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be received there with transport, and that my soldiers would enter the town covered with flowers.
"I could not think of attacking the barricades of Puebla Bo long as the forts of Guadaloupe and San Loretto were in the power of the enemy; a direct march upon Mexico, leaving behind mo a fortified place, was impossible. I decided on retiring upon Orizaba."
During the retrograde march. General Zaragoza endeavoured to prevent a junction with the French of a Mexican officer named Marquez, at the head of 2500 men, who were opposed to the Juarez Government, but he was defeated, and the army, reinforced by this addition, reached Orizaba on the 1Mb of May.
The news of this check excited great dissatisfaction in France. It was evident that the French Government had been deceived as to the state of public feeling in Mexico; and no time was lost in sending out strong reinforcements to enable General Lorencez to force his way to the capital. A bill was passed in the French Chambers granting supplementary credits for the purpose; and the committee to which it was, as usual, referred, said in its report: "On every point where our flag is engaged, we will support it energetically.''
General Forey was placed at the head of the reinforcements, which reached Vera Cruz in the latter part of the year; and the
French army in Mexico amounted then to not less than 30,000 men. In the meantime, General Lorencez had remained at Orizaba, keeping open his communications with Vera Cruz; but no event of importance happened, and the year ended before any attempt was made to advance upon the the capital. The Mexican Government sustained a severe loss in the death of General Zaragoza, in whose place General Ortega, who, a few years before, had been an attorney practising in a provincial town, was appointed Commander-in-Chief. A letter was addressed by the Emperor of tho French to General Lorencez, in which he said :—
"1 approve your conduct, although it does not appear to have been well understood by every one. You did right to protect General Almonte, since he is at war with the present Government of Mexico. All those who seek a shelter under your flag have the same rifjht to your protection. But all that must not in any way influence your conduct for the future. It is contrary to my interest, my origin, and my principles to impose any kind of government whatever on the Mexican people; they may freely choose that which suits them best. All I demand from them is sincerity in their relations with foreign nations; and I only desire one thing—the prosperity and independence of that fine country under a stable and regular Government"
America.—Position of the hostile Armies at the Commencement of the Year—Federal Successes in the West—Capture of New Orleans— Battle at Pittsburg Landing—Exploits of the Confederate iron-dad Steamer " Virginia"—The Army of the Potomac—Description of the Theatre of War—Account of the Campaign in Virginia—Suxesses of the Confederates—Retreat of General McClellan's Army upon Washington—A permanent Government established by the Confederates—Inaugural Address of President Davis—Tax Bill passed by the Federal Congress—Issue of Paper Money—General F.unter's Order abolishing Slavery declared null android by President Lincoln— Call for 600,000 fresh Troops—Ferocity with tchich the War was carried on—Bill for Compensation to States that should abolish Slavery — Views of President Lincoln as to the Object of the Strugtle—His Plan for Emigration of the Blacks—He announces his intention to propose the Abolition of Slavery—Message of President Davis to the Confederate Congress—Proposal by France of Mediation—Despatches of M. Drouyn de Lhuys and Earl Russell on the Suijeo—Address of the State Governors to President Lincoln—Symptoms of Change of Feeling in the North—President Lincoln's Message to Congress.
DURING the isolation of the could afford space for it in our
Seceded States of North pages, without tie despatches
America from the rest of the and reports of tie Confederate
world, owing to tho rigour of Generals, which \ave not yet ap
the blockade kept up by the peared. We do not propose to
Federal navy, and which has attempt it, but shall limit our
continued since the beginning selves to a rapid summary of the
of the Civil War, it has been chief events of the campaign,
impossible to obtain authentic hoping to be able to fill up the
information as to the real na- outline at a future period, when
ture of many of the engage- we possess more complete and
ments and manoeuvres, of which trustworthy ma:erials for the pur
the account hitherto has been pose.
