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secution I do not doubt. But if Dr Whewell had studied logic, as he has studied
mathematics, he would not have confounded an antecedent with a cause, a conse-
quent with an effect. There is a sophism against which logie, the discipline of
unconfused thinking, puts us on our guard, and which is technically called the
Post hoc, ergo Propter hoc.Of this fallacy Dr Whewell is, in this his one
selected instance, guilty. And how ? English law has less of principle, and more
of detail, than any other national jurisprudence. Its theory can be conquered,
not by force of intellect alone; and success in its practice requires, with a strong
memory, a capacity of the most continuous, of the most irksome application.
Now mathematical study requires this likewise ; it therefore tests, no doubt, to
this extent, the “bottom” of the student. But, because a great English Lawyer
has been a Cambridge Wrangler, it is a curious logic to maintain, that mathemati-
cal study CONDUCES to legal proficiency. The Cambridge honour only shows, that
a man has in him, by nature, one condition of a good English lawyer.
might as well allege, in trying the blood of a terrier puppy, by holding him up
from ear or paw, that the suspension itself was the cause of his proving" of the
right sort ;" as that mathematical study bestowed his power of dogged application,
far less his power of legal logic, on the future counsellor.

The second :-“I have already noticed,” concludes Dr Whewell, “how well the training of the college appears to prepare men to become good lawyers. I will add, that I conceive our Physicians to be the first in the world,” &c. (Ib. p. 51.) -I should be glad if Dr Whewell had specified these paragons, who with a modesty as transcendent as their merit, hide their talent under a bushel; for of their reputations, discoveries—of their very names, I confess myself profoundly ignorant, and suspect that the world is not better informed touching those who are its “first physicians.” But this fact, is it not on a level with the previous reasoning?

What then are we finally to think of the assertion so confidently made, that, Mathematics form logical habits better than Logic itself !As the elegant Lagomarsini (“vir melioris Latinitatis peritissimus,” to use the words of Ruhnkenius), in his Oration on the Grammar Schools of Italy, said in reference to an English criticism,-in fact Locke's :—“Hoc tantum dicam; tunc me æquo animo de re latina præcipientes, Italorumque in ea tractanda rationem reprehendentes, Britannos homines auditurum, quum aliquid vere latinum (quod jamdiu desideramus) ab se elaboratum ad nos ex illo oceano suo miserint:" so for us, it will be time enough to listen to any Cambridge disparagement of non-mathematical logic, when a bit of reasoning has issued from that University, in praise of mathematical logic, not itself in violation of all logical law,--for such, as yet, certainly, has never been vouchsafed. In truth, we need look no farther than the Cambridge panegyrics themselves of mathematical study, to see how illogical are the habits which a too exclusive devotion to that study fosters. But this is not the worst.

For one man of genuine talent and accomplishment, who has sacrificed to the Moloch of Cambridge idolatry, how many illiterate incapables do the lists of mathematical Wranglers exhibit! How many noble minds has a forced application to mathematical study reduced to idiocy or madness! How many generous victims (they “died and made no sign,”) have perished, and been forgotten, in or after the pursuit of a mathematical Honour! And this melancholy observation has been long familiarly made even in Cambridge itself; yet the torturing slaughterhouse is unabated !] *

* With others, above, and especially the two testimonies from the Quarterly Review (pp. 318, 319) see the Cambridge pamphlet lately published by a “Member of the Senate,” entitled “The Next Step,” (p. 43.) The author, likewise, refers to a pamphlet (which I have not seen) by Mr Blakesley, for a corresponding statement.





(OCTOBER, 1836.)

Three Lectures on the Proper Objects and Methods of Education

in reference to the different Orders of Society; and on the relative Utility of Classical Instruction. Delivered in the University of Edinburgh, November, 1835. By JAMES PILLANS, M.A., F.R.S.E., Professor of Humanity in that University. 8vo. Edinburgh : 1836.

WE regret that circumstances prevented our noticing these discourses in either of our last Numbers. They are a good word spoken in due season; and sure we are, that it will not be spoken in vain, if our Scottish countrymen are not wholly disabled from appreciating at their real value, this vindication of classical studies, and the objections by which they have been here recently assailed. It would, however, be a disparagement of these lectures to view them as only of temporary and local value ; far less, as merely an answer to what all entitled to an opinion on the matter must view as undeserving of refutation or notice-on its own account. They form, in fact, a valuable contribution to the philosophy of education ; and, in particular, one of the ablest expositions we possess of the importance of philological studies in the higher cultivation of the mind. As an occasional publication, the answer does too much honour to the attack. Indeed, the


only melancholy manifestation in the opposition now raised to the established course of classical instruction, is not the fact of such opposition ; but that arguments in themselves so futile,-arguments which, in other countries, would have been treated only with neglect, should in Scotland not have been wholly harmless. If such attacks have had their influence on the public mind, this affords only another proof, not that ancient literature is with us studied too much, but that it is studied far too little. Where classical learning has been vigorously cultivated, the most powerful attacks have only ended in the purification and improvement of its study. In Germany and Holland, in Italy, and even in France, objections, not unreasonably, have been made to an exclusive and indiscriminate classical education ; but the experimental changes they determined, have only shown in their result: that ancient literature may be more effectually cultivated in the school, if not cultivated alone; and that whilst its study, if properly directed, is, absolutely, the best mean toward an harmonious development of the faculties,—the one end of all liberal education ; yet, that this mean is not always, relatively, the best, tél! when circumstances do not allow of its full and adequate application.

