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manner hereinafter set forth. Pending the settlement of any differences as aforesaid, this agreement shall in every respect continue in force and the members of said union shall continue in their employment. Should differences or disputes arise in reference to the terms of such settlement, or as to whether the same have been complied with, such differences or disputes shall be left to the arbitrators who arrived at such settlement, and their decision shall be final and binding upon all parties.

MANNER OF ARBITRATION.

When any disputes or differences shall be referred to arbitration as herein before mentioned, such arbitration shall be conducted in the following manner:

When such differences or disputes shall have been called to the attention of the officers of either of the parties hereto, said officers shall communicate in writing with the officers of the other party, stating the matter in controversy and asking for the appointment of arbitrators. The officers of each of the parties hereto shall within forty-eight hours after the receipt of such notification appoint two persons to act as arbitrators. Such arbitrators to be selected from employers who are party to this agreement and from the members of said union who are employed in book and job offices. Such four persons shall within forty-eight hours of the time of their appointment meet and arrange for a hearing of the matters in dispute. "Such arbitrators shall be known as the arbitration committee. Said committee shall, within four days after it has been formed as aforesaid, meet at the time and place arranged at its first meeting, which place shall be conveniently located, and shall proceed to take testimony and hear evidence and may listen to arguments concerning the matter in controversy. Said committee shall fully inform themselves as to the matter in controversy, and shall immediately at the conclusion of such hearing and arguments render a decision as to the merits of the controversy and shall provide a means for its settlement. A decision of a majority of the committee shall be final and conclusive upon all parties concerned.

In case such arbitrators shall be equally divided upon any question, a fifth person shall be chosen by them to act as umpire. Such person shall not be a member of any labor organization, an employer of skilled or mechanical labor, or a holder of any political office or a candidate for the same, when chosen, nor shall he be a member or employee of any firm or corporation belonging to said Typothetæ, or which is engaged in a kindred trade. Said umpire shall have the privilege and it shall be his duty to cast the deciding vote in case of a tie as aforesaid, and the decision of a majority of said four arbitrators and said umpire shall in like manner be final and conclusive upon all parties concerned.

It is understood that said arbitration committee shall not constitute a standing committee, but that it shall be formed only as differences

may arise.

The final decision and result of such arbitration, determining the matters in controversy which shall have been submitted to said committee, shall without delay be reduced to writing, and shall be signed by the members of said committee or by a majority thereof. Such writing so signed shall be executed in duplicate, and one duplicate thereof shall be delivered, as soon as possible after such decision shall have been rendered, to the secretary of each of the parties hereto; and such decision and decree shall be in force from and after such delivery, or as soon thereafter as shall be determined by said committee.

STRIKES.

No strike shall be engaged in by said union or any members thereof, except a strike in sympathy with the Pressmen's Union No. 3, or the Franklin Union No. 4, or the Bookbinders' Union, and then only after said Typothetæ, or the member or members thereof against whom said proposed strike is directed, shall have first been given thirty days written notice by the officers of said union of the intention to engage in such strike. If, however, the Typothetæ or employers signing this agreement shall make a similar contract with the Pressmen's Union No. 3, Franklin Union No. 4, and Bookbinders' Union, in which these unions agree not to engage in any sympathetic strike, the Typographical Union No. 16 will make the same agreement.

It is understood that this agreement shall be amended so as to conform in the matter of sympathetic strikes to future agreements that may be made between kindred organizations mentioned above and the Chicago Typothetæ.

Any employer signing this agreement having altercations with the Mailers' Union, Photoengravers' Union, Stereotypers' Union, Newswriters' Union, or the Type Founders' Union, also agrees to refer such altercations to arbitration in the same manner as if the altercation was with the members of the Typographical Union No. 16.

TIME OF CONTRACT.

This agreement and scale of wages to remain in force until July 1, 1905.

This agreement is understood as not to act as a bar to Chicago Typographical Union, No. 16, participating in a movement for shorter workday, providing such movement is agreed to by the United Typothetæ of America and the International Typographical Union.

