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law was Somers seconded the mots i, where which was opposed in a su ce it was speech by Sir Robert Peel

, s o reason, cretary for Ireland. The la ay a man divided without further demos deceased when the nunbers were – ground

For the Motion 11 to marry

Against it
the Bill.
scripture

Majority.
t reconi On the 22nd May the Ol:
d, these nor Don called the attention

the House of Commons to the Bill. state of public education in La be wrong land. After some remarks up te-book a the model schools and upog u eral feel government scheme generals e insisted directed them more partien.se Scotland to the Queen's Colleges

. E t feeling contended that these instituna

Milnes erred against the principle as 1 answer the State was not bound to pr* meant to vide for the education of any nded to the lower classes, except us its logi- peculiar circumstances. I: liament been alleged that the estali -le, con. ment of these Colleges was e made fied by peculiar circumstania 2, doing but this he denied. Their arome s of the object was said to be to meet us

effect than to confirm the princi. Mr. Whiteside animadverted ple and policy adopted in Ireland, upon the intemperance of lanand it was impossible to contend guage in which some of the that the system of teaching had speakers had indulged, and upon not succeeded. He referred to the attacks made upon the Estareturns showing the satisfactory blished Church, contrasting these results of the national system, aberrations from the question and, with respect to the Queen's with the temper, ability, and mo. Colleges (the main point of the deration with which it had been O'Connor Don's attack), which it argued by the O'Connor Don. was said had not met the object He disputed some of the remarks for which they were established made by Sir R. Peel with referin 1845, he insisted that they had, ence to the University of Dublin, on the contrary, been pre-emi. which ought not, he said, to have nently successful, and had an- been dragged into this discusswered the purpose of those who sion. With respect to the charter had founded them. Sir Robert sought for the Roman Catholic entered into copious details to University, he remarked that it establish his position, and, in was not explained how the charter conclusion, expressed regret that was to be drawn, where the ausome of the Roman Catholic pre- thority was to be lodged, and lates should have condemned the whether the Crown was to be exsystem of mixed education, and cluded from all control over it. stigmatized the Queen's Colleges, Mr. Monsell insisted that there striving to narrow the basis of existed in Ireland a restriction secular instruction. He hoped upon Roman Catholics who dethat the Government and the sired that their children should Legislature would scrupulously have religious instruction with. maintain that system of combined out being debarred the means secular education from the influ- of obtaining academical degrees, ence of which such beneficial re- which should be opened to all sults had flowed, which had led, without the sacrifice of conscienyear by year, to the moral im- tious convictions. provement and social advantage Mr. Hennessy called attention of the people of Ireland. to the letter recently laid upon

Mr. Maguire replied to Sir R. the table respecting the foundaPeel, and controverted some of tion of additional Scholarships in his statements, denouncing the second year's course of the national system of mixed educa. Faculty of Arts in the Queen's cation as, in many parts of Ire. Colleges, and to the official reland, a monstrous sham. The turns on the subject. whole thing had failed, he said, The discussion was continued in every province but one, and by Mr. P. Urquhart, Mr. Lefroy, there the system did not produce dir. M.Mahon, Mr. Hadfield, Mr. the beneficial results which it had MacDonough, Major O'Reilly, the credit of producing. All that and Mr. More O Ferrall, who was asked in Ireland was, a na charged the Government with tional system under which each breach of faith in regard to na. religious body should have the tional education in Ireland. The training of its own children, debate then terminated.

wants of the Roman Catholics as in sup. Dissenters in Ireland, who cauza

e con. not receive religious education a 35 was Trinity College. In a religica k, and point of view, however, he us quired served, the Queen's Colleges te!

not less objectionable to Rome arried Catholics than Trinity College 116, so that the Queen's Colleges hat

failed to meet the object for which ution

they were established. It ma
ment said that the result had, on the
mpt- whole, been satisfactory. He de
the nied, however, that the Collezs

had provided an University edo-
5th cation to Roman Catholics com-
up- mensurate with the outlay.
con-

Sir R. Peel observed that this
to question had been often debated
Vr. in that House without any other

CHAPTER III.

