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I thank you.
of government the American people had reason to believe would be put into effect following the repeal of the eighteenth amendment.
Bishop HAMMAKER. I want to ask now that Dr. Glenn Cunningham take the chair.
Dr. Cunningham holds the record as mile runner and mile and a half runner and has been very greatly interested in the psysical education and development of young people.
STATEMENT OF DR. GLENN CUNNINGHAM, EMPORIA, KANS. Dr. CUNNINGHAM. My name is Glenn Cunningham. I am from Kansas.
While I am not directly connected with any organization, I am very much interested in young people. I have had very intimate contact with thousands of young people for the past 12 or 15 years.
In my work with these thousands of young people during these past 15 years, I have noticed an alarming increase in the number who use alcoholic beverages. This increase in the use of alcoholic beverages is particularly noticable in the younger age groups of both sexes.
Every person, conscious of the startling increase in delinquency among youths, in deaths and injuries from accidents, in murder and rape, in impoverished and broken homes, and in the number of mental diseases, realizes the urgent need for the passage by Congress of Senator Capper's bill.
In my experience in athletics, as a competitor, as a teacher of physical education, and as a director of a college athletic department, I have observed the disastrous effects of alcohol on the human body. As a student, as a professor, and as a director of a college student health department, I have studied and seen the results of alcohol on the human mind.
As an interested citizen in human welfare, I have studied and observed the disastrous effects of the use of alcohol on human society. The cost to society in dollars alone should make it imperative that Senator Capper's bill be enacted.' The cost in human misery, maimed bodies and minds, and lost lives, makes it inestimably more important that the advertising of alcoholic beverages which contribute so heavily to these great tragedies, be brought under control.
Senator REED. We shall hear next from Congressman Phillips.
STATEMENT OF HON. JOHN PHILLIPS, A REPRESENTATIVE IN
CONGRESS FROM THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA
Representative Phillips. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman.
I am in a subcommittee meeting of the Appropriations Committee, and I appreciate this courtesy.
My name is John Phillips. I represent the Twenty-second California District in the Congress.
I appear in support of Senate 265, and at the request of Mrs. Eva C. Wheeler, legislative chairman of the Southern California Council of Protestant Churches, I ask permission to submit to you for the record, a letter from her.
Senator REED. Very well.
Los Angeles 12, Calif. HONORABLE GENTLEMEN : In the name of the Southern California Council of Protestant Churches I urge your favorable consideration and vote on the Capper bill and respectfully request that you use your persuasive powers to the end that it become law.
Surely we do not want to entice more people to drink beverage alcohol, nor do we want people to drink more.
As state president of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Southern California I make the same request.
Mrs. Eva C. WHEELER, Legislative Chairman of Southern California Council of Protestant Churches. (Mr. Phillips submitted the following telegrams for the record :)
LOS ANGELES, CALIF. Hon. John PHILLIPS, Congress of the United States,
Washington, D. C. Please present to committee our resolution of endorsement for the Capper bill. The federation officially represents the churches of California and the strong moral forces numbering more than 2 million people.
TITUS A. FRAZEE, Executive Director, California Temperance Federation.
SACRAMENTO, CALIF. Hon. John PHILLIPS, United States House of Representatives,
Washington, D. C. The twenty-first amendment prohibits interstate shipment of liquor into dry territory. The same ban should apply to liquor advertising. Government should not wink at portion of an illegal traffic. The Capper bill should become law.
E. E. COVERT.
Executive Secretary, California Drys. Bishop HAMMAKER. Mr. Chairman, Congressman Bryson has just come in, and he would like to appear at this time.
STATEMENT OF HON. JOSEPH R. BRYSON, A REPRESENTATIVE IN
CONGRESS FROM THE STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA
Representative Bryson. Mr. Chairman, my name is J. R. Bryson. I represent the Fourth District of South Carolina, and am happy to thus identify myself with this great cause. I am grateful to you. , Mr. Chairman, for permitting me to appear out of order.
I ask unanimous consent that I may be permitted to file numerous petitions which I have received in behalf of the Capper bill, and also, under the new rules, to file a written statement if I may, for the record.
Senator REED. That will be done. The petitions will be filed with the other petitions as a part of the record of the committee. Representative Bryson. Thank you.
(The following statement was submitted :) Advertising shapes our lives and molds the rising generation. We eat, drink, dress, and think according to advertising. Immature youths are particularly impressionable. This advertising comes to us mainly by press and radio.
