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Ill Feeling Between Beethoven And Hummel 109

introduced not only in pianoforte playing but also composition. . . . Not until the last days of Beethoven, post tot discrimina rerum, was the cloud which had settled between the two artists dispelled. In the earlier editions of his book, Schindler gives a still gloomier tinge to the story: His hatred of Hummel because of this (the laugh after the mass) was so deeply rooted that I know of no second one like it in his entire history. After the lapse of 14 years he told me the story with a bitterness as if it had happened the day before. But this dark cloud was dissipated by the strength of his spirit, and this would have happened much earlier had Hummel approached him in a friendly manner instead of always holding himself aloof. That Schindler heard Beethoven speak of the occurrence in Eisenstadt, fourteen years thereafter, with "great bitterness" is not to be doubted; but this does not prove the existence of so lasting and deep a hatred towards Hummel as is asserted. That he was dissatisfied with Hummel's later course as pianist and composer is most probable, and hardly needs Schindler's testimony; but it is not so with other statements of his; and facts have come to light since his book appeared (1840) which he could not well have known, but which leave little doubt that he was greatly mistaken in his view of the relations between the two men. That something very like an "intimate friendship" had characterized their intercourse, the reader already knows; and that, three or four years later, they were again friendly, if not intimate, will in due time appear. As to the girl whom both loved, but who favored Hummel, if Schindler refers to the sister of Rockel—afterwards the wife of Hummel—it is known from Rockel himself that there is nothing in the story. If, on the other hand, he had in mind a ludicrous anecdote—not quite fit to be printed—the "wife of a citizen," who plays the third role in the comedy, was not of such a character as to cause any lasting ill blood between the rivals for her passing favor. In short, while we accept the Eisenstadt anecdote, as being originally derived from Beethoven himself, we must view all that Schindler adds in connection with it with a certain amount of distrust and doubt—if not reject it altogether—as a new illustration of his proneness to accept without examination old impressions for established facts. This year is remarkable not only in Beethoven's life, but in the history of music, as that in which was completed the C minor Symphony. This wondrous work was no sudden inspiration. Themes for the Allegro, Andante and Scherzo are found in sketchbooks belonging, at the very latest, to the years 1800 and 1801. There are studies also preserved, which show that Beethoven wrought upon it while engaged on "Fidelio" and the Pianoforte Concerto in G—that is, in 1804-6, when, as before noted, he laid it aside for the composition of the fourth, in B-flat major. That is all that is known of the rise and progress of this famous symphony, except that it was completed this year in the composer's favorite haunts about Heiligenstadt.1

In the "Journal des Luxus" of January, 1808, there appeared a letter in which it was stated that "Beethoven's opera 'Fidelio,' which despite all contradictory reports has extraordinary beauties, is to be performed in Prague in the near future with a new overture." The composer was also said to have "already begun a second mass." Of this mass we hear nothing more, but there was a foundation of fact in the other item of news. Guardasoni had for some time kept alive the Italian opera in Prague, only because his contract required it. It had sunk so low in the esteem of the public, that performances were actually given to audiences of less than twenty persons in the parterre—the boxes and galleries being empty in proportion. That manager died early in 1806, and the Bohemian States immediately raised Carl Liebich from his position of stage-manager of the German drama to that of General Director, with instructions to dismiss the Italian and engage a German operatic company. Such a change required time; and not until April 24th, 1807, did the Italians make their last appearance, selecting for the occasion Mozart's "Clemenza di Tito"—originally composed for that stage. On the 2d of May the new German opera opened with Cherubini's "Faniska."

