culminate in alcoholism. Our American future and the success of American ideals depends upon those in our high schools and colleges today. Certainly no one interested in the perpetuation of American ideals would knowingly permit the continuance of any program, the influence of which would point in the direction of the ruin morally, spiritually, and physically of these fine young people.

And yet the glamorous pages of advertising in magazines and newspapers, and the enticing sound of such advertising on the air, is a vital influence in causing the problem drinker to continue his habit and the American youth to begin the habit of using alcoholic beverages. Without a doubt, you desire to do that which

will result in the greatest good for the largest number of people. It seems to us in the National Temperance Movement that the recommendation to pass this bill would be one step toward an abatement of a serious problem. No legislation relative to traffic, transportation, or advertising, or in fact any other major program which has to do with correcting present abuses, be enacted without certain comparative curtailment for some few individuals. This bill, if passed will do that.

But you and we are interested in the greatest good for the largest number of people. By reducing the attractiveness of liquor, through the curtailment of advertising, you will assist millions in their fight against this habit, while at the same time a few may be adversely affected financially. More people will be benefited by the passage of this bill than will be injured thereby.

In recommending this bill to pass, your committee will be taking a forward step in the interest of legislation for the people. This legislation will aid the cause of sobriety and decency, and will more fully establish the principle of State's rights. Too often legislation has been supported which was in the interest of the liquor industry, rather than for the good of the people.

We recognize that liquor is legal and that that which is legal has certain rights. We are ever mindful, however, of the physiological and psychological effects of alcoholic beverages, and we plead with you to recommend the passage of this bill in order that the influence of this beverage shall be curtailed in the interest of democracy, the protection of our youth and the rehabilitation of the alcoholics, even though certain interests may lose a few shekels thereby.

Senator REED. Thank you.

Bishop HAMMAKER. One of the most militant and closely knit protestant bodies concerned in this question is the Seventh-Day Adventists. They are represented by one of their official secretaries, Rev. W. A. Scharffenberg. STATEMENT OF W. A. SCHARFFENBERG, AMERICAN TEMPERANCE

SOCIETY, TAKOMA PARK, D. C. Mr. SCHARFFENBERG. I represent and am serving as vice president and executive secretary of the American Temperance Society, which is sponsored by the Seventh-Day Adventists.

The American Temperance Society, representing over 400,000 men, women, and youth of America, are supporting the Capper bill, S. 265% against liquor advertising for the following reasons:

A. Liquor advertisements over the radio, in the magazines, and newspapers, as well as on signs and billboards are misleading. By



deliberately concealing the lurking danger that exists in the use or misuse of the product advertised, they leave the purchaser under a false and misleading impression, hence are deceptive. We believe advertisements that intentionally mislead the public, especially the youth of America, should be banned.

B. The liquor interests, having spent approximately $100,000,000 during 1946 in advertising their wares, have succeeded in reaching the highest sales record in all their history. By inducing more men, more women, more boys, and more girls to drink, they have disposed of over $9,000,000,000 worth of alcoholic beverages last year. The consumption of alcoholic beverages is in exact proportion to the number of crimes committed. As the consumption of alcohol increases, the number of crimes committed increase, for under the influence of liquor, men and women commit all manner of crimes. During 1946, according to the recent FBI report, 1,685,203 crimes were committed in this country.

Judge William R. McKay of Los Angeles, said:

It is my well-considered opinion, following 10 years' experience as a prosecuting attorney and a similar period on the municipal and superior court benches, that fully 90 percent of all persons appearing before the criminal courts for consideration are there directly because of the “excessive” use of intoxicating liquor. I am not alone in sharing this viewpoint. I have talked to others far more qualified than I and who have enjoyed a far greater experience than I. These people likewise concur in my judgment with respect to this particular proposition.

Judge Greliner, of St. Louis, declared that, 92 percent of the 10,000 peace-disturbance cases on his docket last year were attributable to too much alcohol.

The current wave of crime has been induced by alcohol.