The Civil WAR IN AMERICA — Policy of the British Government respecting it-Cases in which the interests of this country rere affected

- Debates in Parliament on International Law and Neutral RightsDetention of British Subjects in the States by the Federal AuthoritiesInquiry made on this subject in the House of Lorils by Lord Carnarron, and anscer of Earl Russell - Remarks of the Earls of Derby and Malmesbury, and other Peers. Sinking of the Stone Fleet in the Harbour of Charleston Questions aldressed to Ministers in both Houses on this subject, and their answers- hiemarks of Jr. Bright on the conduct of our Government in the Trent affair-Lord Palmerston justifies their measures. Blockade of the Southern Ports--Mr. Gregory brings forward a Jotion in the House of Commons on this subject - Speeches of Mr. Bentinck, Nr. W. Forster, Sir J. Fergusson, Mr. Vilnes, Mr. Lindsay, Lord R. Cecil and the Solicitor-General The Motion is negatired--The same subject mooted in the House of Lurils by Lord Campbell - Speech of Earl Russell in answer-Important Discussion on the Votion of Ir. Horsfall on the Law applicable to Neutral Commerce in Time of War-Speeches of the Attorney-General, Sir G. Lewis, Mr. Thomas Baring, Jr. Lindsay, the Lord Adcocate, Sir S. Northcote, L-rd H. Vane, Mr. Massey, Jr. Bright, the SolicitorGeneral. Mr. Walpole, Lord Palmerstin, and Jir. Disraeli; Jr. Horsfull withdraws his motion. Violent Proclamation or the Federal General Butler at New Orleans--Protestations are made in both Houses against this Document-It is emphatically condemned by Lord Palmerston-The Question of Mediation by England between the contending parties in America is discussed in the House of Commons on the motion of Mr. Lindsay-His Speech-Speeches of Mr. Taylor, Lord A. Tempest, Mr. W. Forster, Mr. Whiteside, Mr. Gregory, Mr. S. Fitzgerald, and Lord Palmerston-- Vo result follox's from the Motion. Supply of Cotton for English Manufactures- jlr. J. B. Smith cal's atention to the means of increasing the supply from India --He complains of the backwardness of the Gorernment in this respect -Speeches og dr. Smollett, Mr. Turner, Sir C. Wood, Jr. Bazley, Mr. Finlay, and aher Vemlers. Distress in the Cotton Manufao. turing Districts-Prospects of serere suffering to the operatives in Lancashire, from the suspension of uork, owing to the rank of Cotton - Discussions in both Houses on the subject, The Gorernment resolve

to extend the powers given by the Poor Lars for raising funds by rates in aid-Mr. Villiers brings in a Bill for this purpose, proposing to extend the rating in certain cases over adjoining Unions- The Measure undergoes much discussion-It is proposed that borrowing powers on the security of the rates should be given under specified conditions Debates on this question--The Government at first object, but afterwards yield to the evident opinion of the House of Commons in favour of Loans--The Bill is amended accordingly-It passes through the House of Lords on the 4th of August, after a debate in which Earl Russell, Lord Malmesbury, the Duke of Newcastle, Lord Kingsdown, Lord Egerton, and Lord Overstone take part, and becomes law.

CHAPTER III.

Fusion of work, owing to the want of Costa
AMERICA - Policy of the British Governing
n which the interests of this country were some
nent on International Law and Neutral R
Subjects in the States by the Federal Authords
subject in the House of Lords by Lord Career
1 Russell -- Remarks of the Earls of Der'y a
her Peers. Sinking of the Stone Fleet:
ton Questions addressed to Ministers in the
; and their answers Remarks of Mr. Briss
overnment in the Trent affair - Lord Palank
"es. Blockade of the Southern Ports-
urd a Motion in the House of Commons cad
11r. Bentinck, Mr. W. Forster, Sir J. Feroma
say, Lord R. Cecil and the Solicitor-Genete
red-The same subject mooted in the How
wbell-Speech of Earl Russell in answers
Che Motion of Mr. Horsfall on the Law applimele
Time of War-Speeches of the Attorney-beurs
Romas Baring, Mr. Lindsay, the Lord Adama

11. Vane, Mr. Massey, Mr. Bright, the
Fe, Lord Palmerston, and Mr. Disraeli; *
notion. Violent Proclamation of the Falcon
ew Orleans Protestations are made in
aument--It is emphatically condemned by Lane
on of Mediation by England between the ese
rica is discussed in the House of Commons a
say--His Speech-Speeches of Mr. Tako
V. Forster

