Sidebilder
PDF
ePub

have been less than "moderately good;" for, although the average of births was, as iu the preceding three quarters, somewhat in excess, the mortality was in excess likewise.

The total number of children born within the quarter was 171,811; iu the same quarter of 1861, the births were 1C6,174. In the whole year, 711,091 persons were born —- an excess of 16,129 over the number born iu the previous year.

The number of deaths in the quarter was 114,542 — in 1S01, for the same period, 104,017. In the year, 436,514 persons died; in 1801, 435.337.

These figures would give an increase of the population, by the excess of births over deaths, of 275,177 persons; but this natural accumulation is diminished by the stream of emigrants. The whole emigration of 1802 consisted of 1*21,214 persons, from all parts of the United Kingdom; hut of these not more than one-third, or about 40,300, were of English origin.

There were 48,059 marringes in the last quarter of 1802; a number nearly the same as that of the corresponding quarter of 1801, but less than that of 1800. The circumstances that have tended to depress marriages in England, have not prevented an increase of them in certain parts. There is in England as much diversin- in the social condition of the populations of different localities, as in the nature of their respective soils; they have their various times and opportunities to win and to lose; to marry and abstain from marriage. In five divisions, London, the North Midland counties, Wales, the South-Eustcrn

couuties, and Northern counties, there was an increase of marriages; but in the Northern, the increase is scarcely perceptible; in the remaining six divisions there is a decrease : — in the North-Western division—that iu which the manufacturing industry has been so long in a state of prostration—the deficiency amounted to 15 per cent.

Although, no doubt, the health of the population in the distressed cotton districts must have been affected by their privations, it does not appear that the increased mortality of this quarter was due to local circumstances; but is rather to be attributed to the general effects of a wet and unhealthy season. The proportion of deaths in the distressed districts rose from 240 per cent, to 2-60 per cent.; but this is due to causes constantly at work in the great manufacturing towns. The increase in Yorkshire, which is not included in "the distressed districts," rose in a larger proportion; and in London the proportion rose from 2-22 to 2-14 per cent. Moreover, while in some of the divisions of the distressed unions the mortality greatly increased, in others it sensibly diminished. The decrease in the deaths of children, which has been before noted, is again remarkable, and is attributed to the same cnusc as heretofore — that the mothers, not being drawn from their homes for labour in the factories, have more time to attend to their children.

The most noticeable feature of the condition of the people at this timo is, of course, the increase of pauperism. Thi9 is entirely due to the enforced idleness of a whole population dependent on a particular manufacture for tbeir subsistence. The average Dumber of paupers relieved in three corresponding quarters was, in

In-door. Oat-door.

1860 ... 115,158 673,680

1801 ... 128,583 716,000

1862 ... 132,663 907,493

With the exception of the three counties of Lancashire, Cheshire, and Derby (and indeed of parts only of them), the condition of the population was favourable — work was plentiful and provisions moderate.

The average price of wheat per quarter in Dec, 1869, was 48*. 2</.; iu 1860 and 1*61, 50*. 0</. and 50*. Id.; butchers' meat was dearer. Potatoes 100*. per ton. compared with 122*. and 120*.

Bank Rate or Discount. The alterations in the Bank rate of discount during this half-year have been three. On the 10th July, the bullion having increased from 16,220,771/. to 17,055,537/., the rate was lowered from 8 to 2 J per cent. This did not check the flow of bullion into their vaults, and on the 24 th, the rate was again lowered to 2 per cent., a lower rate than has been known for ten years. It remained at this figure until the 3(»th October, when it was raised to 3 per cent. The French rate remained fixed at 3t per cent, until the 6th November, when it was raised to 4 per cent.

In every respect the money market had remained steady throughout the year. The extreme range of Consols was only from 91 to 91,',

or 3} per cent. The lowest rat* of discount, the highest price of consols, and the largest slock of bullion were noted at the same time—namely, in July. In this month the bullion had risen from 15,061.439/. to 18.448,448/. It fell to its lowest point in December, when the Bank return was 14,823,0(HM.

