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CONTENTS.

PAGE

PAGE

On Science in general, and the promi- The Electric Sciences ...... 15

nent Groups of Knowledge ...1, 2 Chemistry an Inductive Science .. 15

Geometry .......... 3 Relation of Art to Chemistry ... 16

Evidence of Mathematical Truth Objects of Physiology : .....

intuitive .. ... .... . 4 Psychological Science essential to Pre-
Objects of Mathematical Truth... 5 cision of Language ....
On Magnitudes ........ 5 Statistics—Natural History. ...
The Measure of Cnrvilinear Magni. Mineralogy. ..........
tudes by Rectilinear. ..... 6 | Utility of Zoological Knowledge,

6

On Number, Mathematical Evidence, and of Botany. ...... 20,

Logarithms, and Proportion ... 7 | On the Lessons taught by Geology .

Measurement of inaccessible Heights 8 The Arrangement and the Uses of

Trigonometry. ........ 8 Knowledge ........

The Laws of Motion ...... 9 | Education destroys Delusion ...
Difference between Mathematical and Popular Errors .......

Physical Laws . .... .. 11 Ignorance of Natural Laws ...
The Balance ......... 11 Statistic Fallacies .....
Law of Gravitation ....... 12 On False Induction . ......
Attraction of Matter ...... 13 Industrial Education .....
Momentum and Velocity-Physics . 14 | Opinions and Principles ....

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Contractility-Tonicity ..... 49 | Of Fishes and Reptiles..... 104

Nervous Texture . . . . . . · · 50

Of Birds and Mammalia . .... 105

Structure of Nerves ...... 51 Use of the External Ear . . . . . 105

Areolar Tissue, Membranes, &c. . . 51 TASTE-Of the Lower Animals . . . 105

The Blood in Red-blooded Animals54 The Instrument of Taste . .... 106

The Corpuscles of the Blood in dif The Tongue in many Animals a Suck-

ferent Animals . . . . . . . 57 ing Tube. . . . . . . . . . 106

Salts of the Blood, Waste and Repair 59 Touch-Antennæ of Insects. ... 107

Lymph ........... 60 The Touch of Fishes ...... 107

CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD in

Of Reptiles, Birds, and Mammiferous

different Animals . ...... 61 Animals .......... 108

Renovation of the Blood, by Chyle, &c. 67 Consciousness ........ 109

The Bile ...... .... 71 Sensation the Link between Mind and

Pancreatic Liquor Purification of

Matter ........ 109, 110

the Blood . . . . . . . . . 72 Reason a Collective Power .... 111

The Liver .......... 73 Instinct ......... 111, 112

The Lungs and Respiration . ... 74 Thought a vague term . ..... 113

Mechanism of Respiration .... 75 Education the Controller of Thought 114

• Respiration in Birds, Fishes, Reptiles, Voice and the Sources of Sound . . 115

and Insects . . . . . . . . 76-78 Sound and the Vibrations of Air . . 116

"The Kidney ......... 78 Musical Sounds........ 118

Food of Plants—Of Reproduction . 81 Organs of Voice and Specch in Man . 119

Structure and Development of the Egg 82 Structure of the Windpipe .... 120

2. Reproduction in the Vegetable Kingdom 84 Basement Ring of the Larynx ...

Germination ......... 85 Adam's Apple . ........

3 LOCOMOTION OF ANIMALS ..... 87 The Muscles of the Larynx . . 123,

The Nextilus ......... 88 On the Human Voice ...... 125

Inseets · · · · · · ·

Different Theories of Voice . ...

Fishes . , · · · · · · ·

The received Theory ...... 127

Reptiles . . . . · ·

Experiments on the dead Larynx . . 128

Birds . , . . . . . . .

Objections to the Theory of Voice. . 129

Mammals ........

Sound Produced by Animal Mem-

Flight of Bats ......

branes even when relaxed . . . . 130

Principles of Leaping ....

