has described experiments which M. Defoy | top of his shoulders. He will immediately tried with his apparatus upon some vicious subside and let his head down. So, when a and dangerous horses at the stables of the horse tries to turn around, the application of Omnibus Company. An Hungarian horse, the current to that side of his face toward which was considered unsafe to shoe, was which he is about to turn will cause him to brought up to the forge, making evident stop immediately. With the help of this manifestations of his perversity. In a few little instrument M. Defoy is able in a little minutes after the current was applied to while to make a horse obey all his wishes. him he allowed himself to be caressed on the shoulders and back, then let his legs Automatism in Portrait-painting.– Dr. be touched and his hind-feet raised; and, Gaetan Delaunay, in a recent article on this finally, suffered the workmen to change his subject, writes that he has often observed shoes without being restrained or showing that a designer making an extemporaneous any further opposition to the proceedings. sketch of a head involuntarily reproduces A trial of the apparatus was also made in the his own portrait; and that, having made a presence of the director of the Cab Company scientific study of the fact, he has reached of Paris upon some horses which it had till conclusions which are curious, though they then been impossible to shoe. They all yield are not fully demonstrated. He has been ed to its influence. One of them was accus. informed by teachers of drawing, painters, tomed to roll on the ground, strike out, and and designers, of whom he has made inqui. resist in every possible way. On the first ries, that a person tracing with a pencil application of the currents, says the director figures of spontaneous conception will alin his report, “To my astonishment they ways produce the same head unless he is lifted his feet without any great difficulty; copying from or imitating a model. M. Luys, at the second, he was as easy to shoe as if professor in the Medical Faculty at Paris, he had never opposed the least resistance. states substantially the same principle in The animal was conquered.” M. Defoy ex- his work on the brain, and explains it by a hibited before the editor of La Nature" theory of automatism, or habit. It is illusa dangerous horse, which he arrested in trated in the works of the French caricastantly after it had sprung into a gallop, turists. A degree of resemblance may be by turning the handle of the magneto-elec- traced between the design and the designer, tric apparatus. The result is not obtained whether we consider the work as a whole or by any violent or painful action. The current in its parts. English painters, endeavoring is not strong enough to stupefy the animal; to represent Frenchmen, give them English it rather produces in him astonishment, and characteristics, and French painters invest a disagreeable but not painful sensation of their figures of foreigners with a French air. an electrical pricking. The editor of “La So painters of every country impart some of Nature" has received the current from the their own national features to their pictures apparatus without experiencing inconven- of foreign life, to such a degree that we can ience. There is nothing in the process to generally recognize the nationality of the recall the barbarous methods formerly used artist from them. We can not explain the to subdue animals by force or violence, fact better than by supposing that all paintwhich hurt them in body and temper. M. ers are subject to an irresistible tendency Defoy has also invented an electrical stick to reproduce their own ethnographic type. or switch, which is not less ingenious than Sex exercises a similar influence; little girls his bit. It is a riding-whip containing two amusing themselves at drawing will generconducting wires, which are insulated by ally be found making female figures, little leather. The wires terminate in two points boys male figures. Dr. Delaunay has also set perpendicularly to the whip, and are put observed that an artist seeking to reprein connection, as in the case of the bit, by sent a woman would always draw the same means of a magneto-electric apparatus. If woman, and has learned from designers that the horse is in the babit of rearing, it is the woman who thus persistently came from enough to jog him with the legs as he is their pencil was, of the type which they preparing to rise, and at the same time ap- preferred to all others, the one who figured ply the points of the electric stick to the in their dreams. Rubens is quoted as saying, "I paint women as I love them.” Fur-, neighbor, and more or less resembling his ther, artists appear to embody their consti- own head. In proof of this, a letter is tutional features in their figures, and will quoted from a professor of drawing in a design large or small subjects according as lyceum in Paris, who says: “When our puthey are themselves large or small. The fig- pils are competing for a prize, they have the ures of portly and vigorous artists will be dis- same model in view, but each one in copytinguished by fullness of muscular develop- ing from it reproduces himself more or less. ment. According to this theory, the resem. We may, by simply examining his design, blance extends even to the different parts determine whether his face is round, oval, of the body. Raphael, who preferred to or square, whether it bas projecting forms, paint Virgins, had a virginal head; Michael or a smooth contour with few inequalities.” Angelo, who had a virile head, put more The same is the case with sculptors, and virility into his creations. If we should go even with costumers, who were found by into the room where a deliberative body had Dr. Delaunay to be mest apt to have figures sat, and gather up the figures which the of their own style in view in fitting their members had amused themselves with com- customers. posing during the tedium of discussion, we would be surprised by observing that each Echoes in Buildings. — Cords stretched one had sketched something very like his in a kind of network near the ceiling have own likeness. Dr. Delaunay has experi- been recommended for destroying echoes in mented with artists, and with persons who churches and public halls, and have been did not know how to draw, and has always tried satisfactorily in St. Peter's Church, found that they made their own profiles in Geneva, and in the Assembly Hall of the their off-hand sketches. The sketch of an city offices of Bordeaux, France. When unpracticed person would of course be rude metallic wires are used in the same manner, and ungraceful, and an unfair portrait, but the resonance is greatly diminished, and is there would be traits of resemblance about sometimes converted into a musical sound. it sufficient to reveal the author. A friend A remarkable resonance has been noticed who had what is called a square head drew in connection with the great staircase of a figure which was imperfect enough, but stone in the Walhalla at Regensburg, Gerthe line defining the back part of the head many. The visitor, after going up the first made a right angle. A person with curled stairs, steps upon a landing from which two hair is not apt to draw straight hair, but other staircases rise in opposite directions. curled; one with straight hair will give his At this point every step calls out a metallic figures hair like his own; a bearded man ringing, as if the whole stairs were made of will give them a full beard, a beardless man brass. A stamp of the foot on the middle none; and peculiarities in the form of the of the landing is answered by a clear, rebeard are often found reproduced in the sounding, musical tone. The ringing condrawings. Finally, in the works of imagina- tinues as the visitor goes up the stairs, tion of painters and sculptors we may recog. growing weaker as he approaches the secnize the productions of artists who have all ond landing, and finally ceases. The phethe time multiplied their likenesses in their nomenon is believed to be due to the rapid figures. The same conclusion is applicable reflections of the sound-waves between the to imitative designs. If we have a drawing- opposite staircases. clasa of fifty pupils, having a respectable degree of skill, all drawing at the same Stammering of the Vocal Cords.-Under head, theoretically we should have fifty this title Dr. Prosser James, of London, deheads more or less well executed, but all scribes in the "Lancet" a throat malady, resembling the model, and consequently which he says may at times cntirely suspend one another. This will not, however, be the work of clergymen, lawyers, singers, the case. The drawings will differ from and others who make professional use of each other so obviously that, instead of the voice. The disease appcars to be due fifty copies of the same head, there will be to defective coördination of certain muscles fifty different heads. Each pupil executes of the larynx, in consequence of which the a different head from the one drawn by his | vocal apparatus fails at intervals to fully

