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all the Catskills, measuring 4,205 feet, and four inches thick, and on its outer surface is the hydrographic center of the region, deeply lined. Scattered through the formawhence the waters run to the northwest by tions among the trunks is a great variety of the Esopus, to the northeast by Woodland vegetable remains, consisting of branches, Creek, to the south by the Rondout to the rootlets, fruit, and leaves. Specimens subHudson, and to the southwest by the Nevi- mitted to Professor Leo Lesquereaux have sink to the Delaware. The geological struc- been identified as follows: Aralia Whitneyi, ture of the group is similar to that of the Magnolia lanceolata, Laurus Canariensis, also northern Catskills. Professor James Hall new species of Fraxinus, Cornus Alnus, Ti. has announced that, after four years of lia, Diospyros, Pteris, and Fern. The wood observation, he has detected the existence is in many cases completely agatized, and of four lines of anticlinals, nearly parallel cavities which existed in the decayed trunks to each other, and running from southwest are filled with crystals of calcite and quartz. to northeast, in conformity with the ordi- The formations are of the “Volcanic Ter. nary trend of the Appalachian range. Pro- tiary,” and composed of fragmentary rolfessor Guyot is willing to acknowledge the canic products, breccias, conglomerates, and fact, but calls attention to the other fact sandstones, the two former consisting chiefly that these axes cross the chains and valleys of basalt. Many are of great size, and are almost at right angles, “and were probably cemented together in enormous masses or posterior to the scooping out of the valleys heary beds by tufaceous and other fineand mountain-chains, on the conformation grained material. These beds or layers repof which they had so little effect. . . . A resent successive formations, arising from hypsometric feature, which may refer to the subsidence of the land, during the interthis order of facts, is that the three maxima missions of which the forests grew. The of altitudes above four thousand feet, the beds have evidently been changed by the Slide Mountain, Hunter Mountain, and Black | action of water; and the conclusion is that Dome, are situated in a straight line, trend. I the formation represents the shore or maring from southwest to northeast."
gin of a great Tertiary lake. It is believed
that the beds cover or have covered an area Silicified Forests of the Yellowstone of over ten thousand square miles. Park.--In Bulletin No. 1 of Vol. V. of the “Geological and Geographical Survey of Germs of Disease in Water.–Professor the Territories,” Mr. W. H. Holmes gives' Huxley, in a recent discussion of a paper by an account of a most wonderful geological Dr. Tidy on water for dietetic purposes, said formation, which attains its greatest devel. that diseases caused by what people pot opment in the valley of the east fork of the wisely call germs are produced invariably Yellowstone River. It occurs in horizontal ' by bodies of the nature of bacteria. These layers, having an aggregate thickness of bodies could be cultivated through twenty fifty-five hundred feet, that is, the whole or thirty generations, and then, when given
1 formation at this point is a little more than under the requisite conditions, would inra. a mile in depth. This is filled throughout riably cause their characteristic disease. with the silicified remains of a multitude of Bacteria are plants, and we know under forests, many of the trunks of trees that are what conditions they can live and what they still to be seen being of very large size. will do. They can be sown and will thrive Some of them are prostrate, and from fifty in Pasteur's solution, just as cress or musto sixty feet long; others are upright where tard in the soil; and, if a drop of this soluthey grew, and some of the stumps measure tion were placed in a gallon of water, Profrom five to six feet in diameter. One gi- fessor Roscoe thinks it doubtful if there is gantic trunk is described that stands twelve any known method by which its constitufeet above the eroded strata about it, and is ents could be estimated. Every cubic inch ten feet in diameter. This trunk is hollow, of such water would contain fifty thousand but the woody structure of what remains is to one hundred thousand bacteria, and one well preserved, the rings of growth being drop of it would be capable of exciting a clearly defined. The bark on this stump is putrefactive fermentation in any substance
capable of undergoing that fermentation. , and tools, as in Europe during the PleistoThe human body may be considered as such cene or Quaternary period, and perhaps a substance, and we may conceive of a water even farther back in time. Recent paleoncontaining such organisms which may be as tological investigations show that an impure as can be as regards chemical analysis, mense number of forms of terrestrial aniand yet be, as regards the human body, as mals, that were formerly supposed to be deadly as prussic acid. This is a terrible peculiar to the Old World, are abundant in conclusion, but it is true; and, if the public the New. Taking all circumstances into are guided by percentages alone, they may consideration, it is quite as likely that Asioften be led astray. The real value of a atic man may have been derived from Amer. determination of the quantity of organic ica as the reverse, or both may have had impurity in a water is that by it a shrewd their source in a common center, in some notion can be obtained as to what has had region of the earth now covered with sea. access to that water. If it be proved that sewage has been mixed with it, there is a
Illusions and Apparitions.-All illusive very great chance that the excreta of sorne
visions and apparitions are susceptible of a discased person may be there also. On the scientific explanation. They originate in other hand, water may be chemically gross,
some derangement of the brain and nervous and yet do harm to no one, the great danger system, and are for that reason most likely being in the disease-germs.
to occur to persons who are out of health.