If the artificially stimulated demand for intoxicants is to be checked, the advertising of liquor must stop. Experts in the field of advertising have warned
the liquor industry of the danger of adverse public reaction. Advertising Age, March 8, 1943, spoke of growing antiliquor sentiment that might result in restriction of advertising privileges, and warned, “Public resentment against both the industry and the publications which carry the copy is fanned by excessive advertising.”
Plans for improved control of the liquor traffic commonly stress the evils of unrestrained liquor advertising. As long ago as 1938 the Federal Alcohol Administration was struggling with this problem, and was thus quoted :
"The Administration feels that certain amendments in respect to advertising would be desirable to more effectively regulate this phase of its activities, and that radio advertising of distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages should be prohibited, and advertising in Sunday magazines or newspapers carrying Sunday date lines should also be prohibited.
"That all advertising referring directly or indirectly to the value of alcoholic beverages, either as a medicine, tonic, or food, should be prohibited.
“That any advertising matter concerning the sale of alcoholic liquors in newspapers, pericdicals, or circulars disseminated by mail, containing pictures, drawings, or caricatures of women or children or religious objects or insignia, or barroom scenes, should be prohibited."
I'onma of those purposes have been attained since 1938, the objectives of S. 265 may be considered the means to further progress.
Liquor advertising negates the educational efforts of the home, the school, and the church on the dangers of alcohol.
Public-spirited citizens and various organizations, schools and police departments conduct safety campaigns, stressing the dangers of jaywalking, reckless speeding, and careless driving. Would a sensible and enlightened public tolerate at the same time an extensive advertising campaign favoring these hazardous practices, showing the advantage in time saved, quoting statistics that only a small percent of jaywalkers and speeders are injured, and praising the advantages of careless driving-they would euphemize it to "carefree driving"—stressing the sense of superiority that it gives? Would sane and sensible people allow the papers and magazines of the country, as well as the radio, to be filled with glowin tributes to recklessness in traffic and in handling fire, even if the advertising were colorful and ingenius and well financed? It is no more consistent to try to teach our youth the dangers of alcohol and at the same time permit alcoholic beverages to be advertised freely as an unalloyed good that all prosperous and successful men, women, and youth are expected to use.
Dr. Haven Emerson, professor emeritus, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, said :
"It is a most preposterous abuse of childhood and youth that they should be persuaded to ergage in organized play and physical development of the body, and leave school with a well-developed habit of alcohol use, for lack of understanding that physical fitness is a farce without self-control. judgment, discretion, three qualities of mind first to be dulled and made incompetent by the use of alcohol.”
How foolish it is to teach youth the dangers of liquor while allowing the stuff to be advertised in the most alluring terms.
Liquor advertising is deceptive. The advertisements mak drinking appear attractive. They cleverly conceal the end results. They print pretty labels in glorious colors, and show men of successful business and professional types drinking in attractive home or club surroundings with beautiful women. If the artists told the whole truth they would portray also for instance, a wreck of humanity, possibly still young, incapable of holding a job, or of supporting his heartbroken wife and homeless children. There are certain streets here in Washington where pictures could be obtained for truthful liquor advertising that would balance the glamour with the inevitable sordidness.
The little boy had the right idea when he said to the saloonkeeper, "Mister, your sign is down." The proprietor of the joint didn't believe the urchin, but the boy persisted, “Yes, it is. Mister; your sign is down; just come out and see." Finally the liquor seller came to the door, and the boy pointed to a drunk lying by the curb. “There's your sign, Mister; your sign's down all right."
If there were a roller-coaster or other thrill producer in an amusement park which caused the death or serious injury of 20 percent of those who patronized it, would we allow its glowing and attractive advertisements to be published with no mention of the attendant dangers ? Liquor advertising is just as dishonestly deceptive as that, and has not excuse for existing in a civilized country.
This is a proper subject for legislation. The advertising of liquor is different from other advertising because liquor is different from flour, sugar, typewriters, and automobiles. The difference is widely recognized. Many newspapers and periodicals and some advertising agencies refuse liquor advertising, but they are always glad to advertise commodities which do not harm the users. Most of our States have laws restricting liquor advertising. Restrictive and even prohibitory legislation on the sale of alcoholic beverages has consistently been found constitutional by the courts.
Therefore, because advertising artificially stimulates the demand for alcoholic drinks; because liquor advertising negates the educational efforts of the home, the school, and the church on the dangers of alcohol; because liquor advertising is deceptive, and is a proper subject for legislation, the measure under consideration, S. 265, by Senator Capper, entitled "A bill to prohibit the transportation in interstate commerce of advertisements of alcoholic beverages, and for other purposes,” should be supported.
