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have been less than "moderately counties, and Northern counties, good;" for, although the average there was an increase of marof births was, as in the preceding riages; but in the Northern, the three quarters, somewhat in excess, increase is scarcely perceptible; the mortality was in excess like in the remaining six divisions wise,
there is a decrense : --- in the The total number of children North-Western division--that in born within the quarter was which the manufacturing industry 171,811 ; in the same quarter of has been so long in a state of pro1961, the births were 166,174. stration--the deficiency amounted In the whole year, 711,691 per- to 15 per cent. sons were born an excess of Although, no doubt, the health 16,129 over the number born in of the population in the distressed the previous year.
cotton districts must have been The number of deaths in the affected by their privations, it does quarter was 114,542 -- in 1861, not appear that the increased morfor the same period, 104,917. In tality of this quarter was due 10 the year, 136,514 persons died; local circumstances ; but is rather in 1861, 435,337.
to be attributed to the general efThese figures would give an fects of a wet and unhealthy season. increuso of the population, by the The proportion of deaths in the excess of births over deaths, of distressed districts rose from 2:46 275,177 persons; but this natural per cent. to 2.60 per cent.; but accumulation is diminished by the ihis is due to causes constantly at stream of emigrants. The whole work in the great manufacturing emigration of 1802 consisted of towns. The increase in York121,414 persons, from all parts of shire, which is not included in the l'nited Kingdom; but of these the distressed districts," rose in not more than one-third, or about a larger proportion ; and in Lon10,300, were of English origin. don the proportion rose from 2.22
There were 48,639 marriages to 2:14 per cent. Moreover, while in the last quarter of 1862; a in some of the divisions of the disnumber nearly the same as that tressed unions the mortality greatly of the corresponding quarter of increased, in others it sensibly di1801, but less than that of 1860. minished. The decrease in the The circumstances that have deaths of children, which has been tended to depress marriages in before noted, is again remarkable, England, have not prevented an and is attributed to the same cause increase of them in certain parts. as heretofore -- that the mothers, There is in England as much diver- not being drawn from their homes sity in the social condition of the for labour in the factories, have populations of different localities, more time to attend to their chilas in the nature of their respective dren. soils; they have their various The most noticeable feature of times and opportunities to win the condition of the people at this and to lose; to marry and abstain time is, of course, the increase of from marriage. In five divisions, pauperism. This is entirely due London, the North Midland coun- io the enforced idleness of a whole ties, Wales, the South-Eastern population dependent on a parti
cular manufacture for their sub- or 3 per cent. The lowest rate sistence. The average number of of discount, the highest price of paupers relieved in three cor- consols, and the largest stock of responding quarters was, in bullion were noted at the same
time-namely, in July. In this In-door. Out-door. 1860 ... 115,158 673,680
month the bullion had risen from 1861 ... 128,533 716,096
15,961,4391. to 18,448,4181. It 1862 ... 132,663 907,493
fell to its lowest point in Decem
ber, when the Bank returu was With the exception of the three 14,823,0001. counties of Lancashire, Cheshire, This equable condition of the and Derby (and indeed of parts money market produced and proonly of them), the condition of the bably was governed by the steady population was favourable — work and satisfactory course of trade. was plentiful and provisions mo- Excepting in those branches of derate.
manufacture which were atfected The average price of wheat per by the cotton famine, trade was quarter in Dec., 1862, was 488.21.; brisk, and the exports, with those in 1860 and 1561, 50s. 9d. and exceptions, showed a decided in. 50s. 3d.; butchers' meat was crease. The number of bank. dearer. Potatoes 1008. per ton, ruptcies of mercantile houses were compared with 1228. and 120s. few, and not for large amounts. The
Bank RATE OF Discount. The loans to foreign States amounted alterations in the Bank rate of dis to about 15,000,0001. sterling count during this half-year have Those contracted in the latter half been three. On the ioch July, of the year were a Portugues the bullion having increased from loan of 3,000,0001. offered at 41, 10,220,7711. to 17,055,5371., the for which biddings were made to the rate was lowered from 3 to 2) per amount of 21.000.000l. ; a Perucent. This did not check the flow of vian 4 percent, loan of 3,500,001), bullion into their vaults, and on the which that Government afterwards 24th, the rate was again lowered repudiated; a Venezuelan 6 per to 2 per cent., a lower rate than cent. loan of 1,000,0001.; and sorte has been known for ten years. It extensive purchases of Turkish remained at this figure until the Consolidés, by which the fortu. 30th October, when it was raised mate holders realized larve protits. to 3 per cent. The French rate The smooth and prosperous cur: remained fixed at 31 per cent. rent of monetary affairs in the 0.1 until the 6th November, when it World offer a remarkable contrast was raised to 4 per cent.