The apparent reality of some of these illuMan in America.—Professor Flower, in sions is often wonderful, and might well a recent lecture on the “ Anatomy of Man," prompt those who are not acquainted with before the Royal College of Surgeons, Lon. nervous physiology, or who have not devoted don, discussed at some length the question careful attention to the subject, to refer of his origin on the American Continent. Till them to something out of the common. recently, opinions on the early peopling of Even while we are in perfect possession of America had been divided between the views our faculties, we imagine that we see objects that the inhabitants of this continent were before us as clearly as though they were a distinct indigenous people, and therefore actually present, or hear, with equal distinctnot related to those of any other land; and ness, sounds which have no real existence that they were descended from an Asiatic outside of ourselves. The explanation may people who, in comparatively recent times, be found in a simple study of the physiology passed into America by the way of Behring of the nervous system, and shows that tho Strait, and thence spread gradually over the illusions have a material basis. Our sensawhole Continent. These theories have had tions are transmitted from the organ that reto undergo considerable modifications in ceiyes them to the brain, and it is the brain, consequence of the discovery of the great not the organ, that experiences them and is antiquity of the human race in America, as their seat. In the case of sight, it is the funcwell as in the Old World. The proof of tion of the eye to receive and adjust the rays this antiquity rests upon the high and inde- of light coming from the object that we see, pendent state of civilization which had been so that they sball produce an impression on attained by the Mexicans and Peruvians at the brain. The eye represents the lenses of the time of the Spanish conquest, and the the photographer's camera; but the brain evidence that that civilization had been pre- corresponds to the sensitive plate which receded by several other stages of culture, fol. ceives the image, and on which all subsequent lowing in succession through a great stretch alterations of the image are effected. Similar of time. The antiquity of this quasi-his-relative parts are played by the organs and torical period is, however, entirely thrown the brain in the case of the other senses. into the shade by the evidence now accumu. Now, if a similar impression to that which lating from various parts of North and South is transmitted to the brain from the organ America, that man existed on the Western of sense is produced upon it by any other Continent, and under much the same condi- cause, the same kind of a sensation will tions of life, using precisely similar weapons result. This may happen when the brain
is in an excitable or irritable state from ill, them as through gravel, and partly to their health or any other cause, and is enough to greater porosity, by means of which matter explain all the phenomena under considera- passing through them is more closely extion. The visions most often correspond to posed to the action of oxygen, the most our previous experiences, and therefore re. efficient agent for the destruction of organic present objects we know. Sometimes, how impurities. ever, the images are unfamiliar, and they are then referred to objects that we have Freezing of a Lake by Radiation.—A seen, but have ceased to remember in our remarkable instance of the freezing of wanatural condition. The apparitions are thus ter in consequence of the radiation of heat explained as the creatures of our imagina- was remarked in the Lake of Morat, Switzer. tion, which, through some brain-disturbance, land, after the cold weather of March last. is enabled to project its visions forward on The lake, of which three fifths of the surthe seats of sense, just as the ringing in the face had been covered with ice, was clear ears, with which we are all familiar, is pro- on the 8th of March, and the weather had duced by some irritation of the hearing. become warm. During the night of the center of the brain.
