are formed in the atınosphere, by parting with a portion of their heat, they are also minus or negative, in relation to all uncondensed or transparent vapor which is plus or positive; so that they become centres of attraction, drawing to them successive masses of vapor and abstracting their caloric, by which a perpetual condensation is kept up, until they become aggregated into extensive masses, which sometimes resemble huge castles, or vast rocky mountains suspended in the air.

If all bodies have an attractive power in proportion to the amount of matter which they contain, and if caloric be the cause of molecular attraction, it follows that the constituent caloric of the earth, and of all the planets, comets, and satellites, is like that of the sun, proportioned to the amount of matter—and that gravitation is the sum of all the atomic attractions of matter.

It is estimated by astronomers, that the sun's volume is one million three hundred and eighty-four thousand four hundred and seventy-two times greater than that of the earth—and more than five hundred times larger than all the planets and comets that revolve around him. This immense body is continually emitting streams of the most refined and subtile matter in the form of light, which vivifies the whole planetary system with an ever-active flame. Sir Isaac Newton maintained that there must be some connecting medium between the celestial bodies, which he termed .ether,' and which he supposed was more subtile than light. Does not caloric answer to this subtile medium ? Does it not extend from the centre to the circumference of the universe ? Is it not the cause of all the motions and transmutations of terrestrial matter-of decomposition and re-combination-of secretion, nutrition, growth, etc. ? Is it not the semperviving energy of universal nature ?



Picture !-thou troublest me!'

Thou hast been cherished in a maiden's breast,

Those little eyes have looked upon her heart.
Her hands have press'd thee, and her lips caress'd

Thy smooth, cold cheek, all senseless as thou art;
She wore no visor o'er her soul with thee,
Come tell me picture what thine eyes did see.
• I saw a bosom full of secret guile,

A heart of vanity, a soul of pride :
A mind to trifle with its joys awhile,

Then like a wearied babe, throw them aside ;
Still burning for new triumphs, anxious still
O'er bending hundreds to exalt her will.'
Thou slanderest, picture-she did always seem

The meekest, purest, angel of the earth-
So gentle and so trustful, you might deem

She had no thought but showed its very birth ;
I fear thy stay hath been almost in vain
Open thy lips, oh! picture,-speak again,

• I lay beneath her pillow when she slept,

And saw the visions of the night go by-
I saw the smile, I felt the tears she wept,

I heard the muttered name, the gentle sigh ;
As hour by hour her dreams dissolved away,
And hour by hour returned as fresh and gay.'
And such hath been her life, -on one she smiled,

Who bowed upon her hand, and sought her love :
The poor fond man went forth and was beguiled

By the soft accents of his murmuring dove.
A veil swept o'er the sun, and round him lay
Shadows of altered clouds, no longer gay.
Another came, and fondly breathed his vow,

And laid his offering down before her shrine-
She charmed him with her smiles and sunny brow,

With many a glance, and many a flattering sign;
But when his love could brook no more delay,
She coldly sent him on his lonely way.
Thou wert the last, and now thine hour hath come,

And spurned, and slighied, I return to thee,
My head is dizzy with the ceaseless hum

of futtering insects round a blooming tree;
Where one fond welcome every wanderer meets,
And every wing seems laden with its sweets.
• Oh! send me forth, my master, never more,

But to a gentle and confiding breast,
Where I may nestle in the bosom's core

Alone, without a rival to molest;
And let the temple of that spirit be
A holy resting-place and shrine for me.'

L. R.



The first edition of the Philosophy of the Human Voice, published by Mr. Small, of Philadelphia, in the year 1827, although containing the philosophy of a new science, and appearing in a form too expensive for general readers, passed rapidly from the hands of the publisher, and even found its way to some of the older institutions in Europe. We are pleased to see a second appearance of the work with additions, under a much cheaper form. We trust it will be extensively perused; for whatever may be the opinion of the present or future generations as to its final influence in giving vigor, expression, and beauty to oral language, it bears upon its pages the indelible impress of acute observation and minute analysis.