Singing Compass of the Voice . . 131

SENSES of Animals—The SMELL · · 97 | Difference between the Male and

The Spiny Lobster ....... 97 Female Voice . . . . . . . . 132

Acute Smell in Fishes . ..... 98 | The Human Larynx ::... 133

Smell in Reptiles, Birds, and Mammi Nasal In

. 133

ferous Animals . .... .. 98 Whistling-Speech : ...... 134

The SIGHT—The Poulp ..... 99 Representation of Sounds by Symbols 135

Eyes of Insects—Of the Bee . . . 100 Conversion of Voice into Vowel Sounds 136

Of Fishes and Reptiles ... 101 Sounds of Consonants . ..... 137

Of Birds. ........ . . 102 Ventriloquism-Stammering ... 138

cs Of the Whale ..... . 103 | On Teaching the Dumb to arti-

D HEARING–Of Insects. ... 103 / culate . ........ 139

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ON THE PRINCIPAL FORMS OF THE SKELETON.

195

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Principles of Osteology ..... 161 | Skeleton of the Frog ...... 189

Composition of Bones . ..... 162 Osteology of the Serpent Tribe . . 191

Primary Classification of Bones. . 163 Skeleton of the Serpent ..... 191

The Dermoskeleton ...... 164 Structure of the Serpent's Skull . . 192

Growth of Bones ....... 166 Structure of the Skull of the Python . 193

Structure of Bones in Different

The Maxillary Arch ...... 194

Classes .......... 167 Skull of the Boa Constrictor ... 194

The Neuroskeleton ...... 168 The Mandibular Arch. .....

The Vertebræ . ......

Skull of Poisonous Serpents . . . . 195

Archetype of the Skeleton ..

Vertebræ of the Rattlesnake . . . . 196

Skeleton of the Fish .... . 172 Vertebræ of Serpents ...... 197

The Sea-perch ......

Osteology of Lizards .... 198, 199

The Occipital Vertebra ... 175 Skeleton of the Crocodile . .... 201

The Parietal Vertebra. ...

. 176 Vertebræ and Skull of the Crocodile 202-209

The Frontal Vertel ra : ...

Limbs of the Crocodile . ... 210-212

The Nasal Vertebra. ....

Osteology of Chelonian Reptiles .. 213

Names of Bones . ...... . 179 Carapace and Plastron of the Turtle,
Bones of the Head . .....
. 180

214, 215
Jaws of Fishes . . . . . . . . 181

. . 181 Vertebræ, Skull, and Limbs of the

Vertebræ, Skull, an

The Caudal Vertebra...... 182 | Tortoise and Turtle . ... 216-218

The Fin-rays. . . . . . . . . 183 The Skeleton of Birds . . . . . . 219

Adaptation of the Fish's Skull and Of the Swan . . . . . . . . . 220

Skeleton to Aquatic Life . . 184, 185 Of the Duck Tribe ....... 222

Action of the Fins ....... 186 Pelvis and Leg of Birds ..... 224

Principal Forms of the Skeletons of Structure of the Foot in Birds . . . 225

Reptiles ........ 186 Mechanism of Flight in

YEV Batrachian Illustrations . . . 187 | Birds . . . . . . . . . 226 V

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Forms of the Skeleton in the Class | Of the Ant-eater . . . . . . . 247

Mammalia . . . . . . . . . 226 | Of the Mole . . . . . . . . . 248

Various Forms of Limbs in Mammals 227 | Of the Bat . ......... 249

Skeleton of the Whale . ..... 228 Skeletons of the Carnivorous

Of the Dugong ........ 229

Mammalia . . . . . . . . .

