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the police force of Melbourne. On the uews of the Crimean war, he hastened home on leave of absence, in the hope of getting a commission; but titiding himself too late to share the glories of the campaign, he returned, nnd resumed his duties in the colony. When the exploring expedition was resolved on, his love of adventure and thirBt for distinction led him to apply for the command, and his appointment was accepted.
William John Wills was born in 1884, at Totnes, Devonshire, where his father practised medicine. Being destined for the same profession, he entered at St. Bartholomew's, and distinguished himself, especially as student in chemistry. In 1852, the news of the gold discoveries induced him to try his fortunes in Australia, and he settled at Ballarat, where he was subsequently joined by his
family, and continued to support his father for several years. His taste, however, had always been for astronomy and meteorology, and he passed all his leisure hours at the office of Mr. Taylor, the head of the Crown Lands Survey in the Ballarat district, where he gave such proofs of ability as to bo put in charge of a field party. Here he soon attracted the attention of the Surveyor General, and on the establishment of a Magnetic and Meteorological Observatory in Melbourne, he was attached specially to the staff, on which he was serving when he was selected for the post of Observer and Surveyor to the Exploring Expedition.
It may be added that Gray was originally a seafaring man, whom Burke enlisted on the Darling; and King, the only survivor, a soldier who had served in India.
course, on short rations, nnd theso were distributed by lot among the party, and eked out with "portulac, or nardoo," (the spores of a species of Marsitea, which the natives make into bread), and the fle>h of a few crows and hawks. The rains had made the ground heavy, and tho camels, enfeebled by over-work and fasting, could scarcely struggle through it. Ono by one these faithful animals sank under the exertion, until their number was at last reduced to two. Gray was the first of the men to fail. He had long been compluining of pains in the back and legs; but his companions, inexperienced as yet in the dull agony of starving, fancied he was shamming. Before long they learned too well that his sufferings wero real. When he died, which was on the 17th of April, they had hardly strength to commit his body to the earth: and four days afterwards, nearly naked and worn to shadows, they staggorcd into tho ramp at Cooper's Creek, where they had left tho reserve party under Brahe, and whero they of course expected to experience a relief from all their sufferings. What, then, must have been their feelings when they found that on the morning of that very day, the 21st of April, only seven hours beforo their arrival, Brahe with his party, had quitted the do put and set out on his return to Meuindie! Never, surely, was human endurance subjected to • severer test—never was misfortune borne with a nobler fortitude! Famished and exhausted, they were still alive—still without other help than the comparatively blender means which Brahe had left liehind him in a hole iu the ground, and which was indicated to them
by the words "Dig—April 31." which he had carved on a neighbouring tree. The gradual way in which the fearful ness of their situation dawned upon them is well described in King's affecting narrative. Still these brave men braced themselves up for a last struggle. From this moment, however, calamity dogged them at every step. Deeming themselves too weak to follow, with any hope of overtaking, tho steps of the party who had just quitted the depot, and who slept that very night at a distance no further off than 11 miles, they determined to rest awhile and refresh. They found the food that had been left for them in the hole or "cache," and after remaining some days to recruit, they resolved, by a strange fatality—which seemed henceforward to prevail to the eud—not to return by the way they had come, but to endeavour to reach the outsettlements of South Australia, in the neighbourhood of Mount Hopeless, not above 150 miles diatant. Wills and King were opposed to this project, but Burke persisted in it, and his companions unfortunately yielded to his resolve. Had they taken the route to Menindie, they would almost immediately have met a party under Wright, which the authorities at Melbourne (alarmed by the accounts which had reached them of the perilous circumstances unJtr which Burke had gone forward with tho expedition) had dispatched for his relief. Enclosing a letter, descriptive of the route thi'v intended to take, iu a bottle which they deposited in the "cache." the three toil-worn men «et out on a south-west course. But before doing so they neglected by fatal mischance to alter the inscription which Braho had carved on the tree, or to leave any outward sign of their visit to the depot. Thus, it happened that when Brahe, who had encountered the relieving party under Wright, revisited the depot not many days after Burke and his companions had quitted it, they found nothing to indicate that the travellers had been there. Thence presuming that everything remained exactly as he had left it, Brahe did not opeu the "cache," and consequently did not discover the letter which Burko had written.
Meantime, misfortune was closely following upon the steps of the three poor wayfarers. Abroad in tho wilderness, at an inclement season of tho year, with little clothing, and no supply of food, they wandered on in the direction of Mount Hopeless, till their limbs could carry them no further. Failing in every endeavour to reach the settled districts of the country, the hapless wanderers resolved, as a last resource, to seek succour from the aborigines, whom they at first viewed with suspicion. With this view it was arranged, as Wills had now become utterly helpless, that he should be left at a particular spot, and tliat Burke and King should go forward to seek the natives. The end waa now rapidly approaching, and cannot bo better described than in tlio simple but deeply touching words of King's narrative: "Having collected," says King, "and pounded sufficient seed (nardoo) to last Mr. Wills eight days, and two days for ourselves, wc placed firewood aud water within his reach, and started. Before leaving him, however, Mr. Burke asked him whether he still wished it, as under no other cir
cumstances would he leavo him; and Mr. Wills again said that he looked upon it as our only chance. He then gave Mr. Burke a letter and his watch for his father, aud we buried the remainder of the field books near the gunyah. Mr. Wills said that, in the case of my surviving Mr. Burke, he hoped I would carry out his last wishes iu giving the watch and letter to his father. Iu travelling the first day Mr. Burke seemed very weak, and complained of great pains in his
legs and back When wc
halted (on the second day), Mr. Burke seemed to be getting worse, although he ato his supper. Ho said he felt convinced he could not last many hours, and gave me his watch, which ho said belonged to the Committee (of the Royal Society of Victoria), and a pocketbook, to give to Sir William Stawell, iu which he wrote somo notes. He then said to me, 'I hope that you will remain with me here till I am quite dead; it is a comfort to know that some one is by; but when I am dying, it is my wish that you should place the pistol in my right-hand, and that you will leave me unburied as 1 lie!' That night he spoke very little, and the following morning 1 found him speechless, or nearly so, and about eight o'clock ho expired." King then goes on to say, that after remaining two days to recover his strength, "I then returned to Mr. Wills. I took back three crows; but I found him lying dead in his gunyah, and the natives had been there and taken away somo of his clothes. I buried the corpse with sand, and remained there some days; but fiudiug that my stock of nardoo was running short, and being unablo to gather it, I tracked tho
MEMOIR OF H. R. H. THE PttlNCE CONSORT.