It is natural that men should be inclined to soothe their vanity with the belief, that what they do not themselves know is not worth knowing ; and that they should find it easy to convert others, who are equally ignorant, to the same opinion, is what might also confidently be presumed. " Ce n'est pas merveille, si ceux qui n'ont jamais mangé de bonnes choses, ne sçavent que c'est de bonnes viandes.” On this principle, Scotland is the country of all others in which every disparagement of classical learning might be expected to be least unsuccessful. For it is the country where, from an accumulation of circumstances, the public mind has been long most feebly applied to the study of antiquity, and where it is daily more and more diverted to other departments of knowledge. A summary indication of the more important of these circumstances may suffice to show, that the neglect of classical learning in Scotland is owing, neither to the inferior value of that learning in itself, nor to any want of capacity in our countrymen for its cultivation.

There are two principal conditions of the prosperity of classical studies in a country. The one,—The necessity there imposed of a classical training for the three learned professions; the other,—

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The efficiency of its public schools and universities in the promotion of classical erudition. These two conditions, it is evident, severally infer each other: For, on the one hand, where a certain amount and quality of learning is requisite for the successful cultivation of the Law, Medicine, and Divinity of a country, this of itself necessitates the existence of Schools and Universities competent to its supply; and on the other, where an efficient system of classical education has become general, there the three professions naturally assume a more learned character, and demand a higher complement of erudition from their members. The prosperity of ancient learning is everywhere found dependent on these conditions ; and these conditions are always found in harmony with each other. To explain the rise and decline of classical studies in different nations and periods, is therefore only to trace the circumstances which have in these modified the learned character of the professions, and the efficiency and application of the great public seminaries.

It would be foolish to imagine that the study of antiquity can ever of itself secure an adequate cultivation. How sweet soever are its fruits, they can only be enjoyed by those who have already fed upon its bitter roots. The higher and more peculiar its ultimate advantages and pleasures,—the more it educates to capacities of thought and feeling, which we should never otherwise it!:) have been taught to know or to exert, -and the more that what it accomplishes can be accomplished by it alone,—the less can those who have had no experience of its benefits ever conceive, far less estimate their importance. Other studies of more immediate profit and attraction will divert from it the great mass of applicable talent. Without external encouragement to classical pursuits, there can be no classical public in a country, there can be no brotherhood of scholars to excite, to appreciate, to applaud,

συμφιλολογείν και συνενθουσιάζειν. The extensive difusion of learning in a nation is even a requisite of its intensive cultivation. Numbers are the condition of an active emulation; for without a rivalry of many vigorous competitors there is little honour in the contest, and the standard of excellence will be ever low. For a few holders of the plough there are many prickers of the oxen ; and a score of Barneses are required as the possibility of a single Bentley.

In accounting, therefore, for the low state of classical erudition in Scotland, we shall, in the first place, indicate the causes why in

this country an inferior amount of ancient learning has been long found sufficient for its Law, Medicine, and Divinity; and, in the second, explain how our Scottish Schools and Universities are so ill adapted for the promotion of that learning.

I. The Professions.-Law can be only viewed as conducive to the cause of classical erudition, in so far as (what in most countries is the case) it renders necessary a knowledge of the Roman jurisprudence; the necessity of such a knowledge being, in fact, tantamount to a necessity for the cultivation of Latin history and literature. For while the Ronian law affords the example of a completer and more self-connected system than the jurisprudence of any modern nation can exhibit ; without a minute and comprehensive knowledge of that system in its relations and totality, its principles can neither be correctly understood, nor its conclusions with any certainty applied. This, however, is impossible, without a philological knowledge of the language in which this law is written, and an historical knowledge of the circumstances under which it was gradually developed. On the other hand, an acquaintance with the Roman jurisprudence has been always viewed as indispensable for the illustration of Latin philology and antiquities; insomuch, that in most countries of Europe, ancient literature and the Roman law have prospered or declined together : the most successful cultivators of either department have indeed been almost uniformly cultivators of both.-In Italy, Roman law and ancient literature revived together; and Alciatus was not vainer of his Latin poetry, than Politian of his interpretation of the Pandects. — In France, the critical study of the cred Roman jurisprudence was opened by Budæus, who died the most accomplished Grecian of his age ; and in the following generation, Cujacius and Joseph Scaliger were only the leaders of an illustrious band, who combined, in almost equal proportions, law with literature, and literature with law.—To Holland the two studies migrated in company; and the high and permanent prosperity of the Dutch schools of jurisprudence has been at once the effect and the cause of the long celebrity of the Dutch schools of classical philology.—In Germany, the great scholars and civilians, who illustrated the sixteenth century, disappeared together; and with a few partial exceptions, they were not replaced until the middle of the eighteenth, when the kindred studies began, and have continued to flourish in reciprocal luxuriance.- Classical literature and Roman law owe less to the jurists of England than


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