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The following table presents data as to employees, earnings, and days in operation; the establishments considered are the same as in the foregoing table:

AVERAGE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, AVERAGE YEARLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE DAYS IN OPERATION IN 9 PRINCIPAL INDUSTRIES, OTHER INDUSTRIES, AND IN ALL INDUSTRIES, 1898 AND 1899.

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Comparison between per cent of increase in number of employees and per cent of increase in wages paid shows a rough general agreement between these two items, suggesting that individual wages were not raised, but that additional employees absorbed the enlarged wage fund.

The carpet industry is a notable exception to this agreement, and there is found to be a corresponding actual increase in average yearly earnings. A further comparison shows, however, that this increase in yearly earnings is due to an increase in working time, and that this latter increase is represented in each separate item, except in the boot and shoe industry, by a larger per cent than is found under average yearly earnings, indicating an actual reduction in per diem earnings in 1899. In carpetings, for instance, the 9.50 per cent increase in annual earnings was secured by an added 23.13 per cent of working time, while in worsted goods an increase in annual earnings of $1.06, or 0.29 per cent is set over against an addition of 36.66 days, or 13.99 per cent to the days in operation.

In 1899, for the first time, the bureau secured a division of employees on the basis of age as well as sex, giving adult males, adult females, and young persons under 21. The returns are for the week of largest number of employees in the various industries.

The following table shows the number and per cent of each group earning indicated weekly wages. The last three columns show the composition of each wage class, the per cents adding across to 100, and showing the proportion of each class taken from the different groups.

CLASSIFIED WEEKLY EARNINGS IN 88 INDUSTRIES, BY AGE AND SEX, 1899.

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This table shows that about one-seventh of the wage-earners reported earned less than $5 per week, and that this class includes more than one-half of the young persons, about one-sixth of the adult females, and less than one-twenty-fifth of the adult males. It also appears that rather more than one-half of this class is made of young persons, while the females compose about one-third and males about one-sixth of it. There is a larger per cent, 20.05, of adult females in the class “$6 or under $7" than in any other; they also compose the largest proportion, 43.80 per cent, of that class. The rate “$9 or under $10" contains the largest number of adult males of any single dollar range, while less than one fifth of this class are adult females.

In the tables heretofore presented value of goods made or work done has included not only the added value resulting from the processes of the industry considered, but the original cost of material as well. In order to show the actual result of the productive forces of the industry, the element of cost of material must be deducted from the total value of product; the remainder will show only the industry product, or the new values created. This has been done in the case of the nine leading industries, and the amount of industry product per $1,000 capital and per employee has been computed, also the division of industry product between the wage fund and the fund devoted to other expenses, as freights, insurance, interest, rent, commissions, salaries, etc., and to profits, these last items being grouped as “Profit and minor expenses." The results appear in the following table:

INDUSTRY PRODUCT, WAGES, AND PROFIT AND EXPENSES IN 9 SPECIFIED INDUS

TRIES, 1899.

Industries.

Industry
product.

Wages.

Per cent of indusIndustry product.

try product Profit and minor ex

Devoted Per $1,000 Average pense fund.

to profit

Paid in of per em

and capital. ployee.

wages.

minor expenses.

Boots and shoes

$44,513, 306 $26, 286, 669 $18, 226, 637 $1, 665. 40 $794. 27 Carpetings

3,089, 008 1, 702, 290 1, 386, 718 465.85 676.97 Cotton goods

47,084, 813 29, 371, 656 17, 713, 157 373. 22 532.09 Leather

5,314, 048 2,713, 878 2, 600, 170 786. 63 921.14 Machines and machinery 23, 178, 609 11,968, 298 11, 210, 311 658.89 1,073. 43 Metals and metallic goods. 14, 634, 486 7,815, 634 6,818, 852 770.53 956.63 Paper.....

9, 608, 253 3, 947, 134 5,661, 119 464.98 Woolen goods

1,049.62 14,729, 887 7, 200, 777 7,529, 110 518.35 766.94 Worsted goods. 13,026, 246 5, 442, 321 7,583, 925

709.01 868. 24

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From this table it appears that of the industries here shown the boot and shoe industry requires the least capitalization to secure a given value of product and cotton goods the heaviest. The product per employee is also least in the cotton industry, machines and machinery standing first, with the paper industry a close second. More than one-half of the industry product is paid out in wages in 6 of the 9 industries shown. The Annual Statistics of Manufactures, 1900. Fifteenth Report, x,

157 pp. (Issued by the Bureau of Statistics of Labor, Horace G. Wadlin, Chief.)

The matters presented in this report are: An industrial chronology, 60 pages; and statistics of manufactures, 97 pages.

MANUFACTURES.-Statistics are given for 4,645 identical establishments for the years 1899 and 1900, and include the number of private firms, corporations, and industrial combinations; number of partners in firms, and stockholders in corporations, by sex, etc.; capital invested; cost of material; value of products; highest, lowest, and average number of employees, and aggregates, by months; wages paid; average yearly earnings; classified weekly earnings in selected industries, by age and sex; and working time and proportion of business done. Eighty-seven industries are represented.

