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tbe land between the chiefs and the peasantry. In audition to these measures, the merit of •which was due to Lord Canning, the Government had determined, as a proper complement, to carry out as soon as practicable throughout British India a permanent settlement of land tenures. Our Indian empire, he remarked, had suffered a shock which had left its lesson. Our power had been sustained by military strength; but a source of still greater strength would be found in the attachment of the people of India. In conclusion, Sir Charles paid a warm tribute to the character and services of Lord Canning.

Mr. H. Seymour thought that Mr. Laing's mistakes were excusable, the Government of India having concurred in his views, and Sir C. Wood not having given him timely notice of the errors. As to some of the questions, Mr. Laing, he thought, whether right or wrong, was not open to animadversion. He urged the necessity of a larger expenditure upon roads in India, and that more discretion should be left to the local Government. He complained of the present Home Administration and of the great expense of the department.

Mr. Smollett admitted that there had been a great reduction of expenditure in India and a material advance in the prosperity of the country; but he complained that the management of the Indian finances, a clear and simple matter, was very faulty: that the deficiencies were caused by extravagnnce; that there was a mystification about railway transactions, and he protested against the mixing up of the public money

of the Government with the private money of adventurers. Besides railways, the Government pa tronized other companies, which were floated by means of the mischievous system of guarantees, and hence the derangement of the Indian finances, over which the House did not exercise a proper control.

Mr. Gregson observed that, if there had been no Government guarantee, there would, in his opinion, have been no railways in India. He made a few remarks upon the points in dispute between Sir C. Wood and Mr. Laing.

Mr. Crawford accused Mr. Smollett of having spoken of Indian railway companies without a correct knowledge of the facts. Upon the financial questions, particularly with reference to the loss by exchange of the rupee, he explained the effect of the arrangement between the Government and the railway companies, and his own view of the subject, which, to a certain extent, coincided with that of Sir C. Wood. As to the cotton question, he argued that it would be a violation of the first principles of political economy for the Government to interfere. It was a matter of satisfaction to observe, he said, the great extension of the products of India. He expressed his gratification at the statement of Sir C. Wood.

After some further observations upon the points in dispute between Sir C. Wood and Mr. Laing, and a reply from the former, the Resolutions were agreed to.

A concession of great value in the eyes of the friends of freedom, was made this year by the Government of the United States. On the 20 th of May, Earl Russell laid on the table of the House of Lords a copy of the treaty just concluded between the States and this country for the suppression of the Slave Trade. He said the present Government of the United States had shown great anxiety for the extinction of the slave trade, and the present treaty, which gave extensive rights of search to the cruisers of both nations, would, he hoped, together with other measures adopted by that Government, go far towards the attainment of that object.

Lord Brougham, while congratulating Government upon the convention concluded with the United States, asked if some arrangement could not be made by which the right of search, now conceded within thirty leagues of the coasts of Africa and Cuba, might be further extended to within thirty leagues of the island of Port Rico?

Earl Granville replied that, as the United States Government were thoroughly in earnest on the subject, he had every reason to believe they would listen favourably to any suggestion such as that made by Lord Brougham.

CHAPTER VII.

Miscellaneous Measures. Settlement Upon The Marriage Of H.R.H. The Princess AliceThe provision recommended

0 by tlie Government is unanimously and cordially voted by the House of CommonsA scheme for erecting new Law Courts in the neighbourhood of Lincoln's Inn is proposed by tlie GovernmentMr. Selwyn and Mr. Walpole oppose the propositionThe Chancellor of the Exchequer supports itIt is rejected on a division by 83 to 81—Debate in tlie House of Commons upon tlie System of Competitive Examinations for the Civil ServiceMr. P. Hennessy, Mr. Cochrane, Mr. Bentinck, and other Members object to the systemLord Stanley and Sir George Lewis defend itThe House sets aside the Motion by negativing the previous question. Law OsHighwaysSir George Grey re-introduces the Bill for the Amendment of Highway Law, which had been in former years proposed and withdrawnThe Second Beading is carried, after some debate, by a majority of 111—The Bill, with some modifications, passes through both Houses. Transfer Of Land And Security Of Ti-jle To PurchasersBills for effecting these objects are brought in by the Lord Chancellor, and other Bills, with similar objects, by Lord Cranworth, Lord St. Leonard's, and Lord ChehwfordStatement of the Lord Chancellor, on introducing his measuresObservations of several of the Law LordsThe several Bills are referred to a Select CommitteeThose of the Lord Chancellor pass through tlie House of Lords, and are introduced in the House of Commons by Sir Roundell Palmer, Solicitor-GeneralHis able Speech on moving the Second Beading of the Land Transfer Bill—Speeches of Sir II. Cairns, Sir F. Kelly, Mr. Malins, and the Attorney-GeneralThe Government Bills pass a Second ReadingSir II. Cairns moves to refer them to a Select Committee, which is opposed by the Law Officers of Hie CrownThe Bills go through a Committee of the whole House and become law. Amendment Of The Law Of LunacyThe Lord Chancellor brings in a Bill, which is carried through Parliament, to simplify and abridge the inquiries under Commissions of Lunacy. Game LawsA Bill introduced by Lord Berners for the repression oj' Night Poaching, meets with much opposition in both HousesIt is passed in the Lords, but strenuously resisted by the Government and by Liberal Members in the House of CommonsSir Baldicin Leigh ton tales charge of the Bill, which is strongly supported by many of the Conservative partyAfter much controversy and many divisions hi favour of the Bill, it is passed into a law. Embankment Of The ThamesA Measure to carry out this object is brought in by Mr. If. Cowper on behalf of the Government It is referred to a Select Committee, which recommend* nn imjtortant alteration in the SchemeImputations made against the Committee of having given too much weight to private interestsTheir Iiejxirt occasions much controversyMr. Doulton moves the re-committal of the Bill, with a view to the restoration of the original planA rearm discussion ensues, in which Mr. K. Seymer, Lord II. Vane, Sir J. Shelley, Mr. Horsman, Mr. Cowper, and Lord Vaimerston take partMr. Doulton's amendment, being considered premature, it withdrawnMr. Locke proposes a motion with the same object at a later stage, tehich is carried by 149 to 109, and the sclieme of the B:ll as introduced by the Government is adoptedThe Bill goes up to the House of Lords, where the Duke of Buccleuqh makes a statement vindication of the course pursued by himEarl Granville, the Earl of Derby, and other Peers, acquit the noble Duke of all imputations, and the Bill is passedEnd of the SessionMr. Cobden give* notice that he shall offer observations upon the policy of Lord Palmerston's AdministrationHis SpeechHe arraigns the aggressive spirit of the Government as shown on many occasionsHe compares the Premier's conduct with that of the Opposition Leader, unfavourably to the formeiSpeech of Lord Palmerston in vindication of the Measure* of his Government, and of their conduct totrards Foreign StatesSpeech of Mr. Disraeli, who seconds many of Mr. Cobden's charges—Observations of Mr. Lindsay, Sir M. Peto, Lord Clarence Paget, and other MembersProrogation of Parliament on the 7th of August, by CommissionThe Royal Speech, as delivered by the Lord ChancellorEesults of the SessionStale of Parties and additions to the Statute Book.

