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Others apart sate on a hill retir'd,
In thoughts more elevate, and reason'd bigh
Of Providence, Fore-knowledge, Will and Fate,
Fixt Fate, Free-will, Foreknowledge absolute;
And found no end in wandring mazes loft.

SECT. XLI.. 1 Such as Pyrrics, &c.] A Pyrric is a Foot of two short Syllables ; a Trochee of one long and one short; and a Dichoree is a double Trocbee.

SECT. XLIII. I to seeth.] I have chosen this Word rather than boil, which is not a blemished Term in our Language: and besides seeth resembles more the Greek Word Lion'uns in the ill Sound that it has upon the Palate, which is the Fault that Longinus finds with the Word in Herodotus. Milton has something of the like Sort : which offends the Ear, when we read in B. I.

Azazel, as his right, &c.

2 Theopompus] He was a Chian and a Scholar of Isocrates. His Genius was too hot and impetuous,

; which was the Occasion of a Remark of his Master Isocrates, that Ephorus always wanted a Spur, but Theopompus a Curb.

3 Quæ partes autem corporis, ad naturæ necesitatem datæ, adfpectum effent deformem habituræ ac turpem, eas contexit atque abdidit. Cicero de Offic. p. 61, 62. Ed. Cockman,

SECT. XLIV. I we were born in Subječtion, &c.—) The Words in the Original wouloucetas dencias dixalas are differently interpreted by Persons of great Learning and Sagacity. Mad. Dacier has taken Occasion to men

tion them in her Notes upon Terence. Her Words are these; In the last Chapter of Longinus, waudojatás dsheiats d'excías, signifies not, we are from our Infancy used to a lawful Government, but to an easy Government chargeable with neither Tyranny nor Violence. Dr. Pearce is of a quite contrary Opinion. The Word diraia, says he, does not signify mild or easy, as some think, but just and lawful Vassalage, when Kings and Rulers are polesed of a full Power and Authority over their Subječts: and we find Isocrates uses ápxni dexata (a despotical Government) in this Sense. The Doctor then gives his Opinion, that Longinus added this Word as well as some which follow, that bis Affection to the Roman Emperor might not be suspected.

I have chosen to translate these Words in the latter Sense, which (with Submission to the Judgment of so · learned a Lady ) seems preferable to and more natural than that which Madam Dacier has given it. The Critic (in the Person of the Philosopher who speaks here) is acounting for the Scarcity of sublime Writers; and avers Democracy to be the Nurse of Genius, and the greatest Encourager of Sublimity. The Fact is evident from the Republicks of Greece and Rome. In Greece, Athens was most democratical, and a State of the greatest Liberty. And hence it was that, according to the Observation of Paterculus (1. 1. near the End) Eloquence flourised in greater Force and Plenty in that City alone, than in all Greece besides : infomuch thot, says he, tho' the Bodies of the People were dispersed into other cities, yet you would think their Genius to have been pent up within the bare Precinets of Athens. Pindar the Theban, as he afterwards owns,

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is the only Exception to this Remark. So the City of
Rome was not only the Seat of Liberty and Empire,
but of true Wit and exalted Genius. The Roman
Power indeed out-lived the Roman Liberty, but Wit
and Genius could not long survive it. What a high
Value ought we then to set upon Liberty, since with-
out it nothing great or suitable to the Dignity of hu-
man Nature can possibly be produced! Slavery is the
Fetter of the Tongue, the Chain of the Mind, as well i
as the Body. It embitters Life, sowers and corrupts
the Passions, damps the towering Faculties implanted
within us, and stifles in the Birth the Seeds of every
thing that is amiable, generous and noble. Reason
and Freedom are our own, and given to continue fo. E
We are to use but cannot resign them, without re-
belling against him who gave them. The Invaders
of either ought to be resisted by the united Force of
all Men, since they encroach on the Privileges we re-
ceive from God, and traverse the Designs of infinite
Goodness.

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2 We coine now to the Passions, &c. - ] The learned World ought certainly to be condoled with on the great Loss they have sustained in Longinus's Treatise on the Passions. The Excellence of this on the Sublime makes us regret the more the Loss of the other, and inspires us with deep Resentments of the irreparable Depravations committed on Learning and the valuable Productions of Antiquity by Goths and Monks, and Time. There in all Probability we should have beheld the secrec Springs and Movements of the Soul disclosed to View. There we should have been taught, if Rule and Observation in this cafe can teach, to elevate an Audience into Joy, or melt

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them into Tears. There we should have learned if
ever, to work upon every Passion, to put every

Heart, every Pulse in Emotion. At present we must 1 sit down contented under the Loss, and be satisfied

with this invaluable Piece on the Sublime, which
with much Hazard has escaped a Wreck, and gained

a Port, tho' not undamaged. Great indeed are the ist Commendations which, the Judicious bestow upon The it, but not in the least disproportioned to its Merit.

For in it are treasured up the Laws and Precepts of
fine Writing, and a fine Tafte. Here are the Rules
which polish the Writer's Invention, and refine the

Critic's Judgment. Here is an Object proposed at once
Le for our Admiration and Imitation.

Dr. Pearce's Advice will be a seasonable Conclu.

" Read over very frequently this Golden of

56 Treatise, (which deserves not only to be read but
« imitated) that you may hence understand not only
66 how the best Authors have written, but learn your-
66 self to become an Author of the first Rank.
66 Read it therefore and digest it, then take up your
6 Pen in the Words of Virgil's Nisus;

Aliquid jamdudum invadere magnum
Mens agitat mihi, nec placida contenta quiete eft.

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