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pendant to the above, as it contains these words: "Without the society of some loved person it would not be possible to live even in the country."

It is well known that Beethoven's duties to Archduke Rudolph soon became irksome and at last almost insupportable. It was, however, for his good that he was compelled to perform them and be master of himself to that extent; it was also fortunate that Elizabeth Brentano came just at the crisis with beauty, grace and genius to turn his thoughts into other channels. Nor was it without benefit to him that Thomson's melodies, which required no severe study, gave some desultory but profitable employment to his mind. Just at the close of the year it was rumored that he contemplated a journey into Italy "next spring, in order to seek restoration of his health, which had suffered greatly for several years, under southern skies." There was some foundation for this, for some years later Beethoven himself states in one of his letters: "I declined a call to Naples."

The compositions of the year 1810 are: 1. The incidental music to Goethe's "Egmont." It was composed between October, 1809 and May, 1810, and the first performance took place on the 24th day of the latter month. There are sketches for the song "Freudvoll und Leidvoll" in a sketchbook used in 1809; but Nottebohm does not recognize them as having been conceived for use in the tragedy, since there are indications that the song was to have pianoforte accompaniment and be sung in part by two voices. In a sketchbook begun early in January, 1810 (Nottebohm, "Zweite Beethoveniana," p. 276), on the first twenty-nine pages there are sketches for seven numbers in the following order, viz: 7, 1, 8, 9, 2, 8, 6. Sketches for the overture are not to be found in the book, but in other places in connection with sketches for the Pianoforte Trio in B-flat, Op. 97, which was also in hand in 1809. Beethoven's admiration for Goethe (stimulated, it is fair to assume, by his intercourse with Elizabeth Brentano) is shown by the fact that, besides the "Egmont" lyrics, others of Goethe's poems were sketched or completed in the year which saw the production of the tragedy. "Egmont" was first performed on May 24,1810. Though Beethoven contemplated dedicating it to Archduke Rudolph, it eventually appeared without a dedication. Beethoven offered the music to Breitkopf and Hartel in a letter dated May 6 (1810) for 1400 florins in silver. 2. Two songs: "Kennst du das Land" and "Herz, mein Herz."

3. Three songs: "Wonne der Wehmuth," "Sehnsucht," and "Mit einem gemalten Bande." The manuscript bears the following inscription in Beethoven's hand: "3 Gesange—1810—Poesie von Goethe in Musik gesetzt von Ludwig van Beethoven."

4. Forty-three Irish melodies, with ritornellos and accompaniments for pianoforte, violin and violoncello (completed). 5. Ecossaise for military band. 6. Polonaise for military band.

Works Published In 1810 195 7. March in F major for military band. "Composed in 1810, in Baden, for Archduke Anton—3rd Summer-month."

8. String Quartet, F minor, Op. 95. The autograph manuscript preserved in the Royal Imperial Court Library at Vienna bears the inscription: "Quartetto serioso—1810—in the month of October. Dedicated to Herr von Zmeskall and written in the month of October by his friend L. v. Beethoven." The publications of the year were:

1. "Das Lied aus der Ferne." Published by Breitkopf and Härtel, in February.

2. "Andenken," song by Matthison. Breitkopf and Härtel, in March.

8. The opera "Leonore," in two acts, etc., without overture and finales. Breitkopf and Härtel, in March. 4. Sestetto pour 2 Clarinettes, 2 Cors et 2 Bassons, par L. v. Beetlioven. In parts, by Breitkopf and Härtel, in April. 5. Ouvertüre ä grand Orchestre de VOpeWa Leonore, etc. ("Leonore, No. 3"), by Breitkopf and Härtel, in July. 6. Five Songs: Lied aus der Ferne ("Als mir noch die Thräne"— thirteen pages composed stanza by stanza, newly published); Der Liebende ("Welch' ein wunderbares Leben"); Der Jtingling in der Fremde ("Der Frtihling entbltihet"); An den fernen Geliebten ("Einst wohnten stisse Ruh"); Der Zufriedene ("Zwar schuf das Gltickhienieden"), published in "Achtzehn deutsche Gedichte mit Begleitung des Pianoforte von verschiedenen Meistern .... Erzherzog Rudolph .... gewidmet von C. L. Reissig," by Artaria and Co., Vienna, in July. 7. "Die Sehnsucht von Goethe, mit vier Melodien nebst Clavierbegleitung "No. 38, Vienna and Pesth, Kunst- und Industrie-Comptoir, in September. A later edition bears the imprint of S. A. Steiner and Co. 8. Variations pour le Pianoforte composees et dediies ä son Ami Oliva par L. v. Beethoven. CEuv. 76. Breitkopf and Härtel, in October. 9. Quatuor pour deux Violons, etc., composS et dediS ä son Altesse le Prince rignant de Lobkovritz, Due de Raudnitz, par, etc. Op. 74. Breitkopf and Härtel, in November. 10. Six Songs with accompaniment for the Pianoforte. Op. 75. Dedicated to Princess Kinsky. Breitkopf and Härtel, in November. Mignon ("Kennst du das Land"); Neue Liebe, neues Leben ("Herz, mein Herz"); Aus Goethe's Faust ("Es war einmal ein König"); Gretel's Warnung ("Mit Liebesblick und Spiel und Sang"); An den fernen Geliebten ("Einst wohnten stisse Ruh"); Der Zufriedene ("Zwar schuf das Gltick hienieden"). The last two had been published in July in Reissig's Collection (see No. 6).

