Society; competent salaries having come limited its exertions, for some been allowed to several Missionaries years, to Scotland; but the bequest and students, both European and na- of an estate at Catworth, in Huntingtive, besides expending considerable donshire, by Dr. Williains, a Dissentsums in printing and distributing co- ing Minister in London, for the conpies of the Bible and Common Pray- version of infidel countries, and still er-Book, as well as various religious further aid being obtained in 1732, tracts. Of late, especially since the froin the general court of the proformation of other institutions with vince of Massachusetts, enabled the similar designs, the income of the Soci. Society to enlarge the sphere of its ety has greatly increased. In 1732 the operations, and to send out several revenue of the Christian Knowledge Missionaries to the North American Society alone was about £6000; in Indians. Among these were the two 1832 it was about £66,000, beside Brainerds, David and John, men of that of the Gospel Propagation So- eminent piety and distinguished zeal. ciety, which, in 1831, was upwards The Society has, therefore, in proof £35,000, including certain grants motion of its different objects, not from Government.

only sent Missionaries into North It has been already noticed,' that America, but established many schools the Society for the Propagation of in the highlands, obtained a translathe Gospel confines its attention tion of the Bible into the Gaelic, supchiefly to America and the West In- ported several students occupied in dies. At an early period, the con- obtaining a knowledge of the Gaelic ductors of it sedulously endeavoured dialect, beside printing and circulatto obtain the instruction of the ne- ing tracts in the same language. The gro slaves, especially in New-York importance and necessity of these and its vicinity, where they employed attempts to instruct the highlands, and supported Elias Neau, “a plain, is sufficiently proved by the fact adzealous layman,” as a catechist, who, duced by Millar, (Propagation of in the discharge of this office, went, Christianity,) that, in the island of at first, from house to house, but, Kirta, or St. Kilda, the inhabitants on finding this plan inconvenient, were not so much as reforined from prevailed with the masters of the Heathenism till the year 1710, when slaves to send them to him every the Society gave a commission to Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at Alexander Buchan, who was afterfour o'clock in the afternoon, to be wards ordained as Minister and instructed in the first principles of schoolmaster there. religion. For this purpose Mr. Neau An establishment was also formed obtained a license from the Bishop in New-England itself, for the inof London. The draught of a Bill struction of the Indians in that profor the more effectual conversion of vince and the parts adjacent; but the negroes and other servants in since the independence of the United the plantations was prepared by the States, it has chiefly restricted its Society, to be presented to Parlia- operations to the Indians of Newment. This was about the year 1703. Brunswick. (See MILLAR's History of the Propa- The Danish Mission to India was gation of Christianity, vol. ii., p. 546.) undertaken early in the last century,

In 1701 a Society was formed in in consequence of representations to Scotland, for propagating Christian the King, Frederick IV., by one of knowledge, by the benevolent zeal his Chaplains. Application having of a few private gentlemen at Edin- been made to the Professors of diviburgh, whose first specific object was nity at Halle, for suitable persons to the reformation of manners; and was engage in such a Mission, Messrs. thus designated. In 1709 it was in- Ziegenbalg and Plutscho were recorporated by Queen Anne, with commended; and having consented special reference to the highlands to attempt the conversion of the naand islands; and obtained an in- tives of India, sailed, in 1705, for crease of its power from George I., Tranquebar, on the Coromandel in 1738. The narrowness of its in coast, and arrived there on the 9th

VOL. XIII. Third Series. AUGUST, 1834.

2 Q

Parts ;

of July, 1706. These Missionaries pose of printing and circulating the were followed by three others, who Scriptures in different languages.* arrived at the Cape of Good Hope in At one period this University had 1709. This Mission was early as- more than three thousand students, sisted by the English Society for the from different parts of Europe. The Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Canstein and Jewish institutions are