, Mr. Whiteside, Mr. Gregory, #
Palmerston-No result follows from
ton for English Manufactures-Wr

. Job
means of increasing the supply from Besar
kwardness of the Government in this respect
1, Dr. Turner, Sir C. Wood, Jr. Beads
-mbers. Distress in the Cotton Vanowa
48 of severe suffering to the operations

THE momentous events which manufactures, which were impair

took place this year in the ed and almost prostrated by the United States of America, of stoppage of our commerce with which a full account appears in the cotton-growing States, and another part of this volume, na which filled all minds in Engturally excited a lively interest in land with anxious forebodings, this country, and were frequently be disregarded by Parliament. referred to in the debates which It will be convenient to follow in took place in Parliament. Her order the course of these discus. Majesty's Government, indeed, sions, which the disturbances in adhering strictly to their declared America gave rise to, from the policy of non-interference be commencement of the present tween the contending parties, Session until its close. avoided, on their own part, and On the 11th of February the discouraged, so far as it was in Earl of Carnarvon called the attheir power to do so, on the part tention of the House of Lords to of the Legislature, any expression the detention of British subjects of opinion on the merits of the in United States prisons, upon contest. Nevertheless, there were charges of political offences. The many points in which the contact noble Lord stated that he was in. of the civil war across the Atlantic formed that three British subjects with British interests, and with were at that moment in prison in questions of international rights, the Federal States, where they was unavoidable ; and it was had been detained for four or five necessary and proper that with months on secret charges, withreference to such matters infor- out a single allegation of any

sort mation should be given to Par- being made against them, and liament, and the sanction of without any hope of an inquiry Parliament should be obtained. into their cases, unless they con. Cases in which the maritime in- sented to take an oath of allegiterests of this country were af. ance to the United States. An fected by the blockade of the enormous number of American Southern ports, and which raised citizens were in prison for politidubious questions of interna cal offences, and although the tional law, could not be passed House liad nothing directly to do over in silence by the Legisla. with them, a few statistics on the ture; nor could the still more subject were necessary to show important interests of our cotton the treatment to which our coun.

ces on the subject-T'he Government revealed

trymen were condemned. In one He had no doubt that in some of of the four small casemates of the cases mentioned by the noble Fort Lafayette, 14 feet by 24, and Earl there might have been un lighted only by small embrasures, necessary suspicion and some there were confined, only a few ill-treatment, but he could not weeks ago, no less than 23 politiventure to say that the detention cal prisoners, of whom two-thirds without trial of persons engaged were in irons. There was no in "treasonable practices was ilpossible accommodation for clean. legal. Lord Lyons had repreliness or decency; the absence of sented the case to Mr. Seward, ventilation at night, when the who had not refused to listen to embrasures were closed, rendered his complaints, and no hindrances the atmosphere intolerably foul; had been placed in the way of the the water for drinking was ex British Consuls who wished for tremely bad, and for other pur- access to the prisoners. poses salt water only was pro The Earl of Derby said that, in vided. In prisons of this sort, this instance, the ciris Romanus" among others, two Savannah mer. did not appear to derive much chants, both bona fide British sub- benefit from his citizenship. jects, and an Irish navvy who had Though Congress might have gone to Harper's Ferry in 1860 virtually affirmed that the Presiin search of employment, were dent had power to suspend the confined. The noble Earl con habeas corpus, the existence of cluded by asking whether these that power had been denied by facts had come within the know. many of the most learned judge3 ledge of the Government, and had of the States, notwithstanding induced it to take any action in the somewhat unusual restriction the matter.

now placed upon the action of Earl Russell said the question the judges. If such power did was one of American constitu- exist, he could not say that it tional law, with which he had no was a very happy state of law concern. If, as had been main- under which to live. Earl Rustained by lawyers, and had been sell had adduced as a precedent recently asserted by a vote of the suspension of the habeas corpus Congress, the President alone in Ireland in 1848, but he (the had the power to suspend the Earl of Derby) defied him to habeas corpus, he, of course, had show any British or American the power of arresting persons precedent, when the condition, on mere suspicion of treason, and not of release, but of trial, was, we had no grounds of complaint. that the person arrested should In fact, we ourselves had furnish. forswear allegiance to his own ed a precedent as late as 1818. country, In the course of the disturbances Larl Russell replied that he in Ireland, in that year, the habeas knew of no case in which the corpus was suspended by Parlia- oath had been administered to a ment, and two American citizens British subject. were arrested ly the Secretary of The Earl of Malmesbury asked War, and detained without trial, for some information relative to solely by the power vested in the the exact nature of the blockade Crown by the Act of Parliament of the Southern ports. He had