Bishop HAMMAKER. Now, Mr. Chairman, Mr. Johnson will take the stand,
STATEMENT OF HENRY M. JOHNSON, PRESIDENT, NATIONAL
TEMPERANCE AND PROHIBITION COUNCIL, LOUISVILLE, KY. Mr. JOHNSON. My name is Henry M. Johnson. I am a lawyer of Louisville, Ky.
For 15 years I have been and am now the nonsalaried president of the Kentucky Sunday School Association, an interdenominational body, operating in Kentucky.
The committee which has been more or less guiding the proponents' side of this bill, headed by Bishop Hammaker, has asked me to serve as attorney for the committee, and I understand has made arrangements with the chairman from the beginning of the hearings until the end, including a summary which I am expected to make, I will be given a total of 30 minutes.
I will now take a few of these 30 minutes in order to present some of the matters which I believe will enable the committee to better understand our case as it is developed by our witnesses.
In the first place, the thing that we are trying to remedy is the fact that there are so many listener impressions which are impressed upon the human mind through advertisements which glamorize liquor drinking, all to the detriment of our boys and girls, who are the Nation's most precious assets.
In the last issue of one of the advertising magazines of the country, it was stated that 100 million dollars had been spent within the last four years for the purpose of public service, given gratis by the radio interests of the nation. It was estimated that this 100 million dollars produced 371/2 billion listener impressions; that is, for each 100 million dollars spent there would be 371/2 billion listener impressions.
That would mean, assuming our population at 130 million people, listener impressions for liquor drinking impressed upon the minds of our population to the extent of 250 impressions every year, that is, for every boy or girl.
The United States census reports show that practically 39 percent of our population are between the ages of 5 and 24 years of age. It means that if these listener impressions are coming into the mental consciousness of these boys
and girls to the numbers I have indicated, it is producing a very bad effect
We think there is great danger-in fact, danger approaching atomicenergy proportions—in even one impression that is made upon one boy or girl. A few nights ago, my little grandson spent the night with us.
I was making preparation to come to Washington. The next morning, he came to me in my room, not yet dressed, and he said “Grandy, what are you doing?"
I said, "Mark, your Grandy is expecting to go to Washington and is going to try, in the performance of the duties which he has been called upon to perform for the committee, to make it a better place for little boys and girls like you and your sister to live. And we are trying to do away with these glamorous appeals concerning drinking of liquor."
He said, “Oh, boy, that is interesting, Grandy. Go ahead and tell me what you are going
to Well, I told him a little bit, and he was so interested, that finally I picked up from my desk an advertisement, the copy which had appeared concerning wine, of very glamorous appeal. It was not over 10 inches long, on a printed page, and probably would not take even a minute to read. I read it to him, and then he looked up into my face, and he said, “Grandy, if I wasn't you all's little boy, I would want to try some of that myself."
It is this, gentlemen of the committee, which indicates a tragedy which is befalling our youth in America today. The budding unfolding minds of little boys and girls, who trustfully believe what is portrayed to them by seeming friends, thus constantly receive the deceptive, indelible impressions of how fine and splendid and smart it is to drink, and that people of distinction drink; and they become unable to withstand the temptation to do so.
Never have anglers cast their baited hook with as much skill for their coveted catch as these fishers of men cast theirs into the current of life to trick and catch youth. The younger their catch, the better for their business, inasmuch as the drinking of their product is habitforming and their recruits usually come to be lifetime customers, who drop their money into the liquor's ever-yawning tills to swell the profits of these grasping interests.
An illustration, gentlemen of the committee, of how merely a single attractive play-up of a particular product will cause its purchase and use, even as against preconceived opinions and convictions against it, is seen in the following incident which happened when I was in school.
In the class on literature, the lesson was on that classic English rendition, Lamb's Dissertation on Roast Pig.
A Jewish boy in the class became so enamored by the description that the convictions and traditions of the revered fathers of Israel were so swept away that he stealthily slipped into a cheap restaurant on a back street and took his fling at a pork roast. Why? Because the author had, in one single dressed-up presentation, so glamorized roast pig as to build up the conviction in that lad that he seemed to feel if he should not be able soon to partake of that delectable dish, then his chances to enter the gates of the New Jerusalem would go glimmering forever,
All this was quickly accomplished by an appealing and attractive build-up of a particular article.