who sent out a printing-press, also intimately associated with the with the requisite apparatus of types, other benevolent establishments of &c., and one hundred reams of paper, Halle. The Canstein, or Bible Inaccompanied by Mr. Jonas Finck, a stitution, was established in 1710 by native of Silesia, as a printer. By Charles Hildebrand Baron de Canthis means the Missionaries were stein, for the purpose of printing and enabled to print a number of books selling Bibles and Testaments at a for the use of the Malabarick school moderate price, in order to secure a which they had commenced, beside more general circulation of the Scripvarious tracts, but especially a trans- tures. In 1805 above three millions of lation of the Scriptures into Tamul, copies of the entire Bible or Testament begun by B. Zeigenbalg, and com- had been distributed. The founder pleted by B. Schultze. In 1714 His of the Jewish institution, formed Danish Majesty, to promote more profesședly for the conversion of effectually his benevolent designs, Jews and Mohammedans," was Dr. established the Royal College of Mis- John Henry Callenberg, one of the sions at Copenhagen, for the instruc- pupils of Professor Franck, and aftertion and preparation of such persons wards Professor of Divinity in the as were destined to engage in the University of Halle. One of his eastern Missions.

most eminent coadjutors was Mr. In connexion with this College, the Stephen Schultz, wbo was many years celebrated University of Halle, in engaged in the east, in Missionary Saxony, may very justly be noticed, labours; and returned from Turkey not only on account of its general to Halle in 1756. objects, but more especially from its In reverting to the Danish Mis. having provided the Danish Mission sionaries, it will be satisfactory to with its first Missionaries, and several learn, from the following questions, others, profoundly learned and most published as being what were expectable men, as Ziegenbalg, Plutscho, ed to be answered in the affirmative, Grundler, and Schultze, names dear by the Missionaries, that their mode to the Missionary cause, from their of preaching and instruction was of unwearied_ministerial and literary a scriptural nature. “ Have you labours. This extraordinary institu- discovered some true workings of tion was begun by the pious Dr. grace in the souls of the catechumHerman Augustus Franck, as an or- ens ? Are you sure there is more in phan house, erected by, voluntary their conversion than a bare exterdonations; and continued increasing nal compliance with, and verbal conin other departments of an important fession of, the Christian doctrine ? nature until it became deserving of What proofs and indications have royal patronage, and the designation you of an inward work of grace ?” of a University. Connected with the The venerable Swartz was one of institution there are, or were, beside the Missionaries sent out by the the orphan-house which provides Danish College, though latterly sup. for some hundreds of poor children, ported by the English Society for schools for the education of persons promoting Christian Knowledge, in superior circumstances ; an insti- which has uniformly aided the Dantution for the relief of poor widows; ish Missions, by the entire or par. an oriental and theological college, for the study of eastern languages • For a full account of the many sin. and the instruction of Missionary gular interpositions of Providence in the candidates; a medical school, a semi- establishment of this University, see a nary for catechists ; and an extensive small work written by Professor Franck, printing-office, chiefly for the pur- entitled “ Pietas Hallensis.”


tial maintenance of many of its valu- with incredible labour composed a able Missionaries. *

short grammar, a catechism, and a A Mission to Greenland was un. book of prayer, in the language of dertaken in 1721, with the sanction the country; and also translated the of this Society, by Hans Egede, a Psalms and the Epistles of St. Paul. Danish Clergyman, who spent many An interesting account of this Misyears in that inhospitable clime; and sion, and of the Missionaries en

gaged in it, and also of the Apos• It is highly probable that the strong in his “Lives of eminent Mis

tolic Swartz, is given by Mr. Carne, Missionary feeling evidenced by Messrs. John and Charles Wesley owed its first sionaries." direction to the instructions of their in- The Missions of the Moravians, telligent motner, who had been deeply or United Brethren, commenced at affected by the accounts published of the an early period of the eighteenth zeal and success of the Danish Mission- century, and continued with a selfaries ; for, in Feb., 1712, she thus wrote denial' and patient to her husband

perseverance “ Soon after you went almost unparalleled.

Their first to London, Emily found in your study

Mission took place in the year 1732, the account of the Danish Missionaries,

to St. Thomas's, in the West Indies, which, having never seen, I ordered her to read to me. I was never, I think, by Leonard Dober, and David Nitschmore affected with any thing than with mann, senior, who set out from the relation of their travels, and was Herrnbut, by way of Copenhagen, exceedingly pleased with the noble design on the 21st of August in that year, they were engaged in. Their labours and arrived at St. Thomas's, Dec. refreshed my soul beyond measure; and 12h. Their second Mission was to I could not forbear spending good part of Greenland in 1733. The Missionthat evening in praising and adoring the aries who engaged in it were Chrisdivine goodness for inspiring those good tian David, and Matthew and Chrismen with such an ardent zeal for his tian Stach. Mission colonies were glory, that they were willing to hazard also established in different countries: their lives, and all that is esteemed dear the first of these was in the island of to men in this world, to advance the