From 70 to 90 percent of our crime bill, which was over $17,000,000,000 in 1946 can be traced directly to alcohol. The American Temperance Society, and we are confident that the rank and file of the substantial citizens of this country join us in the belief that the first step in reducing crime is to prohibit the advertising of those products, under the influence of which not only men and women, but teen age boys and girls, are committing all manner of crime. Reduce the consumption of alcohol and you will reduce the number of crimes.

We are also of the opinion that we, who permit the promotion of a product that ruins men's physical, mental, and moral powers, and that will fill our penitentiaries, our jails, our asylums, our hospitals, and our workhouses, will be held responsible before the judgment bar of God for the misery and the crimes that are perpetrated upon society. The American Temperance Society favors the immediate passage and enactment of this bill. We believe that the banning of all liquor advertisements will reduce the consumption of alcoholic beverages, which in turn will exert a wholesome influence to check the epidemic of crime at which thoughtful, God-fearing men everywhre stand aghast.

Senator REED. Thank you.

Bishop HAMMAKER. I would like now to present, to use a scriptural phrase, an elect lady, one of the great Americans. She is great



in her own right as well as through her long years of association with Dr. Harvey Wiley.

Mrs. Harvey Wiley.



Mrs. WILEY. I am Mrs. Harvey W. Wiley. I reside at 2345 Ashmead Place, Washington, D. C.

I represent no one. I am speaking simply as an individual.

I consider distilled liquor one of the great evils of our time. There is on old saying, “Each sin has its door of entrance. Keep that door shut.” I look upon advertising as its door of entrance. It is on a par with advertising matches for babies or dangerous snakes for teen-age children.

I repeat, I consider advertising liquor for adults is like advertising matches for babies, or dangerous snakes for teen-age children.

Donald Clemmer, Director of the Department of Corrections of the District of Columbia, told a House committee recently that 137,073 men and women have been committed to jail for intoxication in the District of Columbia from 1934 to 1946, 12 years. This covers only commitments and not arrests. He said:

One reason we may speculate, that there are not more commitments during the last few years is because, where there were more arrests for drunkeness, frequently those arrested paid the $10 collateral and thus they did not go to the jail.

He testified thatin 1944 the percentage of all commitments, charged with intoxication, was 57 percent, which went up to 59 percent in 1945, and 63 percent in 1946.

That is a horrible record for the District of Columbia, and Judge John P. McMahon of the municipal court testified it was costing the taxpayers around $30,000 a month to keep these people in jail.

On reason for this situation is ads like the “men of distinction” series being sponsored by Calvert whisky. Young people read these advertisements and think drinking whisky is necessary to make them "men of distinction.” I am particularly concerned about the increased drunkenness among women. To advertise so dangerous a substance as distilled liquor seems like adding fuel to a prairie fire.

Mr. Chairman, I sincerely hope that your committee will pass Senator Capper's bill, S. 265.

Senator REED. Thank you.

Bishop HAMMAKER. I would like to present Dr. Blackwelder of the United Lutheran Church.



Dr. BLACKWELDER. My name is Oscar Fisher Blackwelder. I am pastor of the Lutheran Church of the Reformation in Washington. I am appearing to bring personally a statement from Dr. Koch, the executive secretary of our executive board, who cannot come personally.

The United Lutheran Church in America during its biennial convention in Cleveland, October 1946, adopted the following resolution:

II. Whereas this convention of the United Lutheran Church observes with grave concern the reported enormous increase in the manufacture, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages; therefore be it

Resolved, That 1. The convention appeal to the members of the United Lutheran Church to use their personal and social influence by precept and example in seeking to remedy this dangerous situation.