obey the will; the failure giving rise to , thing to do with it, by causing them to in. sudden interruptions of the voice, while the hale the carbonic oxides. The characteristic articulating power may remain unaffected. of their food is the rarity of meat and the As in other impediments of speech the bar- abundance of salt. Many of the additional monious action of the muscles engaged in causes of the smallness of the Japanese may articulation may be disturbed, in this case be so remote as to cease to affect the nation the disordered coördination affects the voice except by hereditary influence. only. The movements required for articulating syllables are perfectly performed, but the production of vocal sound is at inter

Aids to Hearing : the Osteophone.—The vals suspended. The affection may cause audiphone and dentaphone, which have been the patient to stop speaking, as he is con- extensively advertised as instruments for scious of what he sometimes calls a “catch aiding the hearing of the deaf, have been in the breath”; or he may continue a sen-objected to on account of mechanical diffi. tence from which some words will be lost to culties in using them. The audiphone to a the listener. Isolated sounds are usually cor. certain extent obscures the features of the rectly articulated, even by confirmed stam. person using it—the dentaphone is held merers ; and the same is true in these vocal

more or less in the line of vision; and both impediments ; but it is in the rapid emis- instruments require the constant service of sion of certain combinations of sounds that the hands when in use. Dr. Charles II. the sudden arrest is liable to occur. Dr. Thomas, of Philadelphia, has devised an inJames states that after long and patient strument that is intended to obviate these observation of the action of the vocal cords, difficulties, which he has named the osteoaided by appliances specially devised for phone. It consists of a large receiving diathe purpose, he was able to obtain ocular phragm attached in an arched form to a rod demonstration of the presence of the affec- of wood or metal, which rod is bent in the tion; and, once distinguished from other form of a pipe-stem. One end of the rod is impediments of speech, he found it amen. to be held firmly between the teeth as a able to treatment.