St. Croix ; the second was attempted honour of their Master, Jesus. For several days I could think or speak of little in Holstein ; the third was else. "At last, it came into my mind, tablished in Georgia, in North AmThough I am not a man, nor a Minister erica. This colony arrived in Geor. of the Gospel, and so cannot be engaged gia in 1735. in such a worthy employment as they The enterprising and unconquer, were ; yet, if my heart were sincerely de- able Missionary spirit of the United voted to God, and if I were inspired with Brethren, or Moravians, was fully a true zeal for his glory, and did really evidenced by the extraurdinary fact, desire the salvation of souls, I might do

that within ten years, froin their first something more than I do. I thought I Mission to St. Thomas's, they had might live in a more exemplary manner, in some things : I might pray more for established, or attempted, Missions in the people, and speak with more warmth Greenland, St. Croix, St. Thomas's to those with whom I have an opportu. and St. Jan's in the West Indies ; nity of conversing. However, I resolved Surinam; Palestine; to the North to begin with my own children; and American Indians, in Georgia and accordingly I proposed, and observed the South Carolina ; Guinea ; the Hotfollowing method. I take such a propor- tentots; Laplanders and Samoides; tion of time as I can best spare every Livonia ; Ethiopia ; Persia; the Calnight, to discourse with each child by

mucs ; Ceylon, and China; besides itself, on something that relates to its vigorous endeavours to convey inprincipal concerns. On Monday I talk

struction to the Jews and the wanwith Molly; on Tuesday with Hetty; dering tribes of gipsies. But, after Wednesday with Nancy ; Thursday with Jackey; Friday with Patty; Satur. the most laudable efforts, the resistday with Charles; and with Emily and ance and persecution which they Suky together, on Sunday."-( See Me. encountered obliged them to relinmoirs of the Wesley Family, by Dr. Adam quish Lapland, Ceylon, and China. Clarke, p. 330.)

The number of persons associated


at Herrnhut, under Count Zinzen- ality in a striking point of view.* dorf, at the period of these exertions, For some time they have been greatly inust have been exceedingly few, not aided by public collections, made in more than about thirty years having many of the English churches, by elapsed since their first settleinent on Clergymen of the Establishment. the Count's estate, in Upper Lusatia ; and places their resolution and liber- * Crantz's History of the Brethren.

(To be concluded in our next.)


By his Father, the late Rev. Charles Wesley, M. A. Samuel was born on St. Matthias's gard him, coming after Charles. The day, February 24th, 1766,—the same first thing which drew our attention day which gave birth to Handel was, the great delight he took in eighty-two years before. The seeds hearing his brother play. Whenever of harmony did not spring up in him Mr. Kelway came to teach him, Sam quite so early as in his brother; for constantly attended, and accompahe was three years old before he nied Charles on the chair. Unaimed at a tune.* His first were, daunted by Mr. Kelway's frown, he God save great George our King,' went on; and when he did not see Fischer's Minuet, and such like, the harpsichord, he crossed his mostly picked up from the street- hands on the chair, as the other on organs. He did not put a true the instrument, without ever missing bass to them till he had learned his a time. notes.

He was so excessively fond of While his brother was playing he Scarlatti, that if Charles ever began used to stand by, with his childish playing his lesson before Sam was fiddle, scraping, and beating time. called, he would cry and roar as if One observing bim, asked me, “And he had been beaten. Mr. Madan, what shall this boy do?” I answered, his godfather, finding him one day “ Mend his brother's pens." He so belabouring the chair, told him did not resent the affront as deeply he should have a better instrument as Marcello ; t so it was not indig- by and by. nation which made him a musician. I have since recollected Mr. Kel.