derived almost exclusively from At the beginning of the year,
Northern sources. It is, there- the main arm/ of the Confede
fore, obviously impossible to rates was within a few miles of
write, at present, a detailed his- Washington, and the Federal
tory of the struggle, even if we General McCltllan, who had em
ployed the autumn and winter in collecting and organizing the vast forces placed under his command, still remained inactive in its front. In January, a small body of Confederal:! troops was defeated at Mill Springs, in Kentucky. In February, the Federal General Bumside, with tho aid of gunboas, captured the Island of Roanoke, held by a Confederate garrison, on the coast of North Caro.ina, and a few weeks afterwards he took possession of Newborn. In the same month, tho Fedenl General Grant captured Fort Henry, on the Tennessee River, and almost immediately afterwtrds, Fort Donnelson, on the Riv?r Cumberland. This was followeo by the success of the Federal General Pope on the Mississippi, when, after an obstinate bonbardment, he took a strongly-fortified port of the Confederates, known by the name of Island No. 10, but was baffled in his attempt b reduce Vicksburg, on the same r.ver, which, throughout the year, defied all the efforts of the Federal], both by land and water, and has hitherto proved to be impregnable A far more important conquest, however, was the capture of New Orleans, on the 24th of Apri, by Commander Farragut Thii was the most brilliant exploit of the year, and a severe blow to tic Confederates. New Orleans was defended by two forts, Fort Jickson and Fort Philip, on opposle sides of the river below thccilr, and by a bar thrown across the aver, consisting of chains, booms, and sunken vessels. The fo-ts were aUo supported by about a dozen gunboats. The Federalflect consisted of 4« steam sloops and gunboats, carrying 286 guns and 25 mor
tars. After a cannonade between the forts and the fleet had been going on for four or five days, the Federal gunboats forced their way, on the 24 th of April, past Fort Jackson, and came opposite to the city, which lay open to the river, and was entirely undefended, as the Confederate army retreated from it when it saw that the place was no longer tenable. It therefore surrendered at discretion, and during the rest of the year, was held by the Federal General Butler, whose arbitrary and tyrannical conduct as Governor excited the deepest feelings of disgust and abhorrence. On the 6th of April, the Confederate General Johnston attacked General Grant at Pittsburg Landing, on the west side of the Tennessee River, nearlyopposite to Savannah. He drove him back upon the river, and would have destroyed his forces or compelled them to surrender, if General Buell had not come up with reinforcements, while, at the same time, two Federal gunboats in the river checked the Confederates by their galling and destructive fire. As it was, part of General Grant's camp wa> captured, and at nightfall the fate of the battle was still undc cided. Next day, the whole of General Bucll's force baring crossed the river, and joined the Federals, the combat was renewed with unabated fury, and in the result the Confederates were driven or retired back to their lines at Corinth, with the loss of their Commander, General Johnston, who was killed by a cannonball. He was succeeded b\ General Beauregard, who maintained his position at Corinth for several weeks, while the Federal General Halleck confronted him, with an army estimated at not less than 150,000 men. No engagement took place, and at last, General Beauregard quietly withdrew his whole force from the position he had occupied, and was already at a considerable distance before the Federals discovered that the lines which they imagined to be in possession of the enemy, were abandoned. An attempt was made to follow the retiring army, but in vain. It vanished so completely out of sight that for several months the Federals were in utter ignorance where General Beauregard and his troops were. General Pope, indeed, who acted under General Halleck, pretended that he had come up with the enemy during their retreat, and taken 10,000 prisoners, but this turned out to be simply an impudent falsehood. A series of obscure contests, with varying results, characterized the struggle throughout the year in the West Kentucky, Tennessee, and Missouri, were traversed by contending forces, large enough to be called armies, but no action of much importance was fought. In October the Confederates sustained a defeat at Corinth, and also at Perrysville, but in December, a body of 4000 Federals surrendered at Ilartville, in Tennessee.
