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1880.

Survey for 1879. By T. C. Chamberlain. Madi- , Pennsylvania : in Delaware River (Philadel. son, 1880. Pp. 72.

The Cotton-Worm. By Charles V. Riley. phia), Schuylkill River (Carlisle, Reading); Illustrated. Washington: Government Printing. Susquehanna and its affluents (HummelsOffice. 1880. Pp. 144.

town, Berwick); Ohio River (Pittsburgh). The Chinch-Bug. By Cyrus Thomas. With Map and Illustrations. Washington : Govern. Maryland: Havre de Grace. Virginia : ment Printing Office. 1879. Pp. 44.

James River and its affluents (Petersburg), Therapeutic Action of Mercury. By S. V. Clevenger, M. D. Chicago: Knight & Leonard. the Rappahannock (Fredericksburg), and 1880. Pp. 27.

Greenbrier River District of Columbia : Extra Meridian Determination of Time. By Ormond Stone, A. M. Cincinnati : Society of Georgetown. North Carolina: Beaufort. Natural History. Pp. 6.

South Carolina: Wateree River, CharlesAdulteration of Food. By Albert R. Leeds, Ph. D. From Third Report of New Jersey ton, and Summerville. Georgia : Athens, State Board of Health." Pp. 18.

Milledgeville, Roswell. Florida: PensaA Sabject-Index to the Publications of the cola. Alabama: Huntsville, Mobile. MisUnited States Naval Observatory, 1845–1875. By Edward S. Holden. Washington: Government sissippi : Mobile River, Monticello, RootPrinting Office. 1879. Pp. 74, 4to.

Health and Health-Resorts. By John Wilson, pond. Louisiana : New Orleans, Millikin's M.D. Philadelphia: Porter & Coates. Pond. Tennessee : Lebanon. Kentucky: Pp. 288. Our Homes. By Henry Hartshorne, M. D.

Mammoth Cave, Little Hickman, Hickman's Philadelphia : Presley Blaklston. 1880. Pp. 149. Landing. Indiana : Wabash River (Del. 50 cents.