Mr. Arnold was the first who, way's words: “It is of the utmost hearing him at the harpsichord, said, importance to a learner to hear the I set down Sam for one of my best music;" and, “If any man family.” But we did not much re- would learn to play well, let him

hear Charles." Sam had this double * His mother, however, gave to Daines advantage from his birth. As his Barrington the following convincing proof that he played a tune when he was but • Incredible as this may appear, it is two years and eleven months old, by pro. attested by the whole family, and that he ducing a quarter guinea, which was given generally turned his back to his brother to him by Mr. Addy, for this extraordinary whilst he was playing. “I think, howfeat, wrapped in a piece of paper, containing ever,” says Mr. Barrington, “ that this the day and year of the gift, as well as the extraordinany fact may thus be accounted occasion of it. Mrs. Wesley had also an for: There are some passages in Scarlatti's elder son, who died in his infancy, and who lessons which require the crossing of both sung a tune, and beat time, when hands ; (or the playing the treble with the he was but twelve months old.

left, and the bass with the right;) but as + This alludes to a well-known story what calls for this unusual fingering proin the musical world. Marcello, the ce. duces a very singular effect, the child lebrated composer, had an elder brother, must have felt that these parts of the who had greatly distinguished himself composition could not be executed in any in this science, and being asked what

It is possible, indeed, that should be done with little Marcello, he he might have observed his brother cross. answered, “Let him mend my pens; ing hands at these passages, and imitated which piqued the boy so much, that he him by recollecting that they were thus determined to exceed his elder brother. fingered.”

other way

brother employed the evenings in it very carefully, and seemed highly Handel's Oratorios, Sam was always pleased with the performance. Some at his elbow, listening, and joining of his words were,

“ These airs are with his voice. Nay, he would some- some of the prettiest I have seen. times presume to find fault with his This boy writes by nature as true playing, when we thought he could a bass as I can by rule and study. know nothing of the matter.

There is no man in England has two He was between four and five years such sons.” He bade us let him old when he got hold of the Orato- run on ad libitum, without any check rio of Samson ; and by that alone of rules or masters. taught himself to read words ; soon After this, whenever the Doctor after he taught himself to write. visited us, Sam ran to him with From this time he sprung up like a bis song, sonata, or anthem; and mushroom; and when turned of the Doctor examined them with five could read perfectly well; and astonishing patience and delight. had all the airs, recitatives, and cho. As soon as Sam had quite finished ruses of Samson and the Messiah, his Oratorio he sent it as a present both words and notes, by heart. to the Doctor, who immediately

Whenever he heard his brother honoured him with the following begin to play, he would tell us whose note:music it was (whether Handel, Co- Dr. Boyce's compliments and relli, Scarlatti, or any other); and thanks to his very ingenious brotherwhat part of what lesson, sonata, or composer, Mr. Samuel Wesley; and overture.

is very much pleased and obliged Before he could write he composed by the possession of the Oratorio of much music. His custom was, to Ruth, which he shall preserve with lay the words of an Oratorio before the utmost care, as the most curious him, and sing them all over. Thus product of his musical library.he set (extempore for the most part) For the year that Sam continued Ruth, Gideon, Manasses, and the under Mr. Williams, it was hard to Death of Abel. We observed, when say which was the master, and which he repeated the same words, it was the scholar. Sam chose what music always to the same tunes. The airs he would learn, and often broke of Ruth, in particular, he made be- out into extemporary playing, his fore he was six years old, laid them master wisely letting him do as he up in his memory till he was eight, pleased. and then wrote them down.

During this time he taught himself I have seen him open his Prayer- the violin. A soldier assisted him book, and sing the Te Deum, or an about six weeks; and sometime after, anthem from some Psalm, to his own Mr. Kinsbury gave him twenty lesmusic, accompanying it with the His favourite instrument was harpsichord. 'This he often did, the organ. after he had learned to play by note, He spent a month at Bath, while which Mr. Williams, a young organist we were in Wales ; served the Abbey of Bristol, taught him between six on Sundays; gave thein several voand seven.

luntaries; and played the first fiddle How and when he learned coun- in many private concerts. terpoint, I can hardly tell; but with- He returned with us to London out being ever taught it, he soon greatly improved in his playing. wrote in parts.

There I allowed bim a month for He was full eight years old when learning all Handel's Overtures. He Dr. Boyce came to see us, and ac- played them over to me in three days. costed me with, “Sir, I hear you Handel's Concertos he learned with have got an English Mozart in your equal ease, and some of his lessons, house. Young Linley tells me won- and Scarlatti's. Like Charles, he derful things of him.” I called Sam mastered the hardest music without to answer for himself. He had by any pains or difficulty. this time scrawled down his Oratorio He borrowed his Ruth to tranof Ruth. The Doctor looked over scribe for Mr. Madan. Parts of it


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