views had been received with to the wishes of the people. As much approbation in Calcutta, to Sir C. Wyke's convention with and had met with support from General Doblado, it had simply some influential persons at been repudiated by Government home, who considered that he had on account of its objectionable been rather summarily treated by character, as involving us in his chief, and that his confessedly monetary transactions with the valuable services had not been United States, and had it not properly appreciated. The fact been for the promise of mort- that Mr. Laing had no seat in gaging the waste lands of Mexico the House of Commons naturally to the American Government, precluded Sir Charles Wood from that settlement might have been the same freedom of comment on tolerably satisfactory.

his proceedings which he would Mr. Seymour Fitzgerald, while probably have used had his ophe thought some intervention had ponent been present, but in the been rendered absolutely neces- statement which the Secretary of sary, accused Government of State was called upon to make, it having entered into the joint ex- was impossible to avoid some repedition with a clear knowledge ference to the existing controversy that both France and Spain between them. The right hon. meditated interference with the Baronet commenced his stateinternal affairs of the country. ment by some remarks upon the

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ANNUAL REGISTER, 1862.

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topics of difference between him- disturbing element in the acself and Mr. Laing, expressing counts, professing great asto. his regret that there should be nishment at the arguments he any personal ingredient in these had employed to support and differences, and his anxiety to justify these views; and he reavoid any observations that might iterated his own opinions upon be offensive to him. He com. the subject. Having thus cleared plained of the extreme inaccuracy the ground, he proceeded to state of the accounts transmitted from what the finances of India really India, which, he said, had been a had been in the last three years: source of the greatest annoyance to him, and which deprived the Years. Revenue. Charge. public of the means of knowing

1860-61 42,903,0001. 46,924,000L what they had a right to know

1861-62 42,911,0001. 43,506,000%.

1862-63 42,971,0001. 43,255,0001. the real state of the Indian finances. He then proceeded to The result showed, he observed. show, in details of figures, the a deficit of revenue in each year, alleged errors in the accounts which he expected would disap. furnished from India for the years pear at the end of the present 1860-61, 1861-62, and the esti. year, as we were approaching, he mate for 1862-63, accompanied thought, a sound system of Inby explanations of the sources dian finance. He stated the of the errors. The result, in progress made in public works 1862-63, was that Mr. Laing in India; and, with respect to had over-estimated his surplus cotton, he had been informed, he by about 1,000,0001., and, hay- said, by Sir George Clerk that ing remitted taxes to the amount the growth of that plant had conof 728,0001., he had really a de. siderably increased. He was ficit of revenue in that year. Mr. decidedly of opinion that the Laing, he observed, had assumed Government ought not to interthat the cash balances in the fere in this matter; that an ade Indian treasuries having in- quate demand would produce an creased, he must have a con- adequate supply; but all assistsiderable surplus revenue. Sir ance needed by cotton merchants Charles argued that this was an in conducting their own transac. untenable assumption, and that tions, he added, should be afforded. Mr. Laing's theory was erroneous. He adverted to the cbanges that He then discussed the question had been made in the Indian A3 to the loss by exchange of the Councils and the Governmental rupee into sterling money in the departments, and in the law trirailway accounts, being 2d. in bunals in India: to the state of the rupee, which loss had been the Civil Ser. ce; and to the omitted in the accounts sent from reductions in the army. He dwelt India, insisting upon the fallacy upon the good effects which hnd of the reasons assigned by the resulted from the policy now parIndian Government for the omis. sued towards the native Princes sion. He disputed Mr. Laing's of the country, and from the views upon the subject of the measures taken to create an repayment of advanc s, another intermediate class connected with

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