We are strong believers in total abstinence.

In 1845 our members were no longer permitted to engage in the liquor traffic. Since 1882 our members have not engaged in the manufacture, use, or sale of intoxicating liquor as a beverage.

The position of total abstinence has been our church's position from that time to the present.

It can be seen quite easily that the advertising of liquor does a very great disservice to our people. On the one hand, they have their loyalty to the church and to its teachings, and their desire to remain true to its teachings; but, on the other hand, they cannot escape from this constant bombardment of liquor advertisements in newspapers and magazines, over the radio, which come right into the sanctity of their own homes.

In 1946 the Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church took official action favoring legislation which would prohibit liquor advertising. Thank you. Senator REED. Bishop, you may call your next witness.

. Bishop HAMMAKER. Dr. J. Raymond Schmidt, of the International Order of Good Templars.


ORDER OF GOOD TEMPLARS, WASHINGTON, D. C. Dr. SCHMIDT. I am J. Raymond Schmidt of Washington, D. C.

Mr. Chairman, and members of the committee, I thank you for the opportunity of appearing here as a citizen, as national superintendent of legislative work of the National Grand Lodge of the International Order of Good Templars and as general superintendent of the National Civic League.

Repeal was accompanied with glib promises of more temperate drinking habits throughout the country. Especially was there to be less drinking among young people.

That the reverse is true can be traced to the founding and rapid growth of Alcoholics Anonymous, whose membership is comprised entirely of rehabilitated alcoholics, not all of them being older people

. Further proof of the falsity of repeal claims can be seen in the large number of sanitaria springing up all over the country for the treatment of problem drinkers and chronic alcoholics. Had repeal promises come true there should not have been an increase in the number of such institutions.

Even the establishment of such a worthy institution as the Yale School of Alcohol Studies can be attributed to the growth of intemperance in the United States. The scientists first became interested in the problem of alcoholism about 10 years after repeal, or when the number of chronic alcoholics and heavy drinkers became so large as to be alarming. The Yale school estimates that there are from 750,000 to 1,000,000 cronic alcoholics and from 2,000,000 to 3,000,000 excessive drinkers in the country,

Dr. Hersey, a noted psychiatrist, speaking at the 1946 summer session of the Yale School of Alcohol Studies, discussed the three reasons why men and women start drinking. First, there are those


who cannot resist social pressure; second, those who find life dull, the home boring or job uninteresting and take to drink to “escape reality"; third, those who face insurmountable problems apparently impossible of solution and start drinking in order to forget them. Dr. Hersey added that the use of drink to forget one's problems could easily lead to the worst problem of all, alcoholism.

Neither Dr. Hersey nor the Yale school made mention of the power of advertising in getting men and women, especially young people, started on the road to drink. Brewers, distillers, and vintners would not spend $100,000,000 annually in advertising their products, if they were not winning recruits to the army of moderate drinkers, especially among the younger set.

The Good Templars feel that the advertising of liquor, beer, and wine is perhaps the greatest single contributing factor underlying the widespread excessive use of alcoholic beverages today.

The best proof that America is drinking too much comes from the United States Department of Commerce in the form of a release dated April 30, 1947. This release states that Americans spent $8,800,000,000 for distilled spirits, wine and beer during 1946, almost a billion dollars more than was spent for these beverages in 1945.

The 1946 drink bill averaged $89 for each person over 18 years of age. According to the Yale School of Alcohol Studies there are at least 50,000,000 drinkers in the United States. That being the case, during 1946 the average amount spent by the drinkers came to about $175.

Moreover, the 45 or 46 million so-called moderate drinkers can no longer be disregarded as a menace to society. Not many chronic alcoholics are sitting at the steering wheels of automobiles. But plenty of moderate drinkers are involved in the rapidly mounting number of auto accidents. The commissioner of motor vehicles of a great eastern State connects 80 percent of the highway accidents to drinking drivers—none other than our highly respected moderate drinkers.