11. Fantaisie pour le Pianoforte composie et dediSe ä son Ami Monsieur le Conte Francois de Brunswick par L. v. Beethoven. Op. 77. Breitkopf and Härtel, in November. 12. Sonate pour le Pianoforte composie et dediie ä Madame la Comtesse Thirese de Brunswick, etc. Op. 78. Breitkopf and Härtel, in November.

13. Sonatine pour le Pianoforte, etc. Op. 79. Breitkopf and Härtel, in November. 14. Sextuor pour 2 Violons, Alio, Violoncello et 2 Cors obligSs. Op. 81 (81b), by Simrock, Bonn, in the spring. Chapter XI Bettina Brentano Again—Letters Between Beethoven and Goethe—The B-flat Trio—The Theatre in Pesth—Opera Projects—Therese Malfatti—Sojourn in Teplitz.

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BEETHOVEN'S intercourse with the Brentanos kept his interest in Bettina alive and to this we owe a characteristic and welcome letter which, like the first, is here taken from the Nuremberg "Athenaeum":

Vienna, February 10, 1811. Beloved, dear Bettine! I have already received two letters from you and observe from your letters to your brother ["to Tonie" in the "Ilius Pamphilius," Tonie being her sister-in-law], that you still think of me and much too favorably. I carried your first letter around with me all summer and it often made me happy; even if I do not write to you often and you never see me I yet write you a thousand times a thousand letters in my thoughts. I could have imagined how you feel amidst the cosmopolitan rabble in Berlin even if you had not written about it to me; much chatter without deeds about art!!!!! The best description of it is in Schiller's poem "Die Fliisse," where the Spree speaks. You are to be married, dear Bettine, or have already been, and I could not see you once more before then; may all happiness with which marriage blesses the married, flow upon you. What shall I tell you about myself? "Pity my fate," I cry with Johanna; if I can save a few years for myself for that and all other weal and woe I shall thank Him the all-comprehending and Exalted. If you write to Goethe, hunt out all the words to express my deepest reverence and admiration for him. I am about to write to him myself concerning Egmont for which I have composed music and, indeed, purely out of love for his poems which make me happy, but who can sufficiently thank a great poet, the most precious jewel of a nation? And now no more, dear good Bettine. It was 4 o'clock before I got home this morning from a bacchanalian feast at which I had to laugh so much that I shall have to weep correspondingly to-day; boisterous joy often forces me in upon myself powerfully. As to Clemens,1 many thanks for his kind offer. As to the cantata, the subject is not sufficiently important for us here, it is a different matter in Berlin,

'Clemens Brentano, brother of Bettina and Franz, who had written the text of a cantata on the death of Queen Louise.