A naval engagement took place in the month of March, in Hampton Roads, James River, which was remarkable, not only for the success of the Confederates, who were supposed to have no means of contending with the Federals on the sea, but as being the first occasion on which an iron-clad ship was brought into collision
with wooden vessels, and encountered also an opponent of a a similar construction to herself. A ship belonging to the United States navy, called the Herrimac, which was at Norfolk when the war broke out, had been seized by the Confederates, and having been plated strongly with layers of railway iron, was christened the Virginia. On the 8th of March, she steamed suddenly out of port to attack the Federal squadron at Hampton Roads. She crossed to Newport News, and engaged the batteries on shore and two large steam frigates, together with a sailing frigate and some small steamers. She sank one of the wooden men-of-war, burnt another, drove a third ashore, and was only prevented by shoal water from reaching the rest of the squadron, and destroying it. In the report of the Confederate Secretary of the Navy, he said :—
"The engagement commenced at half-past 8 P.m., and at 4 P.m. Captain Buchanan had sunk the Cumberland, captured and burnt the Congress, disabled and driven the Minnesota ashore, and defeated the St. Lawrence and Roanoke, which sought shelter under the guns of Fortress Monroe. Two of the enemy's small steamers were blown up, and the two transport steamers were captured.
"The Cumberland went down with all on board, her tops only remaining above water, but many of her people were saved by boats from the shore."
Next day, the Federal ironclad ship of war, called the Monitor, arrived from New York, and engaged the Virginia, but both vessels separated after a short contest without any decisive result, and went into port to repair their damages.
We now turn to the army of the Potomac, under the immediate command of General McClellan, which was destined to operate in Virginia, and on which the Federals chiefly relied for what they called crushing the rebellion.
The following description of that part of Virginia, in which the great conflicts between the hostile armies took place, will enable the reader to understand the nature of the ground, which was the theatre of such important events.
West Virginia lies west and south-westoftheAUeghany Mountains, which traverse the State from north-east to south-west in an unbroken chain, rising from 20U0 to 4000 ft. above the ocean level, and the roads which cross them aro narrow and bad, two or threo great turnpikes excepted. This part of Virginia is free soil, and adhered to the Union—the Confederates occupying only the extreme south-west portion of it.
The valley of Virginia is deep, fertile, and from 40 to 80 miles wide, lying between the crests of the Alleghanies and the Blue Ridge, which runs parallel to them on tho south-east This valley is traversed by the Shenandoah River, which rises south and west of the centre of the State, and pursues a north-east course to its junction with the Potomac at Harper's Ferry, 40 miles north-west of Washington City. Winchester, Strasburg, Woodstock, Harrisonburg, and Staunton, ore the principal places in the valley. The lilue Ridge is lower and smaller than the
Alleghanies (holding much the same relation to them as the Jura to the Alps), and is broken by repeated "gaps," through one of which the Manassas Gap Railway makes its way into the valley (which it connects with Alexandria) at Front Royal, which is near the junction of the two principal branches of the Shenandoah, some 25 miles above Winchester and 50 from Harper's Ferry.
Eastern Virginia consists of the residue of the State (all southeast of the Blue Ridge), being about half the area, and probably containing a little more than halt" the entire population. Its railways mainly centre upon Richmond, though one from Leeslrarg (a few miles north of Washington), and another from the south-west reach the Potomac at Alexandria. The Manassas Gap Railway diverges from the latter at Manassas Junction (SO miles south-west of Washington City), runs westwardlv through the Onp in the valley. and so to Strasburg, whence u follows up the north fork of the Shenandoah, and stops at Mount Jackson, halfway between Woodstock and Harrisonburg.
The Itnppahunnock River rises in the Blue Ridge a few miles from the south fork of the Shenandoah, and pursues an easterly course to Fredericksburg, some 60 miles south-south-west of Washington City, where it is within 10 miles of the Potomac. It has here become a broad, navigable stream, though its extreme sources are hardly HO miles distant. From Fredericksburg it has a general southeast course till it is lost in Chesapeake Buy.