This equable condition of the money market produced and probably was governed by the steady and satisfactory course of trade. Excepting in those branches of manufacture which were affected by the cotton famine, trade was brisk, and the exports, with those exceptions, showed a decided increase. The number of bankruptcies of mercantile houses were few, and not for large amounts. The loans to foreign States amounted to about 15,000.000/. sterling. Those contracted in the latter half of the year were a Portnguev loan of 5,000,(100/. offered at 41. for which biddings were made to the amount of 21.000,000/.; a Peruvian4} percent.loanof5.500.000/. which that Government afterward* repudiated; a Venezuelan 6 per cent, loan of 1,000,000/.; and some extensive purchases of Turkish Consolides, by which the fortunate holders realized large profits

The smooth and prosperous current of monetary affairs in the Old World offer a remarkable contrast to the fever of speculation in the Inited States. In October the premium on gold had risen to 80/. and before the end of the year to 39 premium.

[merged small][ocr errors]

Treaty between Her Majesty and the United Stales of America, for the Suppression of the African Slave Trade. Signed at Washington, April!, 1862. Ratifications exchanged at London, May 20, 1802.

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the United States of America, being desirous to render more effectual the means hitherto adopted for the suppression of the Slave Trade carried on upon the coast of Africa, have deemed it expedient to conclude a Treaty for that purpose, and have named as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say:

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Right Honourable Richard Bickerton Pemell Lord Lyons, a Peer of Her United Kingdom, a Knight Grand Cross of Her Most Honourable Order of the Bath, and Her Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States of America;

And the President of the United Stales of America, William H. Seward, Secretary of State;

Who, after having communicated to each other their respective full

powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon and concluded the following Articles :—

I. The two High Contracting Parties mutually consent that those ships of their respective navies which shall be provided with special instructions for that purpose, as hereinafter mentioned, may visit such merchant-vessels of the two nations as may, upon reasonable grounds, be suspected of being engaged in the African Slave Trade, or of having been fitted out for that purpose, or of having, during the voyage on which they are met by the said cruizers, been engaged in the African Slave Trade, contrary to the provisions of this Treaty ; and that such cruizers may detain, and send or carry away, such vessels, in order that they may be brought to trial in the manner hereinafter agreed upon.

In order to fix the reciprocal right of search in such a manner as shall be adapted to the attainment of the object of this Treaty, and at the same time avoid doubts, disputes, and complaints, the said right of search shall be understood in the manner and according to the rules following :—

First. It shall never be exercised except by vessels of war, authorized expressly for that object, according to the stipulations of this Treaty.

Secondly. The right of search shall in no caso be exercised with respect to a vessel of the navy of either of the two Powers, but shall be exercised only as regards merchant-vessels ; and it shall not be exercised by a vessel of war of either Contracting Party within the limits of a settlement or port, nor within the territorial waters, of the other Party.

Thirdly. Whenever a merchantvessel is searched by a ship of war, the commander of the said ship shall, in the act of so doiug, exhibit to the commander of the merchant-vessel the special instructions by which he is duly authorized to search; and shall deliver to such Commander a certificate, signed by himself, stating his rank in the naval service of his country, and the name of the vessel he commands, and also declaring that the only object of the search is to ascertain whether the vessel is employed in the African Slave Trade, or is fitted up for the said trade. When the search is made by an officer of the cruizer who is not the commander, such officer shall exhibit to the captaiu of the merchant-vessel a copy of the before-mentioned special instructions, signed by the commander of the cruizer; and ho shall in like manner deliver a certificate signed by himself, stating his rank in the navy, the name of the commander by whose orders he proceeds to make the search. that of the cruizer in which lie soils, and the object of the search, as above described. If it appears from the search that the papers of the vessel arc in regular order. ""M that it is employed on lawful

objects, the officer shall enter in the log-book of the vessel that the search has been made in pursuance of the aforesaid special instructions; and the vessel shall be left at liberty to pursue its voyage. The rank of the officer who makes the search must not be less than that of lieutenant in the navy, unless the command, either by reason of death or other cause, is at the time held by an officer of inferior rank.