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ITALIAN BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

By its law of June 29, 1902, Italy joined the ranks of European nations having bureaus of labor, the office being placed under the minister of agriculture, industry, and commerce. The bureau is charged with the collection and publication of information relative to labor in Italy and in those foreign countries toward which Italian emigration is chiefly directed. This will include the consideration of the state and development of national production; the organization and remuneration of labor and its relations with capital; number and condition of working people, with facts relative to unemployment; strikes; accidents to workingmen; the working of labor laws, and the comparative condition of labor in Italy and abroad. Attention to social legislation of foreign countries and the working of social institutions is also a part of the duty of the new bureau, as well as the introduction of approved reforms into the laws of Italy. Special investigations may be ordered by the minister or by the superior council of labor.

The superior council of labor is established by the same law, and consists of 43 members. At its head is the minister of agriculture, industry, and commerce, or, in his absence, the under secretary of state. Seven members are heads of Government departments. Three senators, 3 deputies, 4 representatives of the chambers of commerce and 4 of the agricultural interests, 3 each from the federation of mutual relief associations and the national league of Italian cooperative associations, and 2 from the associations of people's banks are chosen by the bodies or classes which they represent. The remaining 14 members are appointed by the King, on the nomination of the minister of agriculture, industry, and commerce, 2 to be economists or statisticians; 5 producers or operating managers, agricultural, manufacturing, or commercial; 2 workmen or foremen among the mine workers of Sicily and Sardinia; 1 from among harbor workmen and seamen, and 4 from the peasant and laboring classes. The term of the legislative representatives is the same as the legislature; that of the other members is three years, one-third retiring each year.

The duties of this council are to examine questions concerning the relations of employers and workmen, to propose measures for bettering the condition of the working people, to suggest lines of inquiry and investigation to the bureau, to pass upon proposed legislation, and to advise the minister on all subjects submitted by him to its consideration.

Members of the council not residing in Rome are reimbursed for traveling and hotel expenses at a fixed rate.

A permanent commission of nine is chosen by the council from among its members, to which certain powers of coordination and advice are given.

Local authorities, corporate bodies, agricultural, manufacturing, commercial, and workingmen's associations, as well as the local labor offices, are required, under penalty, to furnish to the bureau of labor such information as it may require for the carrying out of its purposes. The information thus obtained and other matters of interest will be presented in monthly bulletins and in special publications to be distributed at cost. Labor organizations requesting will receive these publications gratis.

This law went into effect July 1, 1902.

RECENT REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR STATISTICS

MASSACHUSETTS.

Thirtieth Annual Report of the Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of

Labor. March, 1900. Horace G. Wadlin, Chief. xxi, 247 pp.

The two divisions of this volume contain a report on changes in conducting retail trade in Boston since 1874, and a labor chronology.

CHANGES IN CONDUCTING RETAIL TRADE IN BOSTON SINCE 1874.This is a study of the growth of the department store and its relations to the retail trade. A distinction between department stores and stores with departments is carried through the report, the basis being that in the department store proper a great variety of articles having no generic relation with one another are sold in the same establishment, while stores with departments confine themselves to lines which are legitimately connected with or grow out of each other, the division into departments being not for the purpose of adding different lines of stock, but merely as a matter of conveniently subdividing a growing business.

In 1898 there were 10 department stores and 9 stores with departments in the city of Boston. Of the latter, the first one was established in 1852, the first department store dating from 1855. Five of the department stores had their beginning in the period 1893 to 1898, so that the system may be fairly said to be of recent growth and increasing use. But 2 stores with departments were established as late as 1893.

. In department stores the number of departments ranges from 9 to 70 per store, the average being 29.8. In stores with departments there are from 2 to 21 departments in each, the average being 13.2.

The amount of business done by the different classes of stores is not given; but the following table, showing the number of departments in the two classes of stores and the number of separate retail stores devoted to the specified lines of trade, is suggestive of the extent to which the later form of business management has come into use.

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