In one

He had no doubt that in some si ates of the cases mentioned by the noba: 24, and Earl there might have been us rasures, necessary suspicion and som ✓ a few ill-treatment, but he could at 3 politi. venture to say that the detenta o-thirds without trial of persons engaged was no in treasonable practices was: or clean. legal. Lord Lyons hal repre sence of sented the case to Mr. Semand in the who had not refused

listen endered his complaints, and no hindrances ly foul; had been placed in the way of the

British Consuls who wished ir ter pur- access to the prisoners. as proThe Earl of Derby said that

, a jis sort,

this instance, the “ciris Romanus iah mer. did not appear to derire moe ish sub- benefit from his citizenship. who had Though Congress might hate n 1860 virtually affirmed that the Presi 'n were dent had power to suspend the r] con. habeas corpus, the existence of : these that power had been denied by

know. Many of the most learned judges nd had of the States, notwithstanding cion in the somewhat unusual restriction

as ex

heard that Mr. Mason had pub. would be willing to take any licly stated that so inefficiently steps on the subject? was it maintained, that no less Éarl Russell said he hoped the than 600 or 700 ships had broken rumour was untrue. The de. it since its institution. If this struction of Charleston harbour was true, it was impossible that would be a most barbarous act, such an illegal blockade should as it could only be looked upon much longer be respected. Lord as a a commercial port. The Malmesbury added a few words, American Government, in reply expressive of his distrust of the to representations on the subject, efficacy in time of war of the had stated the ships had been principle contained in the Decla- sunk in aid of the blockade, and ration of 1856.

not with a view to the destruction Earl Russell said, Admiral of the harbour. The French Go. Milne had been instructed early vernment had taken the same in the contest to furnish all the view as that of Her Majesty, and information asked for by the had remonstrated against any act noble Earl, and it would shortly which miglit lead to the destrucbe laid before the House. As to tion of the harbour. the assertion that 700 vessels had The affair of the Trent steamevaded the blockade, he had asked vessel, which had so nearly proMr. Mason what their aggregate duced å rupture between our tonnage was, but that gentleman Government and that of the was unable to give any answer. United States, was about the same Although there were but seven time referred to in the House of large ports under blockade, they Coinmons by Mr. Bright, who were connected by numerous took occasion to express his own creeks with other smaller ones, opinion upon the conduct of Her and many small vessels, with Majesty's Government in refer. small cargoes, might have escaped. ence to that affair. Mr. Bright On the one hand was the danger said he felt compelled to make of enduring an illegal blockade, a few observations on the great and on the other, that of incurr- inconsistency between the de. ing, without the strongest cause, spatches of the Foreign Office a dispute with the United States ; and the preparations of certain and he hoped that their Lord. other departments with regard ships would wait for further evi- to our recent transaction with dence before they proceeded to America. “It is not customary discuss the question.

in ordinary life for a person The intelligence the to send a messenger with a Northern States Government had polite message to a friend, or sent out an expedition in order neighbour, or acquaintance, and to fill up with stones the harbour at the same time to send a man of Charleston having been re- of portentous strength, wielding ceived in this country with much a gigantic club, and making every disapprobation, Earl Stanhope kind of ferocious gesticulation, inquired of the Government whe- and still to profess that all this ther the report was correct; and is done in the most friendly and if so, whether our Government, courteous manner.” Such, howin concert with that of France, ever, had been the conduct of our

nad no

that

now placed upon the action of
estion the judges. If such power did
nstitu- exist, he could not say that is

was a very happy state of las
main- under which to live. Earl Rus
I been sell had adduced as a precedent
te of the suspension of the habeas corpus
alone in Ireland in 1848, but he (the

the Earl of Derby) defied him to
had show any British or American
sons precedent, when the condition,

and not of release, but of trial, Fas
eint. that the person arrested should
ish- forswear allegiance to his own
3:18. country.
ces Earl Russell replied that he
Feas knew of no case in which the
lia, oath had been administered w3
ens British subject.
of

The Earl of Malmesbury asked
al, for some information relative to
he the exact nature of the blockade
at of the Southern ports. He had

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