pipe is held, leaving the hands of the listen. er free for other occupations, while he is

able to hear all the sounds that may be conStatare of the Japanese.—Mrs. Chaplin veyed by the diaphragm. The diaphragm Ayrton, M. D., has recently published the is below and away from the face, and comresults of nearly three hundred observations paratively inconspicuous. The inventor sugof the height and span of the Japanese. gests that ornamental fans, coated with shel. She found the average height to be five feet lac and tipped with ivory or hard rubber, three inches, and the span four feet eleven may be made to answer fairly well for ocinches. In the case of twenty-four women, casional use, but will be unsatisfactory if taken at random, the tallest was a trifle depended on permanently. Fuller's card. over five feet two inches, and the average board, treated with shellac varnish, and was four feet eight inches, with an average dried, makes one of the best of resounding span of four feet six inches. The shortness mediums. A piece of yellow pine turned of the span as compared with the height is into a trumpet - shape, and placed in the a general characteristic that is especially mouth of the deaf person, will convey a good marked in the case of the women. Sixty volume of sound, and even a string connectper cent. of the persons measured had the ing the upper teeth of the persons conversspan less than the height, and thirty-three ing perceptibly aids the sound. A small rod per cent. greater than the height, while in of hard wood, connecting the teeth of the only 6.8 per cent. were the height and span two persons, gives a volume of sound many equal. Climate can hardly be made to ac- times exceeding that transmitted either by count satisfactorily for the smallness of the the audiphone or the dentaphone. Sensible Japanese, for they live in a temperate re- vibrations, produced by and corresponding gion, though it is subject to sudden and to those of the voice, are propagated in the marked changes. The general use of char- hard palate and base of the skull of persons coal-braziers for heating may have some speaking in the ordinary tones; and the rod

which has just been mentioned will convey , amount of sulphuric acid in combination. the voice distinctly when placed against the Samples of Russia leather and sheep of skull of the hearer, and will even, according | good quality yielded from less than a quar. to Dr. Thomas, convey audible speech from ter to less than a half of one per cent. of the skull of one to that of the other. The acid, and less than quarter of one per cent. efforts to make the audiphone and denta- of ammonia. A sample of well-worn but phone useful as regular instruments of hear- not decayed sheep taken from a Bible more ing to the deaf have not bad satisfactory re- than sixty years old, which had never been sults. Dr. Thomas acknowledges that the exposed to gas, gave 1:42 per cent. of sulexpectations which bave been excited on the phuric acid. Other samples, of very rotten subject are likely to be disappointed. Those Russia, and of scrapings from a number of who are able to hear with the aid of the books, gave from eight to ten per cent. of audiphone hear their own voices perfectly sulphuric acid, combined with ammonia. A without it; while those who are unable to quantity of rotten leather was carefully exhear their own voices without it can hear tracted with water, and crystals of sulphate nothing with it. Dr. Charles S. Turnbull, of ammonia were obtained from it. It is of Philadelphia, states in the “ Medical difficult, in the face of these facts, Professor and Surgical Reporter" that his experience Nichols urges, to escape the conviction that with these instruments has been as nothing, bindings of Russia, calf, or sheep absorb because the suitable cases were so few and sulphuric acid when exposed to the prodfar between. The cases in which they have ucts of the combustion of illuminating gas. proved of benefit are cases of acoustic deaf. No other condition to which books are comness, generally due to middle-ear disease, monly exposed can so well account for the for which devices of the nature of the ear- large proportion of acid which was found trumpet generally afford a more satisfac- in the old bindings. It has been objected tory remedy than either of the instruments to this view that sulphurous (not sulphurunder consideration.

ic) acid is the general product of the com

bustion of sulphur compounds; but ProDeterioration of Bookbinding by Mu- fessor Nichols's analyses of the results of minating Gas.-Professor William Ripley the burning of gas have brought out sulNichols publishes an interesting paper on phates with no evidence of the presence of the deterioration of the binding of books in

a sulphite. It is admitted to be possible libraries, which is commonly ascribed to the that the disintegration of the leather preaction of sulphuric acid supposed to be gen-cedes the absorption of sulphuric acid, and erated by burning coal-gas. The agency


prepares the way for it; and Professor sulphuric acid having been disputed by Dr. Nichols intends to make experiments for Wolcott Gibbs and others, Professor Nich- the determination of this question. ols made investigations to determine the question. Having examined a large number of samples of leather in every stage of decay, he found that morocco was but little