The above resolution is in harmony with similar resolutions and statements made by the Board of Social Missions during the past 5 years, to which board the church has entrusted leadership in social matters. It is the judgment of the Board of Social Missions that one factor in the increasing sale and use of alcohol beverages is the advertising campaign conducted by those individuals and corporations primarily concerned with the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages. The skill with which advertisements are prepared, the tremendous increase of the space purchased, the nature of the appeal made to the eye and to the ear, combine in an effort to make our citizens "liquor conscious.” That such advertising does increase the use of alcoholic beverages must be admitted by all, even the liquor interests which pay for the advertising.

Since it is admitted that less than 50 percent of our population over 16 years of age drink even occasionally, and that a large percentage of those who do indulge because of social pressure, it is evident that this concerted campaign to increase liquor consumption through liquor advertisements is not acceptable to a large proportion of our citizens. And to a large number of groups who do not drink, such advertisements, are obnoxious. In the belief that the passage of the Capper bill,

S. 265, would regulate liquor advertisements in interstate commerce, I speak on behalf of the adoption of said bill.

Senator REED. It would not regulate, it would abolish it, so far as interstate commerce is concerned.

Senator REED. Thank you.

Bishop HAMMAKER. I would like to present the president of the
National Women's Christian Temperance Union, Mrs. D. Leigh



CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION, EVANSTON, ILL. Mrs. Colvin. I am Mrs. D. Leigh Colvin, national president of the Woman's Christian Temperance Ünion. My address is 1730 Chicago Avenue, Evanston, Ill. I am speaking for the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union.

This bill, S. 265, introduced by Senator Capper would, if passed, ban from interstate commerce all media for the advertising of alcoholic beverages, including newspapers, magazines, periodicals, films, and records for mechanical transcription and stop the advertising of alcoholic beverages over the air.

I represent one of the largest and most outstanding women's organizations-an organization which throughout its long history has

championed and put foremost the interests of women and children and of the home, which today is increasing numerically at the rate of more than 10,000 per year, and still represents the home women of the Nation-the constructive builders of human life and of the citizens of tomorrow's world.

The state and society today demand a great deal of women. Charges are being laid against them, and unfortunately with truth in some instances, that their neglect of their duty as parents is to blame for a large share of today's appalling problem of juvenile delinquency. We object to the sources of some of this hurricane of blame. It is not the home, the church, and the school that are breaking down the childhood and youth of today, but the radio, the motion picture, the tavern, and the officials who fail to do their duty in enforcing such laws as we still have to restrict these agencies of destruction from preying on youth. And it is from the taverns and the people whose real objective is to protect the alcoholic beverage traffic that many of these charges are coming.

However, we admit that many women today have been unfitted for motherhood by the tavern, the cocktail lounge, the motion picture; and the general atmosphere of an age that glorifies taverns and bartenders and the assertion of self even to antisocial extremes, and sneers at and vilifies religion, motherhood, the domestic virtues and that sacrifice of self which has glorified motherhood in the past. We do not excuse the women. No one has a right to bring a human being into the world, either father or mother, without assuming the full responsibility which that new and helpless life entails.

But consider some of the problems with which mothers are faced today. Human life, like plant life, requires a favorable soil and climate in which to grow.

Gentlemen, I would like to show you a few of the influences with which a mother has to compete today.

I have asked Miss Smart to show to the members of the committee some of the advertisements which I am going to suggest to you as being a competing influence with the home and the mother, in the training and education of her children.

First the "men of distinction" advertisements, and while Miss Smart is giving you one or two of these, may I say that we have someone here who has brought along a list of these different ads which have appeared at different times in different magazines.

And in connection with that, I have a picture of the "men of extinction” which I think really could go right along with the "men of distinction” because the two should be simultaneously shown.

Look at these advertisements. “Men of distinction." Seen at the most impressionable period of a boy's life, adolescence, when he is naturally trying to separate from the parental protection on which he has unconsciously leaned through childhood and assert his own independent individuality, how hard it is for a mother to compete with this array of sophisticated glamour, even though it points a glittering falsehood. These men, those of them who are really distinguished, naturally do not owe their distinction to drinking a brand of whisky. But how is unthinking youth in its inexperience to appreciate that?



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