Unaided by the dim lights of antiquity on the one hand, and untrammelled by modern opinions on the other, our author appears to have listened alone to that monitor who was able to conduct him in safety through her paths, and instruct him in the mysteries of her operationsNature. He has supplied a desideratum in the fine arts, by reducing

the same

speech into its primary elements, showing it to be a branch of musical science, susceptible of all those impressions to which vocal music owes its fame, and by which it exerts its powers. The first section opens with a description of the general division of vocal sound, with a more minute analysis of its pitch ; of the latter, two divisions are made, distinguished by the terms Discrete and Concrete ; the former produced by striking different notes of the scale, either consecutive or remote; the latter, by the progression of the voice, ascending or descending, after having commenced its opening pitch ; thus it may skip discretely from the key note of the scale employed (the Diatonic) to any higher note, or vice versa; or pass concretely through the same notes. After subdividing these scales into the Chromatic or Plaintive, and the Tremulous, the section concludes with a definition of the terms, Melody, Intonation, and Cadence, as applied to speech. It is evident Mr. Walker meant to convey idea by the term inflection, as Dr. Rush by that of concrete; but the former has marked no degrees of his inflection, nor assigned to them any other than a general character; the latter defines his concretes ; measures them by a scale well known in science, and assigns to them peculiar characteristics, as they ascend or descend in that scale. But it is

upon the elementary construction of this concrete that the · Philosophy of the Human Voice' must rest its claim to originality, and to which its author may look forward in anticipation, through the vista of time, for the lasting heritage of fame. It forms the key-stone to all that is expressive, grand, beautiful, or distinct in human utterance: it enables the drawler to perceive the elementary construction of that intonation under which his hearers slumber; the mere ranter, the percussion of that vocality which startles where it should convince; and the elocutionist, the power by which he holds the attention in vassalage, while he convinces the understanding or softens the heart. Dr. Rush divides the concrete into two parts, designated by the terms Radical and Vanish; illustrated in the second section by the dipthongal sound of • æ' as heard in . day;' the equal distribution of the a ande (or radical and vanishing sounds) forming the syllabic voice of speech ; the extension of the e sound, (or vanish,) that of song; and the prolonged (or radical) a with diminished e, (or vanish) the syllabic voice of recitative. In the application of these divisions to speech, we are furnished with the philosophy of the drawl, rant, and of that finished condition of elocution to which we have before alluded. The equality of this concrete, which forms the richness of oral language, has led Dr. Rush to examine the ELEMENTARY SOUNDS with reference to their susceptibility of its impressions. Setting aside the old nomenclature of vowels, consonants, etc. he has arranged our literal elements, with an attention to their purposes in SPEECH, under three heads : Tonics, Subtonics, and Atonics: the first possessing the highest musical qualities, the second possessing them in an inferior degree, and the third heard only under the condition of an aspiration or whisper. It is not to their musical quality, as such, that the tonics owe their proud elevation among the literal elements, but to the extended vocal concrete which they bear under every condition of pitch. The Greek or Italian scholar, when regarding the rich musical qualities of his own language,

based on ils tonic or vowel terminations, will, we doubt not, readily assent to the truth of the proposition, that all languages will be musical in proportion to the number of tonic or vowel elements which enter into their construction. If we have any fault to find with the section on the literal elements, it is that our author has scarcely bestowed that attention upon the subtonics and atonics which they merit. The tonic elements form the music and the power of expression ; but the subtonics and atonics, standing as they frequently do in our language, on the boundaries of syllabic utterance, and defining its limits, demand a very distinguished situation among our elementary sounds. The fourth section opens with an original investigation of syllabication, in which Dr. Rush has shown the various length of syllables, and the rule which ordains but one accent to each, to be dependent on the concrete function of the voice. If our limits would allow, we could say much on this section ; we must, however, refer the reader to the work itself

. We perfectly agree with its author, that accent, properly so called, can alone rest on the vowel elements of a syllable; and that the rule of rhetoricians, assigning short quantity to a syllable when the accent rests on the consonant, has no foundation in philosophic truth.

