AUTHORIZED BY THE COUNCIL OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. THE SCHOOL EDITION.. EUCLID'S THE FIRST SIX BOOKS, :::: WITH . AND WITH HINTS, ETC. DESIGNED FOR THE USE OF THE JUNIOR CLASSES IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS. BY ROBERT POTTS, M. A., · TRINITY COLLEGE. WITH APPENDIX BY THOS. KIRKLAND, M.A., Science Master, Normal School. FITB HUNDREDTH THOUSAN. TORONTO: 1876. To the Canadian Edition has been added a selection of Ex-' amination Papers, arranged by THOS. KIRKLAND, M.A., Science Master, {Normal School, showing the style of questions given to Students requiring 1st and 2nd class Provincial Certificates, and for Matriculation and Honor Entered according to Act of Parliament of Canada, in the year 1876, by " ADAM MILLER & co., --------- 10.11. 235u. Prz. L. C. Starkuoki SOME time after the publication of an Octavo Edition of Euclid's And here an occasion may be taken to quote the opinions of some able n.en respeciing the use and importance of the Mathematica} Sciences. On the subject of Education in its most extensive sense, an ancient writer “directs the aspirant after excellence to commence with the Science of Moral Culture; to proceed next to Logic; next to Mathew on Education would place Mathematics before Logic, which (he remarks) “ seems the preferable course : for by practising itself in the former, the mind becomes stored with distinctions; the faculties of constancy and firmness are established; and its rule is always to distinguish between cavilling and investigation between close reasoning and cross reasoning; for the contrary of all which habits, those are for the most part noted, who apply themselves to Logic without studying 'in some department of Mathematics ; taking noise and wrangling for proficiency, and thinking refutation accomplished by the instancing of a doubt. This will explain the inscription placed by Plato over the door of his house :· Whoso knows not Geometry, let him not enter here. On the precedence of Moral Culture, however, to all the other Sciences, the acknowledgement is general, and the agreement entire." The same writer recommends the study of the Mathematics, for the cure of "compound igncrance.” “Of this,” he proceeds to say, “the essence is opinion not agreeable to fact; and it necessarily involves another opinion, namely, that we are already possessed of knowledge. So that besides not knowing, we know not that we know not; and hence its designation of compound ignorance. In like manner, as of many chronic complaints and established maladies, no cure can be effected by physicians of the body of this, no cure can be effected by physicians of the mind : for with a pre-supposal of knowledge in our own regard, the pursuit and acquirement of further knowledge is not to be looked for. The approximate cure, and one from which in the main much benefit may be anticipated, is to engage the patient in the study of measures (Geometry, computation, &c.); for in such pursuits the true and the false are separated by the clearest interval, and no room is left for the intrusions of fancy. From these the mind may discover the delight of certainty; and when, on returning to his own opinions, it finds in them no such sort of repose and gratification, it may discover their erroneous character, its ignorance may become simple, and a capacity for the acquirement of truth and virtue be obtained." Lord Bacon, the founder of Inductive Philosophy, was not insensible of the high importance of the Mathematical Sciences, as appears in the following passage from his work on “ The Advancement of Learning." “The Mathematics are either pure or mixed. To the pure Mathematics are those sciences belonging which handle quantity determinate, merely severed from any axioms of natural philosophy; and these are two, Geometry, and Arithmetic; the one handling quantity continued, and the other dissevered. Mixed hath for subject some axioms or parts of natural philosophy, and considereth quantity determined, as it is auxiliary, and incident unto them. For many parts of nature can neither be invented with sufficient subtlety, nor demonstrated with sufficient perspicuity, nor accommodated unto use with sufficient dexterity, without the aid and intervening of the Mathematics : of which sort are perspective, music, astronomy, cosmography, archie tecture, enginery, and divers others... "In the Mathematics I can report no deficience, except it be that men do not sufficiently understand the excellent use of the pure Mathematics, in that they do remedy and cure many defects in the wit and faculties intellectual. For, if the wit be dull, they sharpen it ; if too wandering, they fix it; if too inherent in the sense, they abstract it. So that as tennis is a game of no use in itself, but of great use in respect that it maketh a quick eye, and a body ready to put itself into all postures ; so in the Mathematics, that use which is collateral and intervenient, is no less worthy than that which is principal and intended. And as for the mixed Mathematics, I may only make this prediction, that there cannot fail to be more kinds of them, as nature grows further disclosed.”. How truly has this prediction been fulfilled in the subsequent advancement of the Mixed Sciences, and in the applications of the pure Mathematics to Natural Philosophy! Dr. Whewell, in his Thoughts on the Study of Mathematics," has maintained, that mathematical studies judiciously pursued, form one of the most effective means of developing and cultivating the reason: and that “the object of a liberal education is to develope the whole mental system of man ;--to make his speculative inferences coincide with his practical convictions ;-to enable him to render a reason for the belief that is in him, and not to leave him in the con. dition of Solomon's sluggard, who is wiser in his own conceit than seven men that can render a reason." And in his more recent work entitled, “Of a Liberal Education, &c.” he has more fully shewn the importance of Geometry as one of the most effectual instrumento of intellectual education. In page 55 he thus proceeds :-"But besides the value of Mathematical Studies in Education, as a perfect example and complete exercise of demonstrative reasoning; Mathematical Truths have this additional recommendation, that they have always been referred to, by each successive generation of thoughtful and cultivated men, as examples of truth and of demonstration; and have thus become standard points of reference, among cultivated men, whenever they speak of truth, knowledge, or proof. Thus Mathew matics has not only a disciplinal but an historical interest. This is peculiarly the case with those portions of Mathematics which we have mentioned. We find geometrical proof adduced in illustration of the |