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was much more successful in 1901 than in the previous year, the number for Cleveland being 298 in 1900 as against 2,108 in 1901. In Toledo there were 970 positions secured in 1900 and 1,983 in 1901. Applications for help wanted were but 312 in Cleveland in 1900, while in 1901 there were 3,264 such requests; 1,196 and 3,230 are the corresponding numbers for Toledo.

VIRGINIA.

Fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statis

tics for the State of Virginia. 1901. James B. Doherty, Commissioner. 292 pp.

This report presents the following subjects: Building trades, including brickmaking, sash, blind, and door factories, and saw and planing mills, 37 pages; railway employees, 38 pages; manufactures, 23 pages; public schools, 16 pages; property and taxation, 13 pages; criminal statistics, 5 pages; prison labor, 41 pages; labor laws of the State, 20 pages; trade unions, 13 pages; proposed legislation, 7 pages; decisions of courts and laws of various States relating to labor, 79 pages.

BUILDING TRADES.—Returns were received from 99 general contractors and 146 subcontractors, whose business for the year amounted to $2,907,314 and $1,274,865, respectively. The 99 general contractors employed 794 white carpenters, at an average rate of $2.26 per day, and 46 colored carpenters, at $1.83; 173 white bricklayers, at $3.39, and 204 colored helpers, including a few bricklayers, at $1.62; 27 plumbers and gas fitters, at $2.75; 34 tinners, at $2.38; 50 white plasterers, at $2.79, and 10 colored plasterers, at $1.94; 39 white lathers,

, at $2.16, and 26 colored, at $1.76; 44 stonecutters, at $3.46; 17 stone masons, at $3.27; 53 painters, at $2.24; 8 paperhangers, at $2.50, and 706 laborers, at $1.13.

Hours of labor ranged from 8 to 10 per day. Twenty-three casualties were reported, of which 3 were fatal. No contractors reported reduction of wages during the year, while 38 reported increases vary. ing in amount from 5 to 25 per cent. Subcontractors made reports on the same points as above.

For the allied industries, reported with building trades, the following statistics are given: Brickmaking, 15 establishments; value of product, $303,536; number of employees, 560. Sash, blind, and door factories, 12 establishments;. capital invested, $192,120; value of product, $505,117; employees, including office help, 295; amount paid out in wages, $112,175. Saw and planing mills, 118 establishments; value of product, $2,413,635; number of employees, 4,054; amount paid out in wages, $689,619.

RAILWAY EMPLOYEES.—Tables are given showing number and wages of employees on each road in the State for each year from 1896 to 1900, and accidents by causes for the same period.

The following table shows the total number of employees in each class and average daily wages paid in 1900; also average wages for the 5 years 1896–1900:

RAILWAY EMPLOYEES IN 1900, AND AVERAGE WAGES, 1896-1900.

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MANUFACTURES.—Returns were secured from certain industries of the State, giving, for each establishment reporting, capital invested, amount of business done, amount paid out in wages, number of days worked, and number, daily wages, and hours of labor of each class of employees; also reports as to changes in wages.

The following table summarizes the principal data:

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PRISON LABOR. — This portion of the report consists mainly of extracts from the report of the United States Industrial Commission on this subject.

TRADE UNIONS.-Reports were received from 120 labor organizations representing a membership of 12,684, as against 123 unions reporting 10,644 members in 1899.

The amount paid out for assistance by 114 organizations was $34,079.24. Wages and hours of labor of members and brief remarks by officers of the union are given in the report.

The following table gives name of industry and number of organizations and members reported for each:

LABOR ORGANIZATIONS, 1900.

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Occupations.

Num- Number of ber of organi- memzations. bers.

Num- Number of ber of organi- memzations. bers.

