ANNUAL REPORT OF THE WISCONSIN GEOLO- for twenty-two years, has been incorporated GICAL SURVEY for 1879. By J. C. CHAM

as the Natural History Society of Wiscon. BERLIN, Chief Geologist. Madison, Wis- sin, for the purpose of investigating the consin : State Printer, 1880.

facts pertaining to the natural history and We learn from this brief report that the ethnology of the State. Its first year's rework of the survey is approaching comple-port, in the German language, contains notion. Two volumes of the reports are now

tices of the papers read at the several meetin the printer's hands; and a third, which, ings of the Society, and an essay on “Lifeon however, will be Vol. I. of the series, will the Prairie,” by Dr. Emil Ulrici. Dr. Ulrici shortly follow, and will be devoted to the also sends us a paper (in German), of which general geology of the State.

he is the author, on the settlements of the

Normans in Iceland, Greenland, and North DEUTSCH - AMERIKANISCHE APOTHEKER - Zer America, in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh

TUNG. Edited by Dr. GEORGE W. Ra centuries."
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base. With Map and Illustrations. New York: F. The mountain region is divided by the Eso

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Graded Selections for Memorizing. By John pus Creek into two groups, differing conYork: Van Antwerp, Bragg & Co. Pp. 192. 50 northern, or Catskills proper, and the southThe Liberal Hymn-Book. Edited by Eliza

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University of Tokio. The Calendar of the between the Esopus and Catskill Creeks, Departments of Law, Science, and Literature. form a massive plateau having the shape 1879–80. Tokio: Z. P. Maruya & Co. Pp. 163.

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The Principles of Nature, etc. Also an Ex- border is formed by what may be called the position of the Spiritual Universe. Given inspirationally. By Mrs. Maria M. King. Vols. II. central chain of all the Catskills, the other and III. Hammonton, N. J.: A. J. King. 1880. by the northeast border chain. The southPp. 261 and 268. $1.75 per vol.

east end is closed by the short chain of the High Peak; the northwestern by the high

swell of plateaus which divide the headPOPULAR MISCELLANY.

waters of the Delaware and Susquehanna

from those of the Schoharie Creek and the The Catskill Mountains.-Professor A. Hudson. Inside of this highland, three secGuyot gives, in the “ American Journal of ondary ranges, starting from the northeast Science” for June, the results and a map border chain and running nearly west, alof the first scientific survey of the Catskill most to the foot of the central chain, fill Mountains, which he has undertaken, and the inner space, inclosing deep valleys in with the aid of interested assistants has so which flow the waters of the Schoharie far successfully carried out. These moun. Creek and its tributaries. . . . A striking tains, though situated in the most populous peculiarity of the plastic forms of the northand civilized part of the United States, and ern Catskill group is, that while its western visited every year by thousands, are among end is, as it were, buried in the general the least known in our country. Yet sev plateaus of western New York, its moun. eral features of the group are well calcu- tains rising but moderately above their sur. lated to excite the curiosity of the scientific rounding base, its eastern end stands isoinvestigator, and to call for a thorough lated on three sides by deep and broadly study of its plastic forms. Though a part open valleys, projecting, in all its height, of the Appalachian system, the range ap- as a mighty promontory, to within ten miles pears in it as an anomaly; for, while the of tide-water in the Hudson River.” The other Appalachian ranges trend from the very base of its mountains rarely exceeds southwest to the northeast, the Catskills six hundred feet above tide. “No wonder, run at right angles to them, or from the then," says Professor Guyot, " that the assoutheast to the northwest. The Catskills pect of the Catskills is nowhere more imalso surpass all the neighboring ranges of posing than from the Hudson River and mountains by two thousand feet of height. the surrounding lowlands, from which their Professor Guyot has devoted the summer whole height is seized at a glance, and that vacations of seventeen years to their exami- it has been thus far believed that the highnation. His map represents a surface of est points were found among the mountains about four thousand square miles, of which of the eastern end." The panorama of the the mountainous part proper occupies some- mountains, as seen from Catskill village, is