Of the Seal . . . . . . . . . 230

230 Of the Lion . . . . . . . . . 251

Of the Walrus ........ 231 Of the Kangaroo . ....... 253

Skeletons of Hoofed Quadrupeds

. . 232

Conditions of Marsupial Structure . 254

Of the Horse . .....232, 233 Skeletons of the Orang, and of Man. 255

Of the Rhinoceros ....... 234 Comparison of the Bony Structure of

Of the Giraffe . . . . . . . . . 236 the Ape and Man. ...... 256

Skeletons of Herbivorous Quadrupeds 237 Adaptation of the Human Skeleton to

Of the Camel ......... 239 the erect Posture . ...... 257

Of the Hippopotamus ...... 240 | Modifications of the Human Skeleton,

Osteological Characters of even-toed in relation to the Archetype . 258, 259

Hoofed Beasts . . . . . . . 242 General and Special Terms in

The Nature of Limbs...... 242 1 Osteology. · · · · · · · · 260

The Protopterus . ....... 242 | The Facial Angle ....... 261

Law of Simplification of Feet ... 243 | Progressive Expansion of the Cranium 261

The Amphiuma and the Proteus . . 243 Crania of the Crocodile, the Albatross,

The Tarsal Bones of the Horse, the the Dog, and the Chimpanzee . . 261

Ox, the Rhinoceros, the Hippopota Skulls of the Australian and the

mus, and the Elephant . . . . . 243 European ......... 262

Skeleton of the Sloth. .... 245 | Concluding Remarks ...... 262

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ON THE VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES.

Use of the terms ETHNOLOGY and The PERSIAN Stock . . . . . . . 335

ETHNOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . 305 The Kafir Population . . . . . . 336

Physical Structure of different Species 307 | Customs and Characteristics of the

Physiognomy and Language . ... 308 Kafir Population ..... 337-339

Features and Habits of the Cochin. The INDIAN Stock ....... 340

Chinese . . . . . . . . . . 309 | The OCEANIC Group . . . . . . 341

The Cochin-Chinese and the Mincopie 310 Protonesian Branch of the Amphi

Texture and Colour of Hair in

nesians .......... 342

different Races ....... 311 The Micronesians, the Polynesians,

Civilization and Barbarism of the East 312 and the Malegasi of Madagascar . 343

The various Hindu and Tartar Races 313 | The Papuans, Australians, and

Table of Eastern Dialects . . . . 314 | Tasmanians . . . . . . . . 344

Various Dialects of the East. ... 315 The Tasmanians of Van Diamen's

Primary Divisions of the Eastern | Land ........... 345

Nations—The Mongolians . ... 316 | The Feejeeans, and their charac.

The Tungusians . . . . . . . . 319 teristics. ....... 345, 346

The Turkish Varieties . ..... 321 The Seemangs and the Jokongs.. 347

The Ugrians, and the Majiars of Hun. Characteristics of the Arru Islanders . 348

gary . . . . . . . . . . . 322 The Great AMERICAN Group . . . . . 349

The Voguls, and the Majiars ... 323 The Eskimo and the Athabaskan

The Ugrian Races ....... 324 Tribes .......... 351

The Peninsular Stock of India . .. 325 The Algonkin and Iroquois Tribes . 352

The Coreans, the Japanese, the Kams The Sioux and the Cherokee Tribes . 355

kadales, the Koriaks, &c. . . . . 325 The Paducas. . . . . . . . . 356

The Great CAUCASIAN Families . . . 326 Indian Populations of North America 357

The Mongolians ........ 327 Tribes of the Moskito Coast . ... 358

The Caucasian Stock in the limited Indian Tribes of Central America . . 359

meaning of the term . ..... 328 The Caribs and the Guarani ... 360

Physical Conformation of the

Indian Tribes of South America .. 361

Caucasians . ........ 329 The Chilenos, the Pampas, the

The Caucasian Languages :. 329-331 Patagonians, and the Fuegians . 362

The Circassian Language .... 332 The Carib Races on the Oronoco.. 363

- The Irôn and the Georgian

The Waraws, and the Tribes of

W Populations . . . . . . . 334 | the Amazon. . . . . . . 364

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