Any liquor regulatory legislation enacted by Congress should aim at a reduction of the anti-social consequences stemming from the manufacture, sale and use of alcoholic beverages. Passage of the Capper bill, S. 265—would be a step in the right direction. Those already in the habit of drinking know where to go for the purchase of more drink. Why then permit the highly organized and financed liquor traffic to bombard the nondrinkers, including teen-age boys and girls, with their high-pressure advertising and selling tactics ? Every expert advertising executive recognizes the power of repetition as a sales force. If the distillers, brewers, and vintners were not recruiting many young people as purchasers and consumers of their products, they would keep their advertising allotments in the bank.

It is because of their success and the consequent danger of debauching America that the Good Templars, second oÎdest temperance society in America, wishes to go on record as favoring pasage of the Capper bill that all methods of advertising alcoholic beverages may hereafter be outlawed.

Bishop HAMMAKER. Mr. Chairman, Mr. J. T. Sanders, the legislative counsel of the National Grange is here, and we would like to ask him to speak on behalf of this bill.


NATIONAL GRANGE, WASHINGTON, D. C. Mr. SANDERS. Mr. Chairman, my name is J. T. Sanders, and I am legislative counsel of the National Grange.

The Grange is the oldest national farm organization in America, and now has an active membership of around 770,000.

A careful examination of our policies on the liquor question reveals that throughout our entire history we have expressed strong opposition annually to the liquor traffic.

In order to register specifically the nature of this opposition, I will quote a few extracts from our resolutions of recent years.

In 1941, we stated, among other things, as follows:

The National Grange vigorously opposes the advertising of beer or other alcoholic beverages over the radio.

In 1941, again, in another resolution, we stated :

The National Grange asks Congress to prohibit the sale of all alcoholic beverages in military camps and in areas adjacent thereto.

In 1943:

The National Grange reaffirms its proud position in support of temperance and sobriety and demand that all governmental authorities, both State and national, take immediate steps to prevent the practices which are materially hindering our war effort at home and on the field of actionof sales of liquor around army camps.

We reaffirm our temperance position of long standing, and ask granges and patrons generally to recognize their challenge to offset the highly effective job of promotion now being carried out by the liquor industry. We must use every possible facility to educate children and young people to know the truth as to effects and results of the use of liquor.

Finally, in our 1946 convention at Portland, we stated:

The liquor problem has become a serious one. Shocking conditions of crime and lawlessness are in evidence in every part of our land. Many of these conditions can be attributed directly to the use of liquor. We again reaffirm our temperance position of former years, and urge our granges everywhere to take an active interest in an attempt to clear our communities of this curse.

The Granges position, as I am quite sure I am interpreting it rightly, rests on about three major reasons for opposition to liquor.

Senator REED. Mr. Sanders. We are talking here about liquor advertising, and the question of stopping its transmission through the mails or otherwise.

Would you mind confining your discussion to the effect of advertising upon drinking habits, and the welfare of the people generally? Mr. SANDERS. Yes, Mr. Chairman.

Senator REED. We are not discussing the question of the prohibition law, and prohibiting the sale of liquor.

Mr. SANDERS. The reason I quoted those, Mr. Chairman, is that I wished to show that we were in favor of obstructing the use of liquor in every way possible, and then I intended to bring up the next point.

A recent national magazine article reveals the fact that out of the total advertising in one issue, there were 58 pages of advertisements of non-liquor nature, and 10 pages of liquor advertising, one of which advertisements had a double page spread.


Senator REED. What publication was that?
Mr. SANDERS. That was Newsweek, of a recent issue.

Now, we believe that at a time like this, to advertise the use of liquor is to promote the use of highly necessary grain for consumption for nonfood purposes, and therefore seriously impairs our ability to help feed the hungry peoples of the world.

Therefore, immediately we would be favorable to a restriction of advertising of liquor, which we believe helps to promote an increased liquor use, if we can judge from advertising in the past.

For the same reason, because of its effect on the morals of rural communities as well as urban communities, we would be favorable to restricting advertisements in order to prevent as much as possible the excessive use of alcohol.

Senator McFARLAND. Have you made a survey to determine what magazines carry the greatest proportion of liquor advertising?

Mr. SANDERS. Only one issue of the one magazine which I mentioned. Mr. Chairman, that is all I have to say. I thank you.

Mr. JOHNSON. We have that, if Your Honor please.

Senator MCFARLAND. Go ahead, then. I understand that is already in the record. I was not here at this morning's session.