Fourthly. The reciprocal right of search and detention shall be exercised only within the distance of two hundred miles from the coast of Africa, and to the southward of the thirty-second parallel of north latitude; and within thirty leagues from the coast of the Island of Cuba.

II. In order to regulate the mode of carrying the provisions of the preceding article into execution, it is agreed :—

First. That all the ships of the navies of the two nations which shall be hereafter employed to prevent the African Slave Trade shall be furnished by their respective Governments with a copy of the present Treaty, of the instructions for cruizers annexed thereto, marked A, and of the regulations for the mixed courts of justice annexed thereto, marked B, which annexes respectively shall be considered as integral parts of the present Treaty.

Secondly. That each of the High ContractingPartiesshall. from time to time, communicate to the other the names of the several ships furnished with such instruction*, the force of each, and the name* of their several commander*. The said commander* shall bold the rank of captain in the navy, or at least that of '"«««jant: it bring. nevertheless, understood that the instructions originally issued to an officer holding the rank of lieutenant of the navy, or other superior rank, shall, in case of his death or temporary absence, be sufficient to authorize the officer on whom the command of the vessel has devolved to make the search, although such officer may not hold the aforesaid rank in the service.

[graphic]

Thirdly. That if at any time the commander of a cruizer of either of the two nations shall suspect that any merchant-vessel, under the escort or convoy of any ship or sipps of war of the other nation, carries negroes on board, or has been engaged in the African Slave Trade, or is fitted out for the purpose thereof, the commander of the cruizer shall communicate his suspicions to the commander of the convoy, who, accompanied by the commander of the cruizer, shall proceed to the search of the suspected vessel; and in case the suspicions appear well founded, according to the tenour of this Treaty, then the said vessel shall be conducted or sent to one of the places where the mixed courts of justice are stationed, in order that it may there be adjudicated upon.

Fourthly. It is further mutually agreed, that the commanders of the ships of the two navies, respectively, who shall be employed on this service, shall adhere strictly to the exact tenour of the aforesaid instructions.

III. As the two preceding articles are entirely reciprocal, the two High Contracting Parties engage mutually to make good any losses which their respective subjects or citizens may incur by an arbitrary and illegal detention of their vessels; it being understood that this indemnity shall be borne

Vol. CIV.

by the Government whose cruizer shall have beeu guilty of such arbitrary and illegal detention; and that the search and detention of vessels specified in the first article of this Treaty shall be effected only by ships which may form part of the two navies, respectively, and by such of those ships only as are provided with the special instructions annexed to the present Treaty, in pursuance of the provisions thereof. The indemnification for the damages of which this article treats shall be paid within the term of one year, reckoning from the day in which the [mixed court of justice pronounces its sentence.

IV. In order to bring to adjudication, with as little delay and inconvenience as possible, the vessels which may bedetained according tothetenourofthefirstarticleofthis Treaty, there shall be established, as soon as may be practicable, three mixed courts of justice, formed of an equal number of individuals of the two nations, named for this purpose by their respective Governments. These courts shall reside, one at Sierra Leone; one at the Cape of Good Hope; and one at New York.

But each of the two High Contracting Parties reserves to itself the right of chauging, at its pleasure, the place of residence of the court or courts held within its own territories.

These courts shall judge the causes submitted to them according to the provisions of the present Treaty, and according to the regulations and instructions which are annexed to the present Treaty, and which are considered an integral part thereof; and there shall be no appeal from their decision.

V. In cose the commanding of

[graphic]
« ForrigeFortsett »