to the fever of speculation in the In every respect the money mar. United States. In October the ket had remained steady through- premium on gold had risen to 20, out the year. The extreme range and before the end of the year to of Cousols was only from 91 to 911. 39 premium.
cent. The lowest
lowest point in Detais
governed by the sa
TRE ATI E S.
g in those branches ure which were és otton famine, trico d the exports, the te is, showed a decat
The number of is. of mercantile house te not for large amouck. I foreigu States que es
15,000,000. steri ntracted in the interest Fear were a Porter 1,000,0001. offered & * biddings were made f 21.000.000.: 1 Per I'cent. loan of 5,5
Treaty between ller Majesty and powers, found in good and due
the United States of America, for form, have agreed upon and conthe Suppression of the African cluded the following Articles :Slave Trade. Signed at Wash I. The two High Contracting ington, April 7, 1862. Ratifi- Parties mutually consent that cations erchanged at London, those ships of their respective Jay 20, 1862.
pavies which shall be provided
with special instructions for that Her Majesty the Queen of the purpose, as hereinafter mentioned, United Kingdom of Great Britain may visit such merchant-vessels and Ireland, and the United States of the two nations as may, upon of America, being desirous to ren reasonable grounds, be suspected der more effectual the
of being engaged in the African hitherto adopted for the suppres- Slave Trade, or of having been sion of the Slave Trade carried on fitted out for that purpose, or of upon the coast of Africa, have having, during the voyage on deemed it expedient to conclude a which they are met by the said Treaty for that purpose, and have cruizers, been engaged in the named as their Plenipotentiaries, African Slave Trade, contrary to that is to say :
the provisions of this Treaty; and Her Majesty the Queen of the that such cruizers may detain, and United Kingdom of Great Britain send or carry away, such vessels, and Ireland, the Right Honoura- in order that they may be brought able Richard Bickerton Pemell to trial in the manner hereinafter Lord Lyons, a Peer of Her United agreed upon. Kingdom, a Knight Grand Cross In order to fix the reciprocal of Her Most Honourable Order right of search in such a mapper of the Bath, and Her Envoy Ex- as shall be adapted to the attaintraordinary and Minister Plenipo- ment of the object of this Treaty, tentiary to the United States of and at the same time avoid doubts, America;
disputes, and complaints, the said And the President of the United right of search shall be understood States of America, William H. in the manner and according to Seward, Secretary of State ; the rules following :
Who, after having communicated First. It shall never be exerto each other their respective full cised except by vessels of war,
!; a Venezuela ** of 1,000,000.; aclse purchases of Tube
by which the team 3 realized lene pas oth and prospere etary affairs in the list
remarkable estres of speculation de ces. In October than gold had risen to it le end of the s
authorized expressly for that ob- objects, the officer shall enter in ject, according to the stipulations the log-book of the vessel that the of this Treaty.
search has been made in pursuance Secondly. The right of search of the aforesaid special instrucshall in no caso be exercised with tions; and the vessel shall be left respect to a vessel of the navy of at liberty to pursue its voyage. either of the two Powers, but shall The rank of the officer who makes be exercised only as regards mer- the search must not be less than chant-vessels ; and it shall not be that of lieutenant in the navy, exercised by a vessel of war of unless the command, either by either Contracting Party within reason of death or other cause, is the limits of a settlement or port, at the time held by an officer of nor within the territorial waters, inferior rank. of the other Party.