Beethoven, in view of his relations to the Bohemian nobles, naturally expected, and seems to have had the promise, that his "Fidelio" should be brought out there as well as its rival, and, as Seyfried expresses it, "planned a new and less difficult overture for the Prague theatre." This was the composition published in 1832 with the title: "Overture in C, composed in the year 1805, for the opera 'Leonore' by Ludwig van Beethoven"—an erroneous

'Nottebohm concludes from a study of the sketches that the Symphony in C minor was completed in March, 1808, and the "Pastoral" Symphony later, though the two were sketched during the same period, in part, and there is a remote possibility that the latter, which was written down with unusual speed, was finished as soon as the former. In support of this theory is the circumstance that at the concert on December 22, 1808, at which both were produced, the "Pastoral" was numbered 5 and the C minor 6. Both symphonies were offered to Breitkopf and Hartel in June, 1808, and bought by the firm in September. In the letter offering them Beethoven observed the present numbering. A stipulation in the letter that the symphonies should not be published until six months after June 1, suggests the probability that the right to perform them in private had been sold to Prince Lobkowitz and Count Rasoumowsky, to whom in common the works are dedicated.

"in Questa Tomba Oscura" 111

date, which continued current and unchallenged for nearly forty
years. Schindler's story—that it was tried at Prince Lichnowsky's
and laid aside as inadequate to the subject—was therefore based
on misinformation; but that it was played either at Lichnowsky's
or Lobkowitz's is very probable, and, if so, it may well have made
but a tame and feeble impression on auditors who had heard the
glorious "Leonore" Overture the year before. A tragical and
lamentable consequence of establishing the true date of Op. 138—
of the discovery that the supposed No. I is really No. Ill of the
"Leonore-Fidelio" overtures—is this; that so much eloquent
dissertation on the astonishing development of Beethoven's powers
as exhibited in his progress from No. I to No. Ill, has lost its basis,
and all the fine writing on this topic is, at a blow, made ridiculous
and absurd! As to the performance of "Fidelio" at Prague, Beet-
hoven was disappointed. It was not given. Another paragraph
from the "Journal des Luxus, etc." (November, 1806) gives the only
satisfactory notice, known to us, of the origin of one of Beethoven's
minor but well-known compositions. A bit of musical pleasantry (says the journal last mentioned)
recently gave rise to a competition amongst a number of famous com-
posers. Countess Rzewuska1 improvised an aria at the pianoforte; the
poet Carpani at once improvised a text for it. He imagined a lover
who had died of grief because of the indifference of his ladylove; she,
repenting of her hard-heartedness, bedews the grave; and now the shade
calls to her: In questa tomba oscura Lasciami riposar;
Quando viveva, ingrata,
Dovevi a me pensar. Lascia che l'ombra ignude

Godansi pace almen,
E non bagnar mie ceneri

D'inutile velen.

These words have been set by Pae'r, Salieri, Weigl, Zingarelli, Cherubini, Asioli and other great masters and amateurs. Zingarelli alone provided ten compositions of them; in all about fifty have been collected and the poet purposes to give them to the public in a volume. The number of the compositions was increased to sixty-three, and they were published in 1808, the last (No. 63) being by Beethoven. This was by no means considered the best at the time, although it alone now survives. Though disappointed in December, as he had been in March, in the hope of obtaining the use of a theatre for a concert,

'Query: The same whom in 1812 Count Ferd. Waldstein married? Beethoven was not thereby prevented from coming prominently before the public as composer and director. It was on this wise: The want of better opportunities to hear good symphony music well performed, than Schuppanzigh's Concerts—which were also confined to the summer months—and the occasional hastily arranged "Academies" of composers and virtuosos, afforded, induced a number of music-lovers early in the winter to form an institute under the modest title: "Concert of Music-Lovers" (Liebhaber-Concert). Says the "Wiener Vaterlandische Blatter" of May 27, 1808: "An orchestra was organized, whose members were chosen from the best of the local music-lovers (dilettanti). A few wind-instruments only—French horns, trumpets, etc., were drafted from the Vienna theatres. . . . The audiences were composed exclusively of the nobility of the town and foreigners of note, and among these classes the preference was given to the cognoscenti and amateurs." The hall "zur Mehlgrube," which was first engaged, proved to be too small, and the concerts were transferred to the hall of the University, where "in twenty meetings symphonies, overtures, concertos and vocal pieces were performed zealously and affectionately and received with general approval." "Banker Haring was a director in the earlier concerts but gave way to Clement 'because of disagreements.'" The works of Beethoven reported as having been performed in these concerts, are the Symphony in D (in the first concert), the overture to "Prometheus" in November, the "Eroica" Symphony and "Coriolan" Overture in December, and about New Year the Fourth Symphony in B-flat, which also on the 15th of November had been played in the Burgtheater at a concert for the public charities. Most, if not all of these works were directed by their composer. The works ascertained as belonging to this year are: (1) The transcription of the Violin Concerto for Pianoforte, made (as dementi's letter to Collard says) at Clementi's request; (2) the overture to "Coriolan"; (3) the Mass in C;1 (4) the so-called "Leonore" Overture, No. I, published