A PROPOSITION for a settle- sides of die House. Another ment upon Her Royal High- proposal of a different nature, inness the Princess Alice, prcpara- volving a considerable charge tory to her auspicious niarringe upon the public purse, met with with Prince Louis of Hesse, was a less favourable reception. The made by the Government, and object of the grant asked for was unanimously and cordially adopt- the construction of a new builded by the House of Commons, ing, to afford accommodation for Lord Palmerston proposed that a the sittings of the Courts of Law dowry of 30.000/. and an annuity and Equity, in lieu of the existof 6,000/. should be granted, which ing Courts of Justice at Westhe considered would be a suitable minster Hall and Lincoln's Inn. f revision for the dignity of the Mr. Cowper, as Chief Commisrincess, and not too large a sioner of Public Works, moved demand upon the liberality of the second reading of a Bill for Fnrliatnent. giving effect to litis object, exTho Resolution for charging plaining at the same time the these funis on the Consolidated grounds of his motion. He set Fund was adopted nem. eon , and forth tho advantages that would accompanied with loyal and com- result from better accommodation plimentary expressions from both being provided for the Courts,

and from their being brought into juxta-position, which would be of pecuniary value to suitors. Looking at the subject in all its aspects, the measure was, he said, a most important legal reform. He proposed that this Bill should be referred to a Select Committee, which would ascertain the real amount of the charge the whole scheme would impose upon the country, and he added some details on the subject of die charge to those he had given on the introduction of the Bill. The maximum charge upon the Consolidated Fund would be 45,000J. a-year, subject to reduction and ultimate extinction, as the compensation allowances, amounting to 59,000/. a-year, gradually fell in. He was aware that the Society of Lincoln's-inn desired to keep the Equity Courts within the precincts of their Inn; but this desire did not meet with favour from the whole profession, and could not be set against the great advantages of bringing all the com ts and offices under one roof in a convenient site.

Mr. Selwyn objected that the proposed scheme would entail a very heavy expense upon the country, which, considering the present state of our national finances, he strongly objected to. He justified the claim of the Society of Lincoln's-inn to retain these courts within their limits, and moved that the Bill be read a second time that day six months.

Sir Henry Willoughby, Mr. Bouveric, and Mr. Malms, supported the amendment.

The Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Attorney and SolicitorGeneral, advocuted the Bill.

Mr. Walpole said, as prudent

men. as our finances were not in a flourishing state, and four out of the six Courts of Chancery were admirably situated, they

should hesitate before they proceeded to pull down a vast number of houses, and build new courts, at an expense which he was convinced would far exceed the estimate. Admitting the object to be a good one, this was not the time. In the present state of our finances he would not incur the responsibility of approving what he considered an extravagant proposition.

On a division, the Bill was lost by a majority of 2, there being 81 for, and *3 against, the second reading.

Among the questions of general interest which came under Parliamentary discussion this Session, was that of the system of competitive examinations for the Civil Service, upon the merits of which public opinion bad been variously expressed.

Mr. Pope Hennessy moved a resolution in the House of Commons in the following terms :— '' That the best mode of procuring competent persons to fill the junior clerkships in the Civil Service, would be through a system of Competitive Examination open to all subjects of the Queen, who fulfil certain definite conditions as to age, health, and character; and that, with a view of establishing such a system of open competition, it is desirable that the experiment first tried at the India-house in 1859, be repeated from time to time in the other departments of the Civil Service."

The motion was seconded by Mr. Vansittart, who read to the House the opinions of various

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