10th of March, the thermometer did not de
scend to the freezing-point ; yet on the Soils as Filters.—Dr. Victor C. Vaughan, morning of the 11th the lake was covered of the University of Michigan, has described
over with a thin sheet of ice. The Lakes in “The Sanitarian some experiments of Neufchâtel and Constance were similarly which he has made to determine the power ' covered. The freezing is accounted for by of soils to prevent the filtration of organic supposing it to have been occasioned by matter in solution. They had reference to the rapid and great radiation of heat wbich the questions, To what extent are organic took place on a perfectly clear night. An insubstances removed from solution by filtra
tense degree of cold had been necessary to tion through the soil; and do different soils
cause the lakes to freeze during the cloudy differ in their capability of thus removing weather of the previous cold spell, and the organic matter ? Urea was selected as the freezing was then very irregular and unsubstance with which the experiments should equal. be tried, and urine as the fluid with which filtration should be performed. The ordi- Effects of Diseased Meat.-Mr. Julius nary gravel soil of Michigan was found to Hardwicke, F. R. C. S., an English local produce but little effect in detaining the medical officer of health, recently read a urea, while it soon became saturated; and paper at a sanitary meeting on “Meat as the conclusion was drawn that the secre- Food for Man,” in which he considered the tions from a family of six persons each day effects of diseased meat on the human sys. would be sufficient, when properly dissolved, tem. The evidence on this subject is of to saturate more than seven cubic feet of the most conflicting character. According this soil, and that only a few weeks or to Dr. Letheby, enormous numbers of animonths would suffice, with a proper amount mals that died of rinderpest in 1863, and of rainfall, to saturate every cubic foot of more recently of pleuro-pneumonia, have soil to the depth of five or ten feet in a been sent to the London market and eaten small yard. Gravel, however, is the poorest without having produced any tangible efof filters, for the spaces between the parti- fects; the Scotch eat “brasy” mutton cles allow the liquid to run through freely with impunity, and, some say, even prefer at certain points. Sand and loam exhibited it to sound mutton; and the people of a more satisfactory action, the loam more Paris must have eaten much diseased meat so than the sand, both these substances during the siege, though we have no account receiving a perceptibly larger quantity of of their having suffered from the effects of urea before they were saturated. This is it. The symptoms or complaints of those probably owing partly to their greater uni- supposed to be suffering from having eaten formity of constitution, in consequence of diseased meat are very similar to those ocwhich water can not run as fast through casioned by the use of putrid meat. Parasitic disease is quite different. Dr. Parkes, during the hours preceding a storm; others names as the diseases of cattle that should to chemical combinations resulting from the be watched for: Pleuro-pneumonia, foot- decomposition of the bodies of marine aniand-mouth disease ; cattle-plague, or rinder- mals and plants, and producing phospho. pest; anthrax, or malignant pustule; sim- rescence; others to spawn deposited on the ple inflammatory affections of the lungs; surface of the water, which is supposed to dropsical affections from kidney or heart be made to shine by the moving of masses disease; indigestion with apoplectic symp- of fish through it. None of these hypothtoms. The first three are described as con. eses have been confirmed, but they have tagious, and the last three as sporadic dis. all been contradicted by positive evidence eases, in a work by Professor Williams, of that the milky sea is produced by a proEdinburgh. To this list Mr. Hardwicke digious accumulation of animalcules, capaadds, as contagious, glanders and farcy ble of becoming phosphorescent sponta(which may be communicated to consumers neously, or of being made so by friction. of horse - meat), puerperal apoplexy, and The most recent and decisive evidence in variola. He also adds a list of epizootic | this direction was observed on board the diseases, meaning diseases occasioned by French ironclad Armida, on her recent parasites, including measles in the pig; rot, voyage from Japan, while crossing from or fuke disease, in sheep; gid, turn-sick, Point-de-Galle to Aden. At about half. or staggers, in sheep; phthisis, or hoore, in past twelve in the morning of the 10th of cows, pigs, and poultry (gapes). The dis- February, 1880, the sky being clear, with eases of sheep are similar to those of cat- no moon, the western part of the horizon, tle. They are subject to small-pox, malig- toward which the ship was going, became nant pustule, a parasitic chronic lung affec- so bright as to attract the attention of the tion, and brasy or splenic apoplexy. Pigs officer of the quarter. He at first thought are subject to anthrax, typhoid, and hog- the light was occasioned by the numerous cholera. The contagious diseases are com- bright stars which were about setting, but municable by contact, by inoculation, and the increase of the light caused him to by infection. Hence it is not safe to let change his opinion, and he concluded that any of these classes of diseased meat go it was from a ship on fire. A half hour forth to the public as fit for consumption. afterward a layer of whitish foam appeared To the opinion that cooking will destroy the covering the water for a considerable excontagious property and render the food fit tent. The whole sea, shining with a milky for usc, Mr. Hardwicke replies that there is luster as brightly as the usual phosphoresno proof of it. Meat subjected to a tem- cence which a ship produces in its passage perature of 160°, which it is thought will through the water, resembled a field of thoroughly cook it, may still be productive snow in a clear night. It shone enough to of disease by inoculation. We are yet ig. efface all traces of the undulations of the norant of the nature of the contagious swell; the waves could not be distinguished; property, and, if it be a living germ, what and the sca seemed as flat and even as in a proof have we that, even if we succeed in calm. The wake of the ship (which is gendestroying this germ and the entozoön of erally visible for two or three miles back), parasitic disease, a possible potent matter and the disturbance of the water by the screw produced by the germ or ova of entozoon were hardly marked on the still surface. may not still exist and possess infective These facts proved that the luminous coatqualities ?