Locomotive engineers..
Locomotive firemen.
Railway conductors.
Railway trainmen
Railway telegraph operators.
Machinists
Boilermakers and iron shipbuild-

ers..
Boilermakers' helpers.
Blacksmiths.
Iron molders
Carpenters and joiners.
Bricklayers.
Plumbers and gas and steam fit-

ters.
Painters and paper hangers.
Pipe fitters, sheet-iron workers,

and tinners..
Slate and tile roofers
Typographical unions.
Cigar makers...
Brewery workers.
Tailors

316
66
66
207
943
239

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

160 56 77 68 81 40 45 40 42 74 15

59 5,500

35 132 75 29 10

5 30 39 15 120

90 298

2 1 6 4 3 4

33 18 307 158 107 108

1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

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STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES IN MASSACHUSETTS: FOUR

TEENTH AND FIFTEENTH ANNUAL REPORTS.

The Annual Statistics of Manufactures, 1899. Fourteenth Report,

xi, 168 pp. (Issued by the Bureau of Statistics of Labor, Horace G. Wadlin, Chief.)

The two parts of this report present an industrial chronology, 71 pages, and statistics of manufactures, 96 pages.

MANUFACTURES.-Returns were secured from 4,740 identical establishments, representing 88 industries, for the years 1898 and 1899, the data including the number of private firms and corporations and of partners and stockholders, capital invested, cost of material, value of product; highest, lowest, and average number of employees, and aggregates by months; wages paid, average yearly earnings, classified weekly earnings in selected industries, and working time and proportion of business done.

The following table presents certain facts as to ownership:

FIRMS AND CORPORATIONS, PARTNERS AND STOCKHOLDERS IN 4,740 IDENTICAL

ESTABLISHMENTS, 1898 AND 1899.

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From this table it appears that 2 new corporations and 9 industrial combinations were formed to take up the business of the 65 firms that disappeared in 1899. These new organizations took over the control of 65 establishments, the corporations taking 6 and the combinations 59. The exclusion from the returns of the stockholders in combina- . tions makes it impossible to determine from this showing whether or not there is a wider distribution of capital holdings in the whole management of manufacturing interests. The smaller average number of partners to a firm and of stockholders to a corporation in the year 1899 suggests, however, a tendency toward enlargement of holdings to the exclusion of the small investor.

Below are given statistics for 88 classified industries, shown separately for 9 principal industries, for 79 other industries, and for all industries for 1898 and 1899. In 1899 the 9 principal industries represented 64.86 per cent of the capital invested, 55.06 per cent of the stock used, and produced 55.49 per cent of the goods made.

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Boots and shoes
Carpetings..
Cotton goods
Leather
Machines and machinery
Metals and metallic goods
Paper..
Woolen goods
Worsted goods.
Other industries.

688 $22, 139, 915 $26, 728, 316

12 6,582, 652 6,630, 869 158 111, 805, 794 126, 159, 262 96

6, 241, 216 6, 755, 499 358 32, 721, 191 35, 178, 135 393

17,543, 554 | 18, 992, 728 80 19, 655, 162 | 20,663, 683 138 26, 227,676 28,416, 883

34 17,542, 193 18, 372, 545 2,783 147,858, 043 156,010, 955 4,740 408, 317, 396 443, 908, 875

20.72 $67,017,570 $78, 182, 005

3,639, 475 4, 313, 990 12. 84

46,769, 141 50,092, 441 8. 24 14, 673, 592 | 18, 381, 998 7.51 9, 467,633 13, 441,050 8.26 10,930, 871 | 15,581, 749 5. 13 11,090, 241 11, 763, 291 8. 35 18,752, 309 19, 491, 202 4.73 15, 752, 486 19, 402, 627 5.51 159, 667,569 188, 280, 014

16. 66 18. 53

7.11 25. 27 41.97 42.55 6.07 3.94 23. 17 17.92

Total

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In each of the particular industries shown, as well as in the totals, a considerable increase appears for 1899 in respect of each item presented. Total cost of stock used shows a larger per cent of increase than does total value of product; the same is true of 4 of the 9 specified industries presented. In but one industry shown in the tablecotton goods—does the per cent of increase of wages come up to that of value of product.

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