Brain and Mind. By Henry S. Drayton and phi). Ohio: Cincinnati, Columbia, Dayton, James McNeill. New York: Š. R. Wells & Co. | Miami River, Kelley Island, Lake Erie. 1580. Pp. 334. $1.50. The Taxidermist's Manual. By, Captain from Lake St. Clair. Wisconsin : Sugar The Winter in Europe.—The earlier part , The temperature continued high on the bor. of the winter of 1879-'80, while it was ex-ders of the British Channel and the ocean, ceptionally mild in America, was distin. so that great contrasts were presented in guished in Europe for its severity. In places not very far from each other accordFrance it is spoken of as the coldest winter ing as they were near to or removed from which has been recorded for more than a the sea. Vegetation suffered from the duracentury. It appears that the temperature tion of the cold, so that most of the exotics of October was a little below the usual in the public gardens were killed or greatly mean, November gave twelve days of injured. A zone of high pressure was esfrost; and December surpassed everything tablished in all the west of Europe after that had been known in Paris, in the in-the storm of the beginning of the month, tensity and duration of the cold. From the the center of wbich oscillated from France 26th of November to the 28th of December, to Poland and from Austria to Denmark. that is, during thirty-three consecutive days, It was observed that the low temperature there was frost every day, and during four- was special to the inferior regions of the teen days of the period, from the 14th to atmosphere. At the height of a little over the 28th of December, the thermometer did a thousand yards the air was much more not rise above the freezing-point. The be. mild. During the latter part of the month ginning of December was tempestuous. The the thermometer on the Puy-de-Dôme was storm-center, coming up from the ocean on often thirty to forty degrees higher than at the morning of the 3d, passed Paris be- Clermont, and on the Pic du Midi it rose tween the 4th and 6th, accompanied by a every day after the 19th to above the freezrapid depression of the barometer and a ing-point, while it was still always below it perceptible rise of temperature from about at Paris. The cold terminated suddenly on 18°. The storm, having caused great dam- the 28th, with a storm from the North Sea; age in France, then went to the east, and a thaw followed, with destructive floods. A gradually diminished in intensity as it passed new cold term set in after the 4th of Januover Germany. About ten inches of snow ary, with a region of high pressure in the fell during this storm, and four inches more center of Europe. The summits again on the 8th, after which it cleared off, and showed a higher temperature than the base the extraordinary cold began. The mean of the mountains. The region of extreme temperature of December in Paris is 381°; cold was this time, however, in Russia. the temperature of December, 1879, was M. Marié Davy, Director of the Observa18.3.° The lowest mean temperatures pre- tory of Montsouris, remarks, in a communi. viously recorded in the present century were cation to the Société Française d'Hygiène, in 1812 (30-2°), 1829 (25•7°), and 1840 that this has been the sixth severe winter (27.9°). The nearest approach to the tem of the century; and the six have recurred perature of the last December was probably with remarkable regularity in periods of in December, 1788, but the uncertainty of two each, viz.: 1788–89 and 1794–95, inthe observations taken at that period makes terval six years; 1829–'30 and 1837–38, an exact comparison impracticable. The interval eight years; 1871–72 and 1879temperature on the 10th (-14°) was the '80, interval eight years. These periods lowest ever observed. The cold, at the were each removed to a medium distance of period of its greatest intensity, on the 9th about forty-two years from each other. and 10th, presented a remarkable distribu- The near equality of the periods of recurtion over the surface of Europe. On the rence is probably a simple coincidence, but first day, two centers of cold were mani- it is nevertheless curious. M. Faye has pubfested, one being toward Poland, where the lished an account of the meteorological obthermometer sunk to -32°, the other in servations, which have been made to the the French departments east of Paris. On month of May, 1879, at the observatory of the second day, the former center had in the French missionaries in China, at Zi-ka. creased in surface but diminished in inten- wei. From them the director of the obsersity, while the second center had extended vatory draws the conclusions - 1. That and had reached Paris, and the cold had storms and tempests, and in general all increased over nearly the whole of France. barometric depressions, are propagated in China and Japan in the same course as the ed easily and satisfactorily, and forms a storms and tempests of the Atlantic which cloth of "incredible durability, the life of reach Europe ; 2. That such storms are in- one person being seldom sufficient to wear dependent of the prevailing monsoon, and out a garment made of it, so that the same reciprocally, neither interfering with the piece descends from mother to daughter." other. Thus, says M. Faye, in regions op- Attacus cynthia feeds on the ailantus, and posed to ours in the northern hemisphere, has been successfully domesticated in France the storms which we call cyclones or typhoons and England, where “ailanticulture” has a follow identically the same course, whatever recognized place in industrial economy. Its may be the distribution of water and land, silk is not adapted for reeling, but spins whether there are currents of warm water well, and there is no doubt, says Mr. Wardle, like the Gulf Stream, chains of mountains " that a great future remains for this silk, or not, on their way, whatever may be the now that spinning-machinery has been so direction of the lower winds prevailing in perfected.” The Attacus Atlas is almost the country. The origin of these gyratory omnivorous, yields a “decidedly good” phenomena is, then, in the upper region of silk, and has been recommended for introthe atmosphere, whence, away above all duction into France. The Antheræa Asthe superficial accidents of the globe, they sama yields the Muga silk, which forms descend to the ground through the lower one of the chief exports of Assam. Five strata.

1880.

Michigan : Lake Superior, and reported Thomas Brown, F. L. S. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1879. Pp. 204. $1.25.

River, and also reported from Milwaukee. A Guide to Modern English History. By William Cory. Part 1. New York: Henry Holt Minnesota : Collected by Professor Agassiz & Co. 1880. Pp. 276. $2.

at Minnehaha Falls. Iowa : Mississippi Pay Hospitals. By Henry C. Bardett. Phil. adelphia: Presley Blakiston.

River at Davenport and Bur
Pp. 176.

gton. I have $2.25.

found it in greatest abundance at Dubuque. Chemistry, Inorganic and Organic, with

Ex: Mlinois : Chicago, Evanston, Ogle County, periments. By Charles Loudon Bloxam. Philadelphia: Presley Blakiston. 1880. Pp. 688. $4. Lawn Ridge, Basson Pudge, Peoria, Athens,

Quincy, Belleville, Illinois River and its af.

fluents. Missouri : St. Louis, and Osage POPULAR MISCELLANY.