'On June 8, 1808, Beethoven offered the Mass in C to Breitkopf and Httrtel, along with the fifth and sixth symphonies and the sonata for pianoforte and violoncello. Op. 69, for 900 florins. He wrote: "I do not like to say anything about my mass or myself, but I believe I have treated the text as it has seldom been treated." The answer of Breitkopf and Hartel is not of record, but to the offer which it contained, Beethoven replied on July 16 with a letter in which he offered the mass, two symphonies, the sonata for 'cello and two other pianoforte sonatas (or in place of these, "probably" another symphony) for 700 florins. Then he says: "You see that I give more and take less— but that is the limit; you must take the mass, or I cannot give you the other works—for I am considering honor and not profit merely. 'There is no demand for church music,' you say, and you are right, if the music comes from mere thorough-bassists, but if you will only have the mass performed once you will see if there will not be music-lovers who will want it. . . . I will guarantee its success in any event." In a third letter, without date, which throws light on the well-nigh insuperable difficulties experienced by a famous

The Publications Of The Year 1807 113 as Op. 138; (5) the Symphony in C minor; (6) the Arietta, "In questa tomba." The original publications of the year were few, viz., (1) "LIVe Sonata" for Pianoforte, Op. 57, dedicated to Count Brunswick, advertised in the "Wiener Zeitung" of February 18, by the Kunst- und Industrie-Comptoir; (2) Thirty-two Variations in C minor, advertised by the same firm on April 29; (3) Concerto concertant for Pianoforte, Violin and Violoncello, Op. 56, dedicated to Prince Lobkowitz, advertised in the "Wiener Zeitung" on July 1. The following advertisements are evidence of the great and increasing popularity of Beethoven's name: On March 21, Traeg announces 12 Ecossaises and 12 Waltzes for two violins and bass (2 flutes, 2 horns ad lib.); also for pianoforte; other works are being arranged; on April 20, the Kunst- und Industrie-Comptoir announces an arrangement of the "Eroica" Symphony for pianoforte, violin, viola and violoncello; on May 27 (Artaria), a Sonata for Pianoforte and Violoncello, Op. 64, transcribed from Op. 3; on June 13 (Traeg), the Symphony in D major arranged by Ries as a Quintet with double-bass, flute, 2 horns ad lib.; on September 12 (the Chemical Printing Works), a Polonaise, Op. 8, for two violins and for violin and guitar. composer a century or so ago in securing the publication of a large ecclesiastical work, Beethoven says: "To the repeated proposal made by you through Wagener, I reply that I am ready to relieve you of everything concerning the mass—/ make you a present of it, you need not pay even the cost of copying, firmly convinced that if you once have it performed in your winter concerts at Leipsic you will surely provide it with a German text and publish it. . . . The reason for my having wished to bind you to publish this mass is in the first place and chiefly because it is dear to my heart and in spite of the coldness of our age to such works." A later letter (of date April 5, 1809) to Breitkopf and Hartel shows that the gift of the mass was not accepted. Beethoven changed its dedication several times. On October 5, 1810, he wrote to Breitkopf and Hartel that it was dedicated to Zmeskall; on October 9, 1811, he gives notice that a change in the dedication would have to be made because "the woman is now married and the name must be changed; let the matter rest, therefore, write to me when you will publish it and then the work's saint will doubtless be found." Eventually the "saint" proved to be Prince Kinsky.

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