Fourthly. The reciprocal right Thirdly. Whenever a merchant- of search and detention shall be vessel is searched by a ship of exercised only within the distance war, the commander of the said of two hundred miles from the ship shall, in the act of so doing, coast of Africa, and to the southexhibit to the commander of the ward of the thirty-second parallel merchant-vessel the special in- of north latitude ; and within structions by which he is duly thirty leagues from the coast of authorized to search ; and shall the Island of Cuba, deliver to such Commander a cer 11. In order to regulate the tificate, signed by himself, stating mode of carrying the provisions his rank in the naval service of of the preceding article into exehis country, and the name of the cution, it is agreed :vessel he commands, and also de First. That all the ships of the claring that the only object of the navies of the two nations wluch search is to ascertain whether the shall be hereafter employed to vessel is employed in the African prevent the African Slave Trade Slave Trade, or is fitted up for the shall be furnished by their respersaid trade. When the search is tive Governments with a copy made by an officer of the cruizer of the present Treaty, of the la who is not the commander, such structions for cruizers annexed officer shall exhibit to the captain thereto, marked A, and of the of the merchant-vessel a copy of regulations for the mixed courts of the before-mentioned special in- justice annexed thereto, markei B, structions, signed by the com- which annexes respectively shall be mander of the cruizer ; and he considered as integral parts of the shall in like manner deliver a cer- present Treaty. tificate signed by himself, stating Secondly. That each of the Higla his rank in the navy, the name of Contracting Parties shail, from time the commander by whose orders to time, communicate to the other he proceeds to make the search, the names of the several ships furthat of the cruizer in which he nished with such instructions, the suils, and the object of the search, force of each, and the names of as above described. If it appears their several commanders. The from the search that the papers of said commanders shall hold the the vessel are in regular order, rank of captain in the pavy, or at and that it is employed on lawful least that of lieutenant: it being,
nevertheless, understood that the by the Government whose cruizer instructions originally issued to an shall have been guilty of such arofficer holding the rank of lieu- bitrary and illegal detention; and tenant of the navy, or other supe. that the search and detention of rior rapk, shall, in case of his death vessels specified in the first artior temporary absence, be sufficient cle of this Treaty shall be effected to authorize the officer on whom the only by ships which may form part command of the vessel has devolved of the two pavies, respectively, to make the search, although such and by such of those ships only as officer may not hold the aforesaid are provided with the special inrank in the service,
structions annexed to the present Thirdly. That if at any time Treaty, in pursuance of the prothe commander of a cruizer of visions thereof. The indemnifieither of the two nations shall cation for the damages of which this suspect that any merchant-vessel, article treats shall be paid within under the escort or convoy of any the term of one year, reckoning from ship or sipps of war of the other the day in which the mixed court nation, carries negroes on board, of justice pronounces its sentence. or has been engaged in the African IV. In order to bring to adjuSlave Trade, or is fitted out for the dication, with as little delay and purpose thereof, the commander of inconvenience as possible, the vesthe cruizer shall communicate his sels which may be detained according suspicions to the commander of to the tenour of the firstarticleof this the convoy, who, accompanied by Treaty, there shall be established, the commander of the cruizer, as soon as may be practicable, three shall proceed to the search of the mixed courts of justice, formed suspected vessel ; and in case the of an equal number of individuals suspicions appear well founded, ac- of the two nations, named for this cording to the tenour of this Treaty, purpose by their respective Gothen the said vessel shall be con- vernments. These courts shall ducted or sent to one of the places reside, one at Sierra Leone ; one where the mixed courts of justice at the Cape of Good Hope ; and are stationed, in order that it may one at New York. there be adjudicated upon.
But each of the two High ConFourthly. It is further mutually tracting Parties reserves to itself agreed, that the commanders of the right of changing, at its pleathe ships of the two navies, re- sure, the place of residence of the spectively, who shall be employed court or courts held within its own on this service, shall adbere strictly territories. to the exact tenour of the aforesaid These courts shall judge the instructions.
causes submitted to them accordIII. As the two preceding arti- ing to the provisions of the present cles are entirely reciprocal, the Treaty, and according to the retwo High Contracting Parties en- gulations and instructions which gage mutually to make good any are annexed to the present Treaty, losses which their respective sub- and which are considered an injects or citizens may incur by an tegral part thereof; and there arbitrary and illegal detention of shall be no appeal from their detheir vessels; it being understood cision. that this indemnity shall be borne V. In case the commanding ofVOL. CIV.
receding article is a
the two nations
ent Treats, of the for cruizers annard crked A, and of For the mixed courtsu ced thereto, marked I es respectireleskabe
integral parts of the y. Chat each of the High arties shall, from time unicate to the other he several ships fa ch instructions, the and the names commanders. The Is shall hold the
in the wavy, or atenant: it being