River. Arkansas : One species reported,

locality unknown. Texas : Between San Where to find the Crayfish.—Professor Antonio and El Paso del Norte. Nebraska : Huxley, in his valuable work on the cray- One species reported, without locality. fish, published in the “ International Scien- Washington Territory: Puget Sound. Oretific Series,” tells his readers to study the gon: Astoria, Columbia River, Lake Klawork with “crayfish in hand.” In order math. California : San Francisco. Canathat readers may be able to do this, the fol- da: Humbe River, near Toronto; Lake lowing localities are given, copied from Dr. Winnipeg, Saskatchewan and Red Rivers. Hagen's monograph on the Astacidæ, with I have found them in the watercourses of some localities added by the author: Ver. northern Maine, and St. John's River, in mont : in afluents of Lake Champlain ; at New Brunswick. Dr. Hagen's monograph Burlington, Shelburne, Colchester, Chitten- was published ten years ago. Many new den County. Massachusetts : Western parts | localities have been recorded since; doubtof the State, on the authority of Mr. S. II. less they will be found in every State and Scadder. New York: Hudson River and its Territory in the Union. The animals may affluents; Newburg, Fishkill; in the Tioga, be found sheltered under or between loose affluent of the Susquehanna ; at Berkshire, stones along the edges of brooks and rivers. Tioga County; Lake Ontario; Genesee Riv. 1 They are very active in their efforts to eser, at Rochester; Garrison Creek, near Oscape. Owing to their greenish and brown. wego; Lake Oneida ; Four-Mile Creek, near ish hues, it is difficult to find them. They Sackett's Harbor; and Grass River, a branch may easily be kept in confinement for a of the St. Lawrence; also at Niagara. New long time, and their movements and habits Jersey: Essex, Schooley's Mountain, Morris. I studied. -EDWARD S. MORSE.

thousand acres are planted in Assam and

some Tipperah villages with food for the Wild Silks.—That our resources for the worm, and are capable of yielding 123,000 production of silk are capable of great en pounds of the fiber. Mr. Wardle reports largement is shown by the fact that hereto- of the silk that it bleaches well, and takes fore only a few of the numerous insects the dye freely, better than Tusser. The which form silk and only a small number Antheræa paphia, from which the Tusser of the plants on which they feed have silk is derived, is the most widely distrib. been utilized, leaving the greater number uted as well as the most important of the of insects and plants still unemployed. wild-silk producers of India, and has been The known silk-spinners belong to the two utilized for many centuries. It feeds on a families Bombycide and Saturniidæ, of the variety of plants, among them the castor oil Lepidoptera. All of the Saturniidæ are plant, and begins to spin its cocoons in six silk-spinners, but not all of the Bomby. weeks from the time it is hatched. The silk cidæ, of the Saturniidæ, the British Mu- is woven and used in the provinces of India seum catalogue contains the names of two in mixed fabrics of cotton woof and Tusser hundred and ninety-four species, and one weft, but seems also to be used pure in hundred more species have been added since many cloths. The fiber of this silk is flat, the catalogue was published. Mr. Thomas thereby showing a strong difference from Wardle, in a lecture on the wild silks of that of the mulberry silk, which is round, India, before the Society of Arts, gave a list and to this is ascribed its glassy look. So far of fifty-seven silkworms indigenous to In- from this property being a drawback, the dia, of which six mulberry-feeding sorts luster seems to be enhanced by it after the are domesticated, and the others are wild. fiber has become modified and its flatness Besides the mulberry-feeding worms, of has been diffused in the loom. The chief which there are also nine wild species, the obstacle to the general introduction of this cocoons of fourteen wild species are utilized. silk is the difficulty with which it is made to Of these, the principal species are the Atta- take colors. A process has been invented cus ricini, the Atlacus cynthia, or Eria-worm, to overcome this by applying oxygen to the the Antherca Assama, or Muga-worm, and natural fawn-colored coloring matter of the the Antherca paphia, or Tusser-worm. The fiber, but it is too expensive for general use. Attacus ricini is a native of Assam, and feeds Mr. Wardle has found a partial solution of on the castor-oil plant and several other the difficulty in a more thorough cleansing plants of the country. The cocoons can not of the native product and better reeling, be reeled, but the fiber is exceedingly well and has made the silk submit to the dyc and adapted for spinning, can be dyed and print. I to the printing process in a tolerably satisfactory manner. In the undyed state it is, ingly dissolved. It is obtained by first dry. the most lustrous of all silks, and is very ing the algæ in the air, and then covering strong. Some of the prints obtained by them again with cold water as in the prepMr. Wardle are beautifully suited to wall. aration of palmelline. After eight or ten hangings, curtains, coverlets, and all kinds of hours, a thin iridescent layer will appear on furniture-work; and, while the material has the surface of the water, This is the odornot quite the brilliancy of the mulberry silk ous substance in question.