The great poet who has penetrated so deeply into the mysteries of human life places in the mouth of Mark Antony, mourning over the corpse of Ciesar, the bitter reproach to the living that—
"The evil that men Jo, lire* after them; The good U oft interred with their bones."
The converse proposition, that— at least, in regard to men of private station — the virtuous acts which have constituted the beauty of their life are often unheeded until death has removed them from the scene they liad made lovely, is expressed by the dramatist in language of poetic force :—
"It «o falls out That what we lure we priae not to the
worth Whiles we enjoy it; but, being lack'd and
lost, Why, then we rack the value: then wo
find The rirtue that possession woald not fliow
as Whiles it was oars."
The proposition, indeed, has not escaped the common observation of mankind, and has been tersely put in the proverb, "When we are missed we are mourned." Of few men could this be said with more truth than of the lamented Prince Consort, whose premature death at Windsor Castle, on the 15th December, was briefly recorded in the Chromclt of the Anjccal Hkolsteq
for 1801. The eventful year that has since elapsed has revealed to the nation how many and how great were the qualities el the deceased gentleman, and by its absence howheneGcial an influence had been withdrawn from the inner life of the nation.
At the first dawn of the modem history of Germany, the House of Saxony was amongst the nvwt illustrious of its ruling families One of these princes, who lived iu the tenth century—Henry the Fowler—was elected Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, and. being a very able man, did much to consolidate the settlement o/ the Germanic races in Central Europe. In 14-23, the Duchy of Saxony,the dukes of which had now attained the dignity of Electors, was ruled over by a wise and energetio prince — Frederick the Quarrelsome; who, on the extinction of the House of Wettin, received from the hands of the Etnpcror Sipsmund the investiture of the Duchy of Meissen—an accession of territory which placed Saxony high among the German States. This importance was, however, early lost by diffusion. The law of primogeniture was unknown; and on the death of Frederick the Gentle, son of Frederick tke Quarrelsome, his dominions were divided between his sons Freest and Albert; and the possessions of these were, in the coarse of succession, farther broken up into numerous petty duchies, in each of which a Saxon prince exercised sovereign power. The House of Saxonj was thenceforth divided into two branches, the Ernestine and the Albertine, which were in continual rivalry, and did each other as much mischief as possible. These comminuted fragments of empire have been, to some extent, aggregated by inheritance and marriage: so that, at present, five reigning families compose the House of Saxony; that of SaxeAltenberg, which is the caput uominis, and, though representing the eldest or Ernestine line, has the smallest territory; Saxe - Weimar - Eisenach; Saxe Meiningen-Hildburgliausen; SaxeCoburg-Gotha; and the royal line of Saxony, which represents the Albertine line. The strength thus lost by division was, to a great degree, compensated by the influence acquired by alliances with the other reigning families of Germany; and the Electors of Saxony, possessing a seventh part in the choice of the Kaiser, and ruling states central to all the other German sovereignties, and of magnitude when compared with the petty dukedoms around them, played a conspicuous part in the history of modern Europe. Their share, indeed, was not merely noticeable, but creditable; for the nice has been prolific of men above the average of princes. The great convulsion of the sixteenth century brought the Electors of Saxony into the foremost rank of historical personages. In the division of the states of Frederick the Gentle the Electorate of Saxony bad fallen to Ernest, the eldest son. The
princes of his line embraced the cause of the Reformation with zeal, and upheld it with constancy. Striving against the whole power of the Pope and the Emperor, they fought and bled, and suffered captivity and confiscation, without shrinking from the cause. The Electors, Frederick the Wise, John the Constant, and John Frederick the Magnanimous, were the faithful protectors of Luther, and the champions of the Protestant faith. While the princes of the Ernestine line were thus contending for the Reformation, those of the Albertine branch were among the most formidable adherents of the Emperor. George, Duke of Saxony, was a man of commanding talents. He chiefly sustained the cause of the Roman Church in Germany, and defeated and took prisoner his relative the Elector, John Frederick the Magnanimous, at the battle of Muhlburg, in 1547. The Emperor kept his rebellious vassal a close prisoner, and deprived him of his dominions, which he conferred upon the Duke George, in whose line, after some mutations, it still remains. George was succeeded by his brother Henry, who was a Lutheran; and he by his celebrated son Maurice, who, abandoning tho cause of the Emperor, became tho successful assertor of religious freedom. Thus, to the Ernestino branch of the House of Saxony the reformed faith owes its early preservation and the Confession of Augsburg, the Principia ofJ^" reformed branch of the Chu*" Christ; and to the Albert! the treaty of Passau and H of Augsburg, by which t tenants .obtained the free of their religion and with the