Beethoven Writes To Goethe 197

and as concerns affection, the sister has monopolized it so much that little will be left for the brother, does that suffice him? Now, farewell dear, dear Bettine, I kiss you upon your forehead and thus impress upon you as with a seal all my thoughts of you. Write soon, soon, often to your friend Beethoven. Beethoven lives on the M6lker Bastei in the Pascolati House. This letter invites attention to several erroneous comments which have been made on the Bettina letters and the history of the "Egmont" music. Czerny's statement that Beethoven did not compose the music to the tragedy out of love for Goethe's poems but would have preferred a commission for Schiller's "Tell" is contradicted by Beethoven himself in a letter to Breitkopf and Hartel which was written six weeks before the letter to Bettina. In his book "Die Briefe Beethovens an Bettina von Arnim" (1882), Dr. Deiters expressed a doubt that Beethoven would have written in February, 1811, that he was "about to write to Goethe" about his work which was finished early in 1810; but this objection to the authenticity of the letter is removed by the fact that it was two months more before the purpose thus expressed was carried out. In the Goethe archives in Weimar there is a letter from Beethoven which was first given to the world in 1890, by Dr. Theodor Frimmel in his "Neue Beethoveniana" (p. 345). It runs as follows: Vienna, April 12, 1811. Only a moment's time offers me the urgent opportunity inasmuch as a friend of mine who is a great admirer of yours (like myself) is hastily departing from here, to thank you for the long time that I have known you (for I know you since my childhood)—that is so little for so much— Bettine Brentano has assured me that you will graciously, even kindly receive me, but how can I think of such a reception when I can only approach you with the greatest reverence and with an unutterably deep feeling for your glorious creations—you will soon receive the music to Egmont from Leipsic through Breitkopf and Hartel, this glorious Egmont which I read so ardently, thought over and experienced again and gave out in music—I would greatly like to have your judgment on it and your blame, too.... will be beneficial to me and my art, and be accepted as gladly as the highest praise. Your Excellency's

Great admirer Ludwig van Beethoven.1

'Goethe's answer to this letter is printed in the Weimar Collection of the poet's correspondence. Vol. XXII, No. 615. It is worth producing here:

Carlsbad. June 25, 1811. Your friendly letter, very highly esteemed Sir, was received through Herr von Oliva much to my pleasure. For the kindly feelings which it expresses towards me I am The music to "Egmont" was not published till January, 1812, and Goethe had to wait a long time before he was able to form an opinion concerning it. This was not Beethoven's fault, however; on October 9, 1811, we find him writing to Breitkopf and Hartel: Do send the whole whole [sic] score copied at my expense for aught I care (the score, that is) to Goethe, how can a German publisher be so discourteous, so rude to the first of German poets? Therefore, quick with the score to Weimar. This injunction was not obeyed, and on January 28, 1812, Beethoven makes another urgent request: I therefore again beg of you humbly to take care of these letters— and with the letter to Goethe1 to send the Egmont (score), but not in the customary way with here and there a piece wanting, etc., but properly, this cannot be postponed longer, I have pledged my word and am the more particular to have the pledge redeemed when I can compel somebody else, like you, to do it—ha, ha, ha! You deserve that I employ such language towards you, towards such a sinner who if I had my way would walk in a hairy shirt of penance for all the flagitiousness practised on my works.

Beethoven had had the intention of sending the score of the "Egmont" music to Goethe from the moment he began on it, as appears from a memorandum on the autograph manuscript of the Quartet in E-flat, Op. 74, written in 1809: "Score of Egmont to Goethe at once."

On the 28th of February, Beethoven sent his friend Mahler an invitation to a concert. Mahler accepted the invitation and received a ticket "extra-ordinaire," signed "Br. de Neuwirth," admitting him free to three midday concerts on Thursdays, February 28, March 14 and 28. Beethoven's elasticity of temheartily grateful and I can assure you that I honestly reciprocate them, for I have never heard any of your works performed by expert artists or amateurs without wishing that I might sometime have an opportunity to admire you at the pianoforte and find delight in your extraordinary talents. Good Bettina Brentano surely deserves the friendly sympathy which you have extended to her. She speaks rapturously and most affectionately of you and counts the hours spent with you among the happiest of her life. I shall probably find the music which you have designed for Egmont when I return home and am thankful in advance—for I have heard it spoken of with praise by several, and purpose to produce it in connection with the play mentioned on our stage this winter, when I hope thereby to give myself as well as your numerous admirers in our neighborhood a great treat. But I hope most of all correctly to have understood Herr von Oliva, who has made us hope that in a journey which you are contemplating you will visit Weimar. I hope it will be at a time when the court as well as the entire musical public will be gathered together. I am sure that you would find worthy acceptance of your services and aims. But in this nobody can be more interested than I, who, with the wish that all may go well with you, commend myself to your kind thought and thank you most sincerely for all the goodness which you have created in us.

'This second letter does not seem to have been preserved.

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