The liquid in its printed state, it has a richer and softer should be decanted into a long, narrow tube, surface than those of cretonnes or challis, and shaken with a quantity of ether. The while its lasting qualities are superior to ether dissolves the characine, and leaves it those of any other material. It is begin after evaporation in the form of a white, ning to be largely used in France for fabrics greasy, volatile substance, not saponifiable, and trimmings in which extreme fineness is soluble in alcohol and ether, hardly soluble not required.

in water, and having a strong characteris

tic odor of the marsh, which it communi. Fertilization of the Algerian Sahara.—cates to the water. After some days it Some remarkable transformations in the evaporates from the surface of the water, character of the Algerian Sahara have been or disappears by oxidation, and the water effected by irrigation. Under its operation loses its marshy odor. This odor, so a soil has been constituted, in which the strongly developed in plants of the genus intertropical plants grow with great vigor. Chara, is due to this new substance, which A cultivator at Ouargla received several is formed by the plant itself during its life, medals at the Parisian Exposition for plants and is not a product of decomposition. which he had raised on a soil thus prepared. Characine is found in all the terrestrial The stories that have been told of the pro- algæ, and in the confervæ. ductiveness of the Sahara tax the imagination. Fertility is not limited to any one point. It is exhibited wherever water bas

A Fossil Ferment.-M. Van Tiegbem has been brought to the surface of the soil. called attention, in the French Academy of Most of the Saharan valleys and the beds Sciences, to the evidence of the existence of the subterranean streams have water in of the butyric ferment, bacilus amylobacter, abundance, and only a small effort is needed in the coal period, which has been obtained to bring it to the surface. Sahara is not all by the microscopic examination of the rada desert, but contains many considerable icles of conifers that have undergone its tracts which are already fit for cultivation. action, and are silicified in the phytogenic The success which has attended the efforts rocks of Saône-et-Loire. These fossils have so far made to introduce tillage renders it been subjected to much study by M. B. nearly certain that a like reward may be Renault, assistant naturalist of the museum. gained from similar applications of labor in The radicles exhibit precisely the same other parts. Henceforth it will be safe to characteristic marks of alteration as are say that the transformation of the Sahara is seen in corresponding radicles of the presonly a question of time, labor, artesian wells, ent epoch, which have been kept under means of communication, and security.

water, and have become the prey of the

bacilus. We know that the effect in the The Source of Marsh-Odors.-M. T. L. latter case is to subject the cellulose of the Phipson recently read, in the French Acad- radicles to the butyric fermentation; and emy of Sciences, an account of the sub- the conclusion is legitimate that the reacstances which he had succeeded in extract- tions developed in the marshes at the exing from fresh-water algæ. They are pal- pense of the ligneous matter during the coal melline, xanthophyll, chlorophyll, and cha- period were identical with those from which racine. The last substance receives its name we observe the same effects now. The imfrom the odor of chara, a well-defined portance of these observations will be apmarshy smell which it gives out. It is preciated by those who are studying the lighter than water, on the surface of which part which causes that are now in operation it forms minute pellicles, but is very spar- I have played in the geological past.

Managing Horses by Electricity.—An in- invention of M. Defoy, who has illustrated genious and efficacious method of subduing its use by some remarkable exhibitions, savage or restive horses has been brought The machinery is simple, and consists, as to the notice of the French Société d'En- shown in the accompanying figure, of a couragement by M. Bella, administrator of Clark's magneto-electric apparatus inclosed the Omnibus Company of Paris. It is the l in a box, which is placed within easy reach

[graphic][subsumed]

of the driver or rider. A conducting wire so surprises him that he stops and stands running through the reins connects the ap- still. The most dangerous horse may be paratus with the bit. By turning a handle subdued in a short time by the application attached to the electro-magnet, a current is of the electric current, combined with a formed which affects the horse's mouth, and soothing manner and caresses. M. Bella

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