not a view of a single chain, but takes the run directly to the Hudson draw no water eastern end of the border chains and the from the interior, but belong properly to short range bearing the High Peak, which the outside slopes. “This drainage, which rises between the two. The Catskills do sends the waters of the Catskills all the not present prominent examples of anti- way around to the Mohawk to come back by clinal and synclinal folds or arches, or the Hudson, after a course of one hundred fragments of arches, as in ordinary moun- and seventy-five miles, to within ten miles tain-chains, but are masses of piled - up of their starting-point, is certainly remarkstrata, seldom deviating notably from their able, and betokens a very peculiar physical original horizontal position. On account of structure. This is made more striking by this disposition of the strata, and their ten the fact that on both sides of these highdency to break at right angles to the planes lands the waters of the valleys of the Catsof stratification, they are marked by the kill and Esopus Creeks flow, as we might frequent abrupt ledges which are peculiar have expected, from the western plateaus to them. For the same reason, the tops of directly to the Hudson River. The nearly the mountains are not pointed peaks, but horizontal position of the strata, which is are mostly flat surfaces, often of consider. common to the mountains and the surround. able extent. The central chain is the long- ing plateau, and the peculiar features of est and most massive of the series, and is the drainage, lead to the inference that the the backbone of the whole Catskill region. plastic forms of the Catskill region are the From Overlook Mountain to the Utsyantha, work of erosive forces, and are not due to near Stamford, it is a little more than thir- the ordinary dynamic process which has ty-five miles long, and is divided into four folded and shaped the other parts of the almost equal parts by three deep gorges Appalachian system. “We may, therefore, or cloves. The heights increase regularly conceive the original form of the Catskills from the Overlook to Hunter Mountain, one to have been that of a high plateau, a mass quarter of the way back, which, 4,038 feet of elevations forming a part of the Appahigh, is the highest point of the northern lachian plateau region which extends west Catskills, overtopping High Peak, which has of the Alleghanies from south Virginia, and borne that name, by nearly four hundred fills nearly all the western portion of the feet. From this point the heights diminish State of New York south of Lake Ontario to the Utsyantha, at the western end of the and the Mohawk River. The lowest altichain, whose height, 3,205 feet, is not great- tude of the primitive plateau is marked by ly different from that of Overlook, 3,150 the ideal plane which would pass through feet. The High Peak range, which is sand- the mountain-tops, and its superior elevawiched between this range and the northern tion on the east would account for the flow range, is only six miles long, and is distin of the waters, the gradual scooping out guished by its High Peak, 3,664 feet high. and the sloping of the valleys in the direcThe northeast border chain begins at South tion they now have.” The southern CatsMountain, near the Catskill Mountain House, kills have not the regular features which which is 2,497 feet high, culminates at Black characterize the northern group; the bounDome, 4,003 feet high, and ends at Leonard daries are not well defined, except along the Hill, 2,649 feet high, showing a similar Esopus Valley; and, instead of their having rapid rise for a quarter of the distance, and an interior plateau inclosed by high border a gradual fall toward the western end with chains, the massive central chain, which the central range. The highland between bears the highest summit, is accessible from these two chains, an irregular parallelogram all the surrounding valleys without crossing twenty-seven miles long and from six to any high pass. Their general direction is fifteen miles wide, is filled by three ranges, about the same as that of the northern Catswhich are separated by valleys in which kills, but several important ridges run at flow the tributaries of Schoharie Creek. right angles to this direction, and impart This stream and its tributaries furnish the considerable physical irregularity to their entire drainage for the interior highlands structure. The Slide Mountain, the culmiof the Catskills proper. The streams that nating point of this group, is the highest of all the Catskills, measuring 4,205 feet, and four inches thick, and on its outer surface is the hydrographic center of the region, deeply lined. Scattered through the formawhence the waters run to the northwest by tions among the trunks is a great variety of the Esopus, to the northeast by Woodland vegetable remains, consisting of branches, Creek, to the south by the Rondout to the rootlets, fruit, and leaves. Specimens subHudson, and to the southwest by the Nevi- mitted to Professor Leo Lesquereaux have sink to the Delaware. The geological struc- been identified as follows: Aralia Whitneyi, ture of the group is similar to that of the Magnolia lanceolata, Laurus Canariensis, also northern Catskills. Professor James Hall new species of Fraxinus, Cornus Alnus, Ti. has announced that, after four years of lia, Diospyros, Pteris, and Fern. The wood observation, he has detected the existence is in many cases completely agatized, and of four lines of anticlinals, nearly parallel cavities which existed in the decayed trunks to each other, and running from southwest are filled with crystals of calcite and quartz. to northeast, in conformity with the ordi- The formations are of the “Volcanic Ternary trend of the Appalachian range. Pro- tiary," and composed of fragmentary volfessor Guyot is willing to acknowledge the canic products, breccias, conglomerates, and fact, but calls attention to the other fact sandstones, the two former consisting chiefly that these axes cross the chains and valleys of basalt. Many are of great size, and are almost at right angles, “and were probably cemented together in enormous masses or posterior to the scooping out of the valleys heavy beds by tufaceous and other fineand mountain-chains, on the conformation grained material. These beds or layers repof which they had so little effect. . . . Aresent successive formations, arising from hypsometric feature, which may refer to the subsidence of the land, during the interthis order of facts, is that the three maxima missions of which the forests grew. The of altitudes above four thousand feet, the beds have evidently been changed by the Slide Mountain, Hunter Mountain, and Black action of water; and the conclusion is that Dome, are situated in a straight line, trend- the formation represents the shore or mar. ing from southwest to northeast."