Bishop HAMMACKER. The statements from North Dakota and Iowa have been filed with the committee, and I would just like to make the request that they be entered in the record of today's hearings.

Senator REED. They may be made a part of the record. (The statements referred to are as follows:)



Washington, D. C. DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: By direction of the Thirtieth Legislative Assembly of North Dakota I am pleased to send you copies of resolutions adopted pertaining to divers subjects, as follows:

Resolution K pertaining to barring liquor advertising in mails.

Resolution N pertaining to the opening of homestead submarginal land in North Dakota.

Resolution V pertaining to the extension of time for availability funds under Federal Aid Act.

Resolution W pertaining to the strengthening of sanitary requirements on importations of livestock.

Resolution Y pertaining to the removal and restrictions of Indian lands.

Resolution 2 pertaining to the petitioning of Congress to enact permanent legislation and maintain parity, 90 percent on basic farm crops.

Resolution 13 pertaining to the equal rights for women.
Resolution 21 pertaining to the provision of funds and payment and difference
between ceiling price of fax, and the price after the ceiling is lifted.
Resolution 26 pertaining to the creation of Roosevelt Park into the Bad Lands.
Sincerely yours,

Secretary of State.



BARRING LIQUOR ADVERTISING FROM INTERSTATE MAILS, ETC. A concurrent resolution memorializing the Congress of the United States to enact legislation barring all forms of liquor advertising from interstate mails, from radio and motion-picture programs

Be it resolved by the House of Representatives of the State of North Dakota, the Senate concurring therein, That the Legislative Assembly of the State of North Dakota does hereby memorialize and petition the Congress of the United States to enact legislation now introduced in the Senate of the United States to bar all forms of liquor advertising from interstate mails and from radio and motion-picture programs.

It is the sense of the house of representatives and the senate that such liquor advertisements coming through the interstate mails and over the radio and in motion-picture programs are detrimental to the morals, health, and safety of the people, and particularly to the youth of our country, and, therefore, should be banned and barred from all interstate mails, radio and motion-picture programs; be it further

Resolved, That the secretary of state be instructed to send copies of this resolution properly authenticated to the presiding officer of each house of the National Congress and to each of the United States Senators and Representatives from the States of North Dakota.


Speaker of the House. KENNETH L. MORGAN, Chief Clerk of the House.

President of the Senate,

Secretary of the Senate.

Attest: [SEAL]

THOMAS HALL, Secretary of State.


Whereas the use of alcoholic beverages is rapidly increasing in Iowa; and

Whereas the habit-forming practice of the use of alcoholic beverages in many cases results in lowered physical and mental efficiency, broken homes, juvenile delinquency, increased crime, and general disregard for law and order, all detrimental to the general public welfare; and

Whereas the General Assembly of Iowa does recognize the inherent right and duty of government to protect and safeguard the general public welfare of its people by all proper means; and

Whereas the above habit-forming practice is constantly being stimulated and encouraged by the use of advertising and propaganda, much of which comes from out of the State and which has for its purpose financial profit rather than the general public interest and welfare; and

Whereas there has been introduced in Congress a bill by Senator Arthur Capper known as S. 265, to prohibit the transportation in interstate commerce of advertisements of alcoholic beverages, which bill is now in the hands of the Senate Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, of which Senator Wallace H. White, Jr., of Maine, is the chairman: Now, therefore, be it

Resolved by the House (the Senate concurring), That the General Assembly of Iowa hereby urges its Senators and Representatives in Congress to use their influence and support in behalf of S. 265 to the end that the general welfare of the people, and especially the youth of Iowa, and of the United States, be safeguarded and protected.

Furthermore, that a copy of said resolution be sent to the United States Senators from Iowa and the United States Representatives from Iowa, to the Honorable Wallace H. White, Jr., Senator from Maine, and to the Honorable Arthur Capper, Senator from Kansas.

Bishop HAMMAKER. Then, Mr. Chairman, I would like to read two or three paragraphs from a statement sent by the Church of the Friends, and I would like to offer the statement for the record.

This statement by the Friends' Temperance Association is signed by Dr. Donald Baker, the chairman of that association, in the Friends Church.

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