ing was not merely superficial, but that it
had a considerable thickness. The pheThe Milky Sea.—The peculiar colora- nomenon became more marked and intense, tion which has given the name of the milky and one observing it might have believed sea to certain regions of the ocean has been he was locked in a sea of ice, had there remarked by many sailors, but a diversity been no movement of the ship to undeceive of opinion bas been expressed as to the him. By daylight all bad disappeared. On cause of the phenomenon. Some have at looking closely at the water as it rippled tributed it to electric action taking place along the ship, there were noticed a great
quantity of luminous particles pressed close-, indicated that the ship was still close to ly one upon another, the most brilliant ones the milky sea. On the next evening the being those which had been in contact with milky tint came on again, all at once, at the bottom. The water when taken up in about seven o'clock, an hour and twenty a bucket appeared to be full of phosphores minutes after sunset and an hour after cent bodies, from a half to three quarters dark. The beautiful appearances of the of an inch long, which sparkled when they preceding night were again observed, but were brushed about by the hand. Nearly the whitish reflection in the horizon more four hundred of them were counted in a resembled a fog which obscured it and made bucket holding ten quarts. When taken it seem nearer. Drops of water examined from the water and examined by the light by themselves in the microscope revealed of a lamp, they were seen to be formed of filaments of marine plants and numerous a gelatinous substance which dried up quick- proliferous vegetable cells. The animal. ly in the air and disappeared, leaving a dark cules were the same as before, and were globule a millimetre in diameter (see figure), the only luminous objects. The nights of which could be made lively again, and ca- the 9th, 10th, 12th, and 13th of February pable of becoming luminous, by putting a were thus adorned with the splendor of the drop of water upon it. When rubbed in milky sea; during this time the ship had the hand, the bodies left a bright train passed through six hundred and sixty miles, which soon went out, leaving no odor. The or two hundred and twenty marine leagues, globules under the compound microscope in a mean latitude of 12° north, between were transparent, filled with eggs of an ovoid the sixty-first and fifty-first meridians of shape, and were continually agitating their east longitude. The atmosphere was in its fins and tentacles. The organism is ellipsoid. normal condition, as was also the sea ; the
moon was new, the sky was clear, the ba. rometer and thermometer were steady. No storm was near; no change was observed in the hydrometric condition of the air; the monsoon had been blowing a light breeze from the northeast for a considerable pe
riod. Several officers on board had preri. A
ously witnessed this interesting spectacle in
different places, as the Gulf of Aden, the A Phosphorescent Animalcule of the Milky Sea Bay of Bengal, the Sea of Jara, in hot lati
(naiural size). A the dark globule seen in tudes, and during the months of January the center of a magnified.
and February, but none of them had ob
served it when it was so bright, or had noal and full of eggs, which are contained in an internal sac; the internal tentacles, t,
ticed it for so long a time.- la Nature. always in motion, keep the eggs in circulation. The exterior tentacles, b, have a The Health-Care as a Remedy for Advermotion like that which we make in stretch- sity.—The “Lancet" suggests that more ing out the arms, drawing them back and ; account ought to be taken than is taken of bending the elbows. The object marked n the condition of health in estimating the is a comb-shaped fin, with twelve or fifteen causes of success or failure in life. The bones. The epidermis is striated in the habit of failing is formed in some families, direction of the major axis of the ellipse. and seems to be transmitted by inheritance; When kept till daylight and examined in a the same is the case with constitutional pedark room, the water gave no light; it was culiarities, and often with certain morbid of no use to shake or stir it, the bodies conditions. It would be an interesting and had lost their phosphorescent property. profitable study to examine how far what is Fresh water, drawn up in the daytime and called ill luck or bad fortune is induced by stirred in the dark, likewise showed no such peculiarities. Accepting this view, phosphorescence, although the color of the “so far from its being strange that fail. waters, a dirty-blue bordering upon gray, ure or success should run in families, it