gin of a great Tertiary lake. It is beliered

that the beds cover or have covered an area Silicified Forests of the Yellowstone of over ten thousand square miles. Park.-In Bulletin No. 1 of Vol. V. of the “Geological and Geographical Survey of Germs of Disease in Water. Professor the Territories,” Mr. W. H. Holmes gives Huxley, in a recent discussion of a paper by an account of a most wonderful geological Dr. Tidy on water for dietetic purposes, said formation, which attains its greatest devel. that diseases caused by what people not opment in the valley of the east fork of the wisely call germs are produced invariably Yellowstone River. It occurs in horizontal by bodies of the nature of bacteria. These layers, having an aggregate thickness of bodies could be cultivated through twenty fifty-five hundred feet, that is, the whole or thirty generations, and then, when given formation at this point is a little more than under the requisite conditions, would invaa mile in depth. This is filled throughout riably cause their characteristic disease. with the silicified remains of a multitude of Bacteria are plants, and we know under forests, many of the trunks of trees that are what conditions they can live and what they still to be seen being of very large size. will do. They can be sown and will thrive Some of them are prostrate, and from fifty in Pasteur's solution, just as cress or musto sixty feet long; others are upright where tard in the soil; and, if a drop of this soluthey grew, and some of the stumps measure tion were placed in a gallon of water, Profrom five to six feet in diameter. One gi- fessor Roscoe thinks it doubtful if there is gantic trunk is described that stands twelve any known method by which its constitufeet above the eroded strata about it, and is ents could be estimated. Every cubic inch ten feet in diameter. This trunk is hollow, of such water would contain fifty thousand but the woody structure of what remains is to one hundred thousand bacteria, and one well preserved, the rings of growth being drop of it would be capable of exciting a clearly defined. The bark on this stump is putrefactive fermentation in any substance

capable of undergoing that fermentation. , and tools, as in Europe during the PleistoThe human body may be considered as such cene or Quaternary period, and perhaps a substance, and we may conceive of a water even farther back in time. Recent paleoncontaining such organisms which may be as tological investigations show that an impure as can be as regards chemical analysis, mense number of forms of terrestrial aniand yet be, as regards the human body, as mals, that were formerly supposed to be deadly as prussic acid. This is a terrible peculiar to the Old World, are abundant in conclusion, but it is true; and, if the public the New. Taking all circumstances into are guided by percentages alone, they may consideration, it is quite as likely that Asioften be led astray. The real value of a atic man may have been derived from Amerdetermination of the quantity of organic ica as the reverse, or both may have had impurity in a water is that by it a shrewd their source in a common center, in some notion can be obtained as to what has had region of the earth now covered with sea. access to that water. If it be proved that sewage has been mixed with it, there is a

Illusions and Appar ions.-All illusive very great chance that the excreta of some

visions and apparitions are susceptible of a diseased person may be there also. On the scientific explanation. They originate in other hand, water may be chemically gross,

some derangement of the brain and nervous and yet do harm to no one, the great danger system, and are for that reason most likely being in the disease-germs.

to occur to persons who are out of health.

The apparent reality of some of these illuMan in America.-Professor Flower, in sions is often wonderful, and might well a recent lecture on the “Anatomy of Man," prompt those who are not acquainted with before the Royal College of Surgeons, Lon- nervous physiology, or who have not devoted don, discussed at some length the question careful attention to the subject, to refer of his origin on the American Continent. Till them to something out of the common. recently, opinions on the early peopling of Even while we are in perfect possession of America had been divided between the views our faculties, we imagine that we see objects that the inhabitants of this continent were before us as clearly as though they were a distinct indigenous people, and therefore actually present, or hear, with equal distinctnot related to those of any other land; and ness, sounds which have no real existence that they were descended from an Asiatic outside of ourselves. The explanation may people who, in comparatively recent times, be found in a simple study of the physiology passed into America by the way of Behring of the nervous system, and shows that the Strait, and thence spread gradually over the illusions have a material basis. Our sensawhole Continent. These theories have had tions are transmitted from the organ that reto undergo considerable modifications in ceiyes them to the brain, and it is the brain, consequence of the discovery of the great not the organ, that experiences them and is antiquity of the human race in America, as their seat. In the case of sight, it is the funcwell as in the Old World. The proof of tion of the eye to receive and adjust the rays this antiquity rests upon the high and inde- of light coming from the object that we see, pendent state of civilization which had been so that they shall produce an impression on attained by the Mexicans and Peruvians at the brain. The eye represents the lenses of the time of the Spanish conquest, and the the photographer's camera; but the brain evidence that that civilization had been pre- corresponds to the sensitive plate which receded by several other stages of culture, fol. ceives the image, and on which all subsequent lowing in succession through a great stretch alterations of the image are effected. Similar of time. The antiquity of this quasi-bis relative parts are played by the organs and torical period is, however, entirely thrown the brain in the case of the other senses. into the shade by the evidence now accumu. Now, if a similar impression to that which lating from various parts of North and South is transmitted to the brain from the organ America, that man existed on the Western of sense is produced upon it by any other Continent, and under much the same condi- cause, the same kind of a sensation will tions of life, using precisely similar weapons result. This may happen when the brain

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