The fifth section is one possessing great interest to the lawyer, the divine, the statesman, the actor, or the general reader— The mechanism of the voice.' Dr. Rush details four kinds of voice, the Natural, the Falsette, the Whispering, and the Orotund. By the latter, derived from the Latin phrase os rotundum,' he implies that natural or improved manner under which the elements are exhibited with a pure, base, full, and ringing quality ; rarely heard except through long and assiduous cultivation ; known among the Italians (in consequence of its supposed origin) by the term • voce di petto,' or .voice from the chest.' It is the only voice in which effect can be given to the dignity of Shakespeare, the sublimity of Milton or Dante, or any of the higher species of epic or dramatic reading. Mr. Macready and Mrs. Siddons are among the few whom we recollect as possessing this vocal condition naturally. The former has been among us ;-his fine, deep, full musical tones have not died upon the ear.

The recollection of them, compared to the common tones of mankind, is like some majestic vision bursting on the midnight slumber, contrasted with the daily realities of life. The means of attaining this condition of voice are fully pointed out in the section to which we must refer the reader. The Diatonic melody, or concrete movement of the voice through consecutive tones, forms the subject of the sixth section; it is divided into the current melody, and the melody of cadence. Dr. Rush has pointed out in this section, the intonation which belongs to mere description or narration, as distinguished from the higher and more vivid inflections appertaining to the expression of passion or feeling. He has furnished numerous diagrams, illustrating various forms of the final cadence; that complete vocal repose, that terinination of sound, which assures the hearer that the sentence has terminated. When we recollect how often we have been unable, by any vocal inflection of the speaker, to ascertain the conclusion of sense in a sentence, how frequently expectancy has been created where the subject has ter


minated, we cannot too forcibly impress on the reader and speaker, the necessity of bestowing great attention on this section.

The succeeding divisions of this elaborate work, from the eighth to the forty-sixth, are occupied with a detail of the elements entering into the erpression of speech, as distinguished from the unimpassioned diatonic melody: among them, that on the tiine or quantity of the voice, holds a very important station. After classifying syllables in their relation to this vocal function, Dr. Rush proceeds to show that the great superiority which good readers possess over those of an inferior grade, is the power they have of extending the quantity of vocal sound ; that is, of prolonging the voice, in dignified composition or speech, under that equability of the radical and vanish, to which we have before alluded, as governing the well-regulated concrete. • From the finely governed and varied quantities of Mrs. Siddons,' says our author, I first learned, by beautiful and impressive demonstration, that the English language possesses similar, if not equal, resources with the Greek and Latin in this department of the luxury of speech ; and I thus found myself indebted to the stage for the opening of that source of poetical and oratorical pleasure, which the more solemn pretences and hack instruction of a college either knew not or disregarded : it was while listening to the recitation of this surpassing actress, I was first taught that one of the most important means of impressive intonation consists in the extended time of utterance.' Dr. Rush has shown in this section, by comparing an English with a Latin and Greek hexameter line, that the former is susceptible of those rhythmical beauties to which the latter owe their fame, and by which they have been enabled to survive the revolutions of empires and the assaults of time.

To the candid and philosophic inquirer after truth, we commit this section. After perusing it, we are convinced he will acknowledge that quantity is an essential element of human expression; not circumscribed by the narrow boundary of a nation, but the common heritage of a world. Modern writers have indeed asserted, that the quantities of the Greek accent are lost. Such an assertion bears but little probability, when we recollect that Greece has never been depopulated, and that the human organs are always and every where the same. Whatever may have been the true quantity of other languages, its power in our own has been felt, though not acknowledged, from the dawn of English literature to the present hour; not only in the grand pathos of public eloquence, but in the unstudied expressions of friendly and domestic intercourse. We were not aware (previously to perusing the Philosophy of the Voice,') upon what the charm of Mrs. Siddons' utterance was based; why even her whispers were heard, where the ranting vociferations of others were lost on the ear; why, in the Grecian Daughter,' the passage commencing, • Thinkest thou so meanly of my Phocion,' uttered by her, struck through the ear to the heart; particularly the line, • Oh! thou dost little know him.' Dr. Rush has unravelled the mystery; he has shown that the beauty of her utterance depended on her long-drawn, equable concrete. In closing our remarks on this section, we would strongly recommend the clergy of our country to peruse it: to them it more particularly appertains.

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