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over the heart and fancy. Now it happens that one of Beethoven 's| transient but intense passions for a married woman, known to have occurred in this period of his life, has its precise date fixed by these passages in the so-called "Tagebuch" from the years 1816 and 1817. "In the case of T. there is nothing to do but to leave it to God, never to go where one might do a wrong through weakness—to Him, to the all-knowing God, be all this committed." And again: "But as kind as possible to T. her attachment deserves never to be forgotten even if the results could never prove advantageous to you." Let the reader recall the passages in his letters showing a strong desire to leave Vienna and read again: "Work during the summer for the journey, only thus can you carry out the great task for your poor nephew, afterwards wander through Italy, Sicily, with a few artists—make plans and be of good cheer for the sake of C . . ." The last initial is uncertain. Other copies have "L."; what the original was in Beethoven's handwriting is not now to be determined. No instance, however, is known of his writing his nephew's name with a C, and this "C" or "L" was probably T. As the family name of this lady, whose husband was a man of high position and distinction though not noble by birth, is known, it is certain that the T in the above citations is not Therese Malfatti, now Baroness Drosdick; but as her baptismal names have eluded search one can only hint the possibility that the "T" and "M" may indicate the same person, and that this last cry of anguish was written a year or two after-1wards when the sight of "M" again, for a moment, tore open a half-healed wound. —^In numbers 5 to 8 inclusive of the "Neue Musik-Zeitung" appeared, from the pen of J. Kandler, a long article containing historical notices of various attempts to produce a satisfactory instrument for measuring time in music, and closing with an account, taken from the English, of Malzel's metronome. To No. 25 (June 19) of the same journal, Gottfried Weber contributed a paper "On a chronometric tempo designation which makes Malzel's metronome, as well as all other chronometric instruments, unnecessary," in which he repeated his idea, already put forth in the Leipsic "Musikzeitung" in 1813, that the simplest and most correct chronometer is a simple pendulum, a bit of thread with a bullet at the end, whose oscillations would mark the duration of measures according to the length of the thread. This article pleased Beethoven, and in one of his variations on the theme of pens he commends it to his "clarissime amice" Zmeskall, as the best invention yet made. Zmeskall took up the subject with interest and in two
Beethoven And Malzel's Metronome 385
articles in the same journal called attention to the fact that Neate, in London, had described a time measurer of the same kind which was known in England, but had not remained long in use—"a little ball hanging at the end of a thread and below it a line divided into a scale of inches." Zmeskall approved of Weber's suggestion in principle but improved upon it by proposing that the oscillations of the pendulum indicate the duration of a note instead of a measure, and that the varying lengths of the pendulum be marked by knots in the thread. Beethoven, to whom Zmeskall seems to have sent his contrivance, was interested and lauded its simplicity, playfully wondering whether or not it might be used in measuring from time to eternity. Music had already come from the press with Malzel's tempo marks, and Weber, who seems to have had no kindly feeling for him, prints an article, in the number of the journal following Zmeskall's, entitled "Malzel's Metronome to be had gratis everywhere," and gives a table showing the lengths of a pendulum in Rhenish inches and French centimetres corresponding to all the numbers on the metronome. As the months passed, the metronome had come largely into use in England, France and the United States, but not in Germany and Austria. It was of high importance to the manufacturers of the instruments to obtain the countenance and good will of the composers in those countries also— Salieri, Weigl, Beethoven, etc.—and Malzel came back to Vienna to try the effect of personal effort, taking the risk of any serious consequences arising from the lawsuit between him and Beethoven. But there were none. The matter was amicably adjusted, each party paying half of the legal expenses which had been incurred. This would be incredible had Beethoven had any substantial grounds for the action; for his sanction of the metronome was of such value that Malzel would readily have conceded much to obtain it; and the whole tone of the composer's correspondence in this period, so far as relates to his pecuniary affairs, shows how little likely he was to sacrifice any just claim. Beethoven was at first not well disposed to the instrument, notwithstanding he had joined Salieri and the other composers in strongly recommending the "chronometer" in 1813, which certificate had been used in England a fortiori for the new metronome. In a letter1 Mr. Joseph J. Mickley, of Philadelphia, writes: "Mr. Malzel, with whom I was well acquainted, told me that he had been particularly anxious Beethoven should mark his music by
'The letter to Thayer is dated May 21, 1873. Malzel, it will be remembered, lived in Philadelphia for some time before his death at sea on July 21, 1838.
his metronome, and to get his recommendation; that he (B) refused and became quite indignant, saying: 'It is silly stuff; one must feel the tempos' "; but Beethoven soon yielded to the obvious considerations in favor of the invention. These were presented to the public together with the objections to Weber's and Zmeskall's pendulums, clearly, explicitly and cunningly by Mosel in an article in Steiner's "Musik-Zeitung" on November 27, which put an end to controversy on the topic. Meanwhile, Beethoven had prepared a table of tempos for his eight symphonies which was printed in the Leipsic "Allgemeine Musik-Zeitung" on December 17 (copied, says Nottebohm, from a little pamphlet published by Steiner and Co. in which also tempos of the Septet were included), and followed this up with a general metronomizing of his works. On the autograph of his song, "Nord oder Slid," he wrote: "100 according to Malzel; but this must be held applicable to only the first measures, for feeling also has its tempo and this cannot entirely be expressed in this figure (i. e., 100)."1
If the picture of MSlzel drawn by Schindler and his copyists is true, even the most Christian and forgiving spirit could scarcely have demanded more of Beethoven than this public acknowledgement of the value of the metronome by way of heaping coals of fire upon his head; but he did more, by writing to Mosel this very valuable and for us very interesting letter: I am heartily rejoiced that you agree with me in the opinion touching the time designations which date back to the barbarous period in music, for what, for instance, can be more nonsensical than Allegro, which always means merry and how often are we so far from this conception of time that the piece says the very opposite of the designation. As regards these 4 chief speeds (Hauptbewegungen), which by no means have the correctness or truthfulness of the chief winds, we gladly allow that they be put aside, it is a different matter with the words used to designate the character of the composition, these we cannot give up, since time is really more the body while these have reference to the spirit. So far as I am concerned I have long thought of giving up the nonsensical designations Allegro, Andante, Adagio, Presto; MalzePs metronome gives us the best opportunity to do this. I give you my word that I shall never use them again in my new compositions—it is another question if we shall thereby accomplish the necessary universal use of the instrument —I do not think so. But I do not doubt that we shall be decried as taskmasters, if the cause might thus be served it would still be better than to be accused of feudalism—I therefore think that it would be best, especially in our countries where music has become a national need and every village schoolmaster ought to use the metronome, that Malzel try to dispose of a certain number of metronomes by subscription at higher
'Thus copied by Fischoff.
Studies In Household Economy 387
prices, and that as soon as his expenses are thus covered he will be in a position to furnish the needed metronome for the national need so cheaply that the greatest universality and widest distribution may be expected. It is self-evident that somebody must take the initiative in this matter so that zeal be aroused. As for me you may count on me and I await with pleasure the post of duty to which you will assign me. Still more: he joined with Salieri in a public announcement which was printed in the "Wiener Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung" of February 14, 1818, setting forth that the metronome would attest its utility forever, was indispensable to all students of singing, the pianoforte or other instruments, etc. On one of the last days of December, Beethoven writes to Madame Streicher: "Day before yesterday I was busy with Malzel, who is in a hurry as he is soon to leave here." What had he so important to do with this "rude fellow, wholly without education or breeding," to cite his own words? Was it in contemplation to make this sudden zeal for the metronome a source of pecuniary profit? No one knows. As the lodging in the Sailerstatte was separated from Giannatasio's institute by the whole breadth of the Glacis, Beethoven, on his return from Modling, exchanged it for one in the house "Zum griinen Baum," first Stage, 2nd storey, No. 26, in the Gart- nergasse, suburb Landstrasse. He was now near both his nephew and the Streichers (in the Ungarstrasse), and, with the aid of Madame Streicher, he had at last brought his domestic arrangements into a condition so that he might take his nephew to himself. While making these arrangements, doubtless he asked practical guidance of some unknown friend touching his table. On one side of a large sheet of paper (it is now preserved in the Royal Library in Berlin) he wrote a list of questions which were painstakingly answered, by the friend to whom they were addressed, on the opposite page. The questions were as follows: What ought one to give 2 servants to eat at dinner and supper both as to quantity and quality? How often ought one to give them roast meat? Ought they to have it at dinner and supper too? That which is intended for the servants, do they have it in common with the victuals of the master, or do they prepare their own separately, i. e., do they have different food from the master? How many pounds of meat are to be reckoned for 3 persons? What allowance per day do the housekeeper and maid receive? How about the washing? Do the housekeeper and maid get more? How much wine and beer? Does one give it to them and when? Beethoven announced his intention to take his nephew to himself at the end of the current quarter in a letter to Giannatasio dated November 12,1817. The step involved not only an increase in his expenses, but also an abandonment of his engagement with the London Philharmonic Society and of all the profits which might thence arise. Giannatasio, moved by his complaints of poverty, and probably also by a desire to aid him in the proposed visit to London, kindly offered to keep the boy at a much reduced rate of remuneration for board and instruction. Beethoven's reply shows him to be still undecided as to his movements in the coming spring, and it is possible, could he have made ready the required symphonies, that he might have gone to England; but now the new Sonata had got possession of his imagination, and the symphonies must wait. But one public appearance professionally of Beethoven is recorded this year. At the concert for the Hospital Fund on December 25, the first part was devoted to the Eighth Symphony, which was conducted by the composer. In the second part Seyfried produced C. P. E. Bach's oratorio, "The Israelites in the Wilderness," which he had revised, adding to the accompaniments, curtailing the airs, prefixing it with the well-known fugue on B-A-C-H (orchestrated by himself), and concluding it with the double chorus "Holy, holy, holy." Nottebohm has shown that the sketches for the overture on the name of the great Leipsic cantor which Beethoven once thought of writing, belong to a later period; but it is yet possible, if not likely, that he conceived the idea at this concert. On November 15, Anton Halm gave a concert for the benefit of the poor in the Karnthnerthor-Theater at which the Choral Fantasia was performed; but we know nothing of Beethoven's participation in it in any way. It is probable that to this time is to be assigned a portrait in oils painted by Christoph Heckel, who was a student at the Royal Imperial Academy in Vienna from 1814 to 1818. Beethoven, it is said, made the acquaintance of the painter in Streicher's pianoforte wareroom. There is but little to be added to what has been said about the compositions of this almost sterile year. The transcription of the Pianoforte Trio as a quintet (which was the largest work of the year), and the "Song of the Monks," written on the death of Krumpholz, have been mentioned. Besides these we have a few short songs with pianoforte accompaniment. "Nord oder Slid" (also known as "So oder So"), the poem by Karl Lappe, was known and widely liked in a setting by K. Klage. "Resignation" ("Lisch aus mein Licht"), words by Count Paul von