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The Science and Art of Framing,

,

ON A NEW AND IMPROVED SYSTEM.

WITH SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS FOR

BUILDING BALLOON FRAMES, BARN FRAMES, MILL FRAMES, WARE-

HOUSES, CHURCH SPIRES, ETC.

COMPRISING ALSO

A SYSTEM OF BRIDGE BUILDING;

WITE

BILLS, ESTIMATES OF COST, AND VALUABLE TABLES.

ILLUSTRATED BY

Thirty-eight Plates and near Two Hundred figures.

BY WILLIAM E. BELL,

ARCHITECT AND PRACTICAL BUILDBR.

PHILADELPHIA:
JAMES CHALLEN & SON,

No. 25 SOUTH SIXTH STREET.
J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO.-LINDSAY & BLAKISTON......NEW YORK: SHELDON,

BLAKEMAN & CO...... BOSTON: PHILLIPS, SAMPSON & Co.
CINCINNATI: RICKEY, MALLORY & CO......CHICAGO: 8. C. GRIGGS & Co.

1859.

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1857, toy

WILLIAM E. BELL, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United Statee, in and for the

Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

STEREOTYPED BY GEORGE CHARLES,
No. 607 Sansom Street, Philadelphia,

The Author takes great pleasure in acknowledging the eminent services rendered him in the literary and scientific portions of this work, by E. N. JENCKS, A. M., Professor of Mathematics and Natural Sciences; and the Public cannot fail to appreciate the value of his labors in these departments.

The inception of the work, its original designs, and the entire system, are mine. Whatever is found in it purely literary and scientific, I cheerfully attribute to his assistance. And believing that the work will supply a pressing want, and will be useful both to those who are devoted to the Mechanic Arts and to Amateurs who have felt the necessity of a faithful guide in house-building and other structures, especially in new settlements, I can confidently commend it to them as supplying this deficiency.

WILLIAM E. BELL. Ottawa, III., Jan. 1st, 1858.

CONTENT S.

PART I.GEOMETRY.

PAGE
Definitions .........

17
Explanations of Mathematical Symbols .........

21
Definitions of Mathematical Terms ........................................................................

22
Axioms

22
Proposition I. Theorem.....

23
Proposition XXX. Problem.....

39

PART II.-CARPENTRY.

43
43
43

...................................................................................

................................................................................................

USE OF THE SQUARE IN OBTAINING BEVELS.............................................................

The square described..........................................................................................
Pitch of the roof..........
Bevels of Rafters......................................................................................................
Bevels of upper joints and gable-end studding...

Bevels of Braces....................................................................................................
Balloon FRAMES........

The sills (light sills)..............
The studs.....
The plates .........
Raising and plumbing the frame........................................................................
The floor joists.......
Upper joists
Rafters....
Gable-end studs..........................................................................................................
Framing the sills.....
Work sides (of timbers)...
To take timber out of wind ........................................................................................
Spacing for windows and doors......................................................................
Mortices for the studs................................................................................................
The gains (for joints)....
The draw bores.....
A draw pin........
Supports for the upper joists..........
Crowning of joists.........
Bridging of joists......

Lining, or sheeting balloon frames.....
BARN FRAMES.......................................................................................................

Size of mortices...............................................
Braces.................................................................................................................
Pitch of the roof.......................................................................................................
Purlins................
Length of the purlin posts..............................................................................
Purlin post braco......
Purlin post brace mortices.......

Upper end bevel of purlin post braces............................................................ •
MILL FRAMES.........................................................................................................

Cripple studs....................................................................................
Trussed partitions......

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