NOTES. affected, common sheep binding was attacked, and Russia leather and calf were We ask the attention of our readers to badly acted upon. An acid taste and an the premiums offered to new subscribers for acid reaction were observed that were more “The Popular Science Monthly." No such marked in proportion as the leather was de- valuable list of modern scientific works has cayed, and sulphuric acid was found in the ever before been prepared for such a purextract made from the leather with water, pose; and no other publishing-house in this in a similarly increasing proportion. Am- country or in the world is able to furnish monia was also present, in about such a pro- from its own stock such a varied and admiportion as in combination with the sulphur rable popular scientific library as that which would constitute the acid sulphate of am. D. Appleton & Company now present for the monia. Samples of fresh leather gave ex- choice of those who will become subscribers tracts only slightly acid, not enough so to to this periodical. It is important that its affect the taste, and contained only a minute patronage and influence should be increased. We want the means of improving it. There , seventeen years its head assistant, died on are thousands of intelligent people who have February 3, 1880. Besides a large amount not yet made its acquaintance; and to reach of valuable work, the record of which is

confined to the observatory, he contributed them we must rely upon the help of our several papers to the Royal Astronomical friends, who know what the “Monthly” is Society of London, and was made a Fellow worth. We ask each one of our present sub- of that body in January, 1872. He was the scribers to detach the list of premiums from first and only native of India who, up to the his number, and present it to some read- discoverer of new celestial objects, having

time of his death, had entered the lists as a ing peighbor who can appreciate and ought detected two new variable stars—R. Reticuli to have “The Popular Science Monthly.” in 1877, and V. Cephei in 1878. During the There can be no better investment of money later years of his life he delivered popular for individual improvement and sound fam- lectures on astronomy, explaining the prinily education than this. The magazine is terms, with a view to the removal of some

ciples of the science in simple and familiar worth twice what it costs to any thoughtful of the absurd notions and ignorant superstiman, and when he can get his choice among tions concerning celestial phenomena that a hundred sterling books as an extra induce. are propagated by the Ilindoo astrologers. ment, which virtually reduces the cost of The first volume of “Studies from the the “Monthly” to three dollars, he ought Biological Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins certainly to be informed of his advantage.

University” is announced. It is made up

of original papers on physiology, animal and Dr. Phipson has proposed a new method vegetable morphology, and embryology, conof solving the question of a cheap house tributed by members of the university, and hold light. He has succeeded, with a com

based on investigations conducted in the paratively feeble electric current, in per- biological laboratory and marine zoological ceptibly increasing the phosphorescence of station of the institution. The present volcertain bodies which are made faintly light ume contains 519 pages, with forty plates by the rays of the sun. lle incloses in a

and illustrations in the text. Price, $3.50. Geissler tube, containing a gas in a more or

A volume a year, issued in quarterly parts less rarefied condition, a phosphorescent of about 100 pages, at a dollar each, is conbody, the sulphuret of barium, for instance. templated; or it can be obtained at the end By causing a constant current of a certain of the year, bound complete, for $8. As intensity to pass through the tube, he ob- they are doing some of the best original tains a uniform and an agreeable light, at

work in the country at Johns Hopkins, in an expense which he estimates to be less these departments, those who wish to keep than that of gaslight.

posted in the latest results of biological in

quiry will do well to procure these publicaDR. CARPENTER says the entire absence tions as they appear. of sunlight on the deep-sea bottom seems to have the same effect as the darkness of

DIED, March 11th, at Bethlehem, Pennsylcaves, in reducing to a rudimentary condi- vania, Professor William T. Roepper, aged tion the eyes of such of their inhabitants as seventy years. Professor Roepper was born fish and crustacea which ordinarily enjoy and in 1866 was appointed to the chair of

in Germany,

came to America forty years ago, visual power; and many of these are pro. Mineralogy and Geology in Lehigh Univerfeelers or hairs, with which they feel their sity. He gave chief attention to the science way about, just as a blind man does with of mineralogy, the mathematical relations of his stick.

crystals and the chemical composition of

minerals being subjects of special study. The use of camomile-flowers for the The practical aspects of the science were adulteration of smoking-tobacco has recent also of much interest to him, and his serly been discovered in England, just in time vices as an expert were often in request. to stop an enormous swindle. The flowers are first deprived of their bitter principle by ing the locomotion of insects and arachnids,

M. G. Carlet, of France, has been study. exhaustion in water, and then colored, sweet and reports as the result of his observations ened, and dried, when they are ready for that the walking of insects may be repremixing with cut tobacco. A preparation sented by that of three men in Indian file, sold under the name of “The New Smoking the foremost and hindmost of whom keep Mixture” was found on examination to be step with each other, while the middle one about one third tobacco and two thirds camomile-flowers.

walks in the alternate step. The walking

of arachnids is represented by four men in CHINTAMANAY PAGOONATHA CHARRY, F. file, the even-numbered ones walking in one R. A. S., for thirty-five years connected with step, while the odd-numbered ones walk in the Madras Observatory, and for the last the alternate step.

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