The principal facts as to ownership appear in the following table: FIRMS, CORPORATIONS, AND INDUSTRIAL COMBINATIONS AND PARTNERS AND STOCKThe fact of principal interest in this table is the taking over of 67 establishments from control by firms to control by corporations, 49 new corporations supplanting 66 firms in the rearrangement.

HOLDERS IN 4,645 IDENTICAL ESTABLISHMENTS, 1899 AND 1900.

Number of establishments controlled by

Year.

Firms.

Corporations.

Industrial combinations.

Average

Average

shareStockPartners.

partners holders. a

holders to to a firm.

a corporation, a

Firms.

Corporations.

Combinations.

1899
1900

3,352
3,286

1, 150
1,199

22
22

3, 368
3, 301

1,193
1, 260

84
84

5, 269
5, 116

45, 506
47,211

1.57
1.56

39.57
39.38

a Not including stockholders in industrial combinations.

The number of partners to a firm and of shareholders to a corporation is slightly smaller in 1900 than in 1899.

The following tables show statistics separately for 9 principal industries, in aggregate for 78 other industries and totals for the 87 industries reported on, for the years 1899 and 1900:

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Boots and shoes
Carpetings.
Cotton goods
Leather
Machines and machinery.
Metals and metallic goods..
Paper....
Woolen goods
Worsted goods..
Other industries..

673 $27, 182, 381 $26, 716, 110

12 6, 612, 557 6,546, 465 162 127, 908, 334 129, 544, 848

90 5,912, 612 6, 143, 081 358 38, 758, 110 40, 813, 722 374 17,583, 868 17, 676, 413

75 20, 499, 173 20, 218, 471 140 27, 252, 551 24, 673, 165

31 17,980, 205 15, 829, 430 2,727 159,019, 469 168,523, 543

a 1.72 $80, 829, 679 $80, 966, 554
a 1.00 4, 187, 029 4, 744, 696

1.28 50, 956, 971 66, 162, 140
3.90 15,040, 299 13, 905, 787
5.30 14, 924, 194 18,673, 352

.53 14,945, 612 15, 297, 738
a 1.37 11, 302, 055 12, 486, 281
a 9.46 18,424, 789 21,898, 179
a 11. 96 19, 549, 806 19, 377, 717

5.98 189, 140, 674 201, 712, 011

0.17 13.32 29.84 a 7.54 25. 12

2. 36 10.48 18. 85 a. 88 6. 65

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1.38 $27, 648, 530 $27, 476, 207
8.77

1, 650, 257 1, 722, 180
26.75 29, 927, 858 33, 453, 372
a 7.39 2, 326, 116 2,327, 200
27.17 13, 364, 375 16, 416, 828
4.93

7,402, 352 7, 755, 689 4.58 3,811, 939 3,778, 900 18. 48 6, 968, 819 8,004, 814 a 5.98 5,480, 110 5, 459, 841 5.54 58, 399, 485 | 61,054, 242

a 0.62

4.36 11. 78

.05 22.84 4.77 a.87 14.87 a.37 4.55

Total

4,645 736, 695, 225 799, 353, 677

8.51 156, 979, 841 167, 449, 273

6. 67

a Decrease.

In a number of items shown in this table there is apparent a falling off for the year 1900 as compared with the previous year, though the totals in each instance show a gain. The per cent of total increase is least in the item “Capital invested,” being but 1.78 per cent greater than in 1899, while 5 of the 9 specified industries show an actual decrease.

Amount of stock used is also less in 2 industries, and value of product shows a decrease in the same industries. In 3 industries there was a falling off in amount of wages paid.

Data as to employees, earnings, and days in operation are given in the following table. The establishments considered are the same as in the table above.

AVERAGE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, AVERAGE YEARLY EARNINGS, AND AVERAGE DAYS IN OPERATION IN 9 PRINCIPAL INDUSTRIES, OTHER INDUSTRIES, AND IN ALL INDUS TRIES, 1899 AND 1900.

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This table shows that there was in 1900 a slight decrease in the number of days in operation, taking all reported industries together. Average yearly earnings and number of employees both show slight increase, however, so that the year was, on the whole, not less favorable to labor than in the previous year.

The 2 industries, “Machines and machinery” and “Cotton goods," which show the largest per cent of increase in value of product both show decrease in number of days in operation, and in the case of “Cotton goods” there is but slight increase in number of employees. In both these industries there was increase in total wages paid and in average yearly earnings per employee.

The following tables show the number and per cent of employees earning the indicated weekly wages. Employees are divided into 3 groups, adult males, adult females, and young persons of both sexes under 21 years of age. The number of employees given is the number reported in each industry for the week showing the largest number of employees, and does not, therefore, agree with the number reported in the preceding table. NUMBER OF MALE AND FEMALE ADULTS AND OF YOUNG PERSONS IN 87 INDUSTRIES,

BY CLASSIFIED WEEKLY WAGES, 1899 AND 1900.

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Total.

249, 767

107,523

61, 340

418, 630